Nhng e Ngh Ve Cach Viet

Ten Rieng Tieng Nc Ngoai

Va Ky Hieu Cac Sach Thanh Kinh

 

Prepared for Internet by Radio Veritas Asia, Philippines

 

Nhng e Ngh Ve Cach Viet Ten Rieng Tieng Nc Ngoai Va Ky Hieu Cac Sach Thanh Kinh.

(Saigon, Viet Nam 26/07/2006) - T nhieu nam nay, khi thc hien cac the loai ve sach, lch Cong giao, nhieu ngi chung ta co le a ban khoan khong t ve van e ten rieng tieng nc ngoai va ky hieu cac sach Kinh Thanh. Lan nay, khi Van phong Th ky Hoi ong Giam muc Viet Nam (VPTK-HGMVN) nhan trach nhiem bien soan Lch Block Cong giao cho cong ong tn hu Viet Nam, chung toi lai phai oi mat vi nhng van e nan giai nay. V ay la lan au tien bien soan nhng t lch xe hang ngay co tac ong nhieu en quan chung nen chung toi het sc can trong.

Sau khi cau nguyen va suy ngh rat lau ve van e te nh a gay nhieu tranh cai thuoc lnh vc ngon ng hoc ca trong Giao hoi Viet Nam lan ngoai xa hoi, chung toi mong muon c chia se nhng ban khoan cung nh e ngh ve cac van e xoay quanh viec viet ten rieng tieng nc ngoai va ky hieu cac sach Thanh Kinh. Hy vong e ban oc va cac to chc quan tam se ong gop y kien, bao am c tnh nhat thong trong cach viet theo nhng ch dan cua Giao Hoi va phu hp vi nhng kham pha mi cua ngon ng hoc tren the gii.

Chung toi xin c trnh bay van e theo may e muc sau ay:

- Nhng bc tien gan ay ve cach viet ten rieng tieng nc ngoai.

- Mot vai kho khan con ton tai va nguyen nhan gay ra kho khan nay.

- ng hng c e ngh e giai quyet nhng kho khan o.

 

1. Nhng bc tien gan ay ve cach viet ten rieng tieng nc ngoai

Trong khoang 10 nam gan ay (t 1995 en nay), viec viet ten rieng tieng nc ngoai a co nhieu tien bo ro ret nh vao cac ly do sau ay:

1.1. Cac ly do tao nen tien bo

- Nhng kham pha mi cua ngon ng hoc e hoan chnh bo ch cai tieng Viet gom 33 ch trong bang ch cai Latinh, nhat la viec bo sung 4 ch cai thong dung: F, J, W, Z va nhng quyet nh ve viec viet cac am i, y, cung nh viec anh dau giong tren mot so nguyen am nh oa, oe, ue, u, uy.

- Trnh o van hoa cua ngi dan c nang cao qua viec s dung cac phng tien truyen thong xa hoi nh sach bao, truyen thanh, truyen hnh, internet... Ngi dan quen vi nhng ten rieng tieng nc ngoai qua mat ch va cach oc. V the, tren cac phng tien truyen thong hien nay ngi ta viet va oc trc tiep theo nguyen ng ten rieng cac nhan vat cung nh ten cac a phng (Bush, Clinton, Israel, Jerusalem...). Chung ta hien co hn 24 trieu hoc sinh va sinh vien moi nam hoc ngoai ng, nhat la Anh ng, ngay t lp mot, luc 5,6 tuoi. Do o, hoc sinh a quen vi viec phat am cac ten rieng tieng nc ngoai.

- Viec hoi nhap vao nen van hoa va van minh the gii a thuc ay ngi Viet Nam hoc hoi nhng kinh nghiem hoi nhap cua cac dan toc ve nhng van e lien quan, khong ch trong lnh vc kinh te-xa hoi ma con ca nhng van e thuoc lnh vc ngon ng. Nhieu dan toc cung a tng phien am cac ten rieng tieng nc ngoai theo ngon ng cua mnh, nhng kinh nghiem day cho cac dan toc ay phai ton trong nen van minh va van hoa chung cua nhan loai. Th du cu the nhat la hang ngan, hang van t khoa hoc trong cac lnh vc y dc hoc, sinh ly hoc, vat ly hoc# van viet bang tieng Latinh ma cac sinh vien tren toan the gii du muon du khong cung phai hoc.

- Nhng quy nh cu the cua cac to chc hu quan nh Quy nh 240 Q, ngay 5.3.1984 cua Bo Trng Bo Giao duc ve chnh ta tieng Viet, Quy nh so 09/1998Q-VPCP, ngay 25.11.1998 cua Van phong Chnh phu ve cach viet hoa cac ten rieng, cac bo T ien tieng Viet mi nhat cua Vien Ngon ng hoc, nhat la bo T ien Bach khoa Viet Nam gom 4 tap do Hoi ong Quoc gia bien soan t 1995-2005 cung noi ro ve cach viet phien am cac ten rieng tieng nc ngoai (x. Hoi ong Quoc gia..., T ien Bach khoa Viet Nam, Muc Chnh ta, Phien chuyen tieng nc ngoai, NXB T ien Bach khoa, Ha Noi 2005, tr. 8-9) a phan anh phan nao nhng tien bo ve lnh vc nay.

1.2. Nhng tien bo cu the ve cach viet ten rieng tieng nc ngoai

Chung ta co the tom tat nhng ket qua at c trong lnh vc ngon ng hoc ve van e nay nh sau:

- Cac ten rieng tieng nc ngoai c viet theo mau t Latinh, viet lien cac am tiet va khong anh dau giong. V du: Aurelius, Washington, Israel, Jerusalem... oi vi ngon ng khong dung bang ch cai Latinh (nh tieng Arap, Nhat Ban, An o...) neu cha phien am c bang cach oc trc tiep th viet qua dang Latinh hoa. V du: Araphat, Judo, Nehru. oi vi tieng Nga, bo qua trong am va co chu thch chuyen t qua dang Latinh. V du: Lomonoxop M.V. (M.V. Lomonosov). oi vi tieng Han, phien theo am Han Viet, co chu thch chuyen t dang Latinh. V du: Bac Kinh (Beijing) (x. T ien Bach khoa Viet Nam).

- Cac ten goc Latinh c e danh cach theo so (t hay nhieu) va giong (c, cai, trung). Hang ngan t khoa hoc trong bo T ien Bach khoa Viet Nam viet nh the. V du: Te Giac Mot Sng (Rhinoceros sondaicus): thuoc ho te giac (Rhinocerotidae); Thach Xng Bo (Acorus gramineus): cay thao lau nam, ho Ray (Araceae); Trung Sot Ret (Plasmodium): thuoc bo Trung bao t mau (Haemosporidia)... (x. T ien Bach khoa Viet Nam).

- Cac ten rieng viet theo nguyen ng cua moi dan toc, cac t vi ch F, J, W, Z c gi nguyen. Cac nguyen ng nay c at trong ngoac n i sau ten rieng viet theo cach phien am tieng Viet. V du: Fo (Ford); Flobe (Flaubert); Foiebac (Feuerbach); Focn (Faulkner); Fo--Frang-X (Fort de France); Jerico (Jericho); Website; Zimbabue (Zimbabwe)... (x. T ien Bach khoa Viet Nam).

- Cac ten rieng viet theo cach phien am tieng Viet da vao cach oc cua nguyen ng co the biet c va a c chuyen oi e de phat am. V du ch D c viet thanh : ecac R. (Descartes), emoxten (Demosthenes); ch S c viet thanh Z: Zuyx E. (Suess) ngi Ao, Zeghec A. (Seghers) ngi c; ch S cuoi t c chuyen thanh T: Frobeniut L. (Frobenius), ch C c chuyen thanh X: Xeda (Caesar)... (x. T ien Bach khoa Viet Nam).

Tat ca nhng ket qua nay a c phan anh trong bo T ien Bach khoa Viet Nam do Hoi ong Quoc gia bien soan va phat hanh, trong o tap 4 va c in nam 2005 va tap 1 in nam 1995 va c tai ban vi nhieu sa cha trong nam 2005.

Nhng ket qua tren a tao nen mot so thuan li c ban giup cho ngi Viet de tiep can vi nen van minh ky thuat va van hoc cua cac nc phat trien. Tuy nhien chung ta van thay ton tai mot so nhng kho khan ma chung ta co the tam liet ke sau ay.

 

2. Mot vai kho khan con ton tai va nguyen nhan gay ra kho khan nay

Kho khan ln nhat la viec viet cac ten rieng tieng nc ngoai theo nhng cach phien am khac nhau, phien am khong ung hay khong tron ven a gay nen nhng xao tron ve mat ngon ng khien cho nhng ngi s dung ngon ng qua cac phng tien truyen thong xa hoi b anh hng. Chung ta co the liet ke mot so nhng kho khan va xao tron ang co trong xa hoi va Giao hoi Viet Nam.

2.1. Nhng kho khan trong xa hoi

- Khi viet ten rieng tieng nc ngoai theo cach phien am cua ngi Viet, nhieu ten goc b bien oi va ngi ta khong con nhan ra c nguyen dang cua chung. V du: Xeda (ten goc la Caesar); Zuyx (ten goc la Suess) (x. T ien Bach khoa Viet Nam).

- Viec phien am con tuy thuoc vao kha nang cua ngi biet ngoai ng, cung mot ten rieng ma co the phien am nhieu cach khac nhau, nen neu ch can c vao ten phien am ngi ta kho viet ra c ten goc. V du: T ten goc Clinton co the viet theo phien am thanh Clintn hoac Klintan.

- Viec phien am co the lam thay oi ten goc do cach oc cua ngi Viet. V du: t LU-I (Louis) cua tieng Phap. e tranh oc sai ten nay, ngi ta a phai them gach noi gia hai am tiet trong khi hau het cac ten rieng khac eu viet khong co gach noi (x. T ien Bach khoa Viet Nam).

-e phat am c de dang, ngi ta a chuyen oi mot so am. V du: /s/ sang /t/ nh Frobeniut (ten goc: Frobenius), am /s/ sang am /x/ va /l/ sang /n/ nh Ixraen (ten goc: Israel)... Tuy nhien, lam nh the la lam bien dang t goc (x. T ien Bach khoa Viet Nam).

2.2. Nhng kho khan trong Giao hoi Viet Nam

Giao hoi Viet Nam t may chuc nam nay a gap rat nhieu kho khan ve cach viet ten rieng tieng nc ngoai ma chung toi a nhac en khi viet bai Van e Cach viet ten rieng tieng nc ngoai trong sach bao Cong giao (x. HGMVN, Ban tin Hiep Thong, so 9, nam 2000, tr. 261-309). Chung toi nhan thay rang nhng tien bo at c trong lnh vc ngon ng hoc ve cach viet ten rieng tieng nc ngoai mi ch c ng dung trong mot so rat t cac sach bao Cong giao Viet Nam hien nay.

Nhieu sach bao Cong giao van con anh sai dau giong tren cac nguyen am oa, oe, ue, u, uy, van viet ten rieng theo cach phien am tieng Viet ri tng am tiet va anh dau thanh ieu. V du: Ao-re-li-ut, Bot-co, Mac-co, C-la-ra... bat chap nhng quy nh chnh thc cua Nha Nc.

Rieng ve ten cac v thanh trong nien lch phung vu, chung ta van cha thay co mot quy nh chnh thc nao, dan en s hon on trong cach viet cac ten rieng. V du: Ten thanh Dominicus theo lch Ordo chnh thc cua Toa Thanh c cac sach bao Cong giao Viet Nam viet thanh ominico, o-mi-ni-co, ominicut, a Minh, aminh.

Hoi ong Giam muc Viet Nam (HGMVN) qua th e ngay 12.7.1997 cua c cha Emmanuel Le Phong Thuan va th e ngay 24.2.2000 cua c cha Gioan Baotixita Pham Minh Man, lam Chu tch Uy ban Phung t (UBPT) vao thi iem o, gi cha Tong Th ky cua UBPT ch xac nh mot nguyen tac chung: "... viet theo tieng Latinh tat ca cac ten rieng Thanh Kinh can c vao ban Nova Vulgata, va se sa lai cac ten trong cac sach phung vu khac khi in lai". Tuy nhien cho en nay UBPT cung cha cong bo cach viet cac ten rieng Thanh Kinh nh the nao.

Chung toi co nhan c tap Phien dch cac Ten Rieng dung trong Phung vu do linh muc Vinh Sn Nguyen The Thu bien soan, day 155 trang, kho A5, co neu khoang 3,000 ten rieng theo tieng Latinh, Phap, Anh, Viet. ay la mot co gang ln cua cac anh em trong nhom dch thuat cac bai oc Kinh Thanh dung trong thanh le cua UBPT nham gop phan thong nhat cach viet ten rieng. Nhom a a ra mot vai nguyen tac sau ay:

- Them dau mu (^) vao cac am e hay o cua t Latinh cho de oc. V du: T goc: Adonia (Viet: Aonia); t goc: Aenea (Viet: Enea)... Thay the J bang Gi (Justinus (Giustino); Z bang D (Nazareth (Nadaret); am H cam khong viet khi phien am tieng Viet e tranh viec oc lan lon am TH va H (Marthae (Marta); am CH hay C oc la K th phien am Viet ng la K. V du: Achim (Akim), Achis  (Akis); am US cuoi t chuyen thanh O: Antiochus (Antioco), Marcus (Marco); am B cuoi t oi thanh P: Jacob (Giacop), Achab (Akap); am D cuoi t oi thanh T: David ( avt). Chung ta nen lu y viec thay oi co the lam sai lac y ngha trong cau truc cua ten rieng. V du: Khi ta phien am t Abraham thanh Ap-ra-ham la chung ta a anh mat y ngha cua t Abba (Cha) va Ami (Cac dan toc).

- Gi nguyen cach viet mot so ten rieng theo thoi quen. V du: Anre, Antilibang (thay v Antilibano), Giacobe (thay v Giacobo), Giesu, Giua, Giuse, Phaolo, Phero, Philipphe (thay v Philippo), Sp (thay v Cypro),...

- oi vi cac ten rieng Latinh bat au bang van I co nguyen am ngay sau, tap Phien dch nay chuyen thanh van Gi trong khi cac ngon ng khac nh tieng Anh, Phap... chuyen thanh van J hay Y. V du: Iabes (Giabes); Iacob (Giacop); Iacobus (Giacobe), trong khi van gi am I cac t co phu am ng ngay sau I nh Iconium (Iconio); Isaia (Isaia); Isod (Isot);...

- Trong cuon T ien c tin Cong giao Phap - Viet, do Uy ban T ien cua ai chung vien Sao Bien, Nha Trang, xuat ban nam 1999, ngi ta cung khong ly giai c tai sao khi viet cac ten rieng van J th nhng ten quen thuoc phai phien am thanh Gi trong khi cac ten khac lai gi nguyen van J. Cung la goc J nhng co 63 ten viet J va 32 ten viet Gi. V du: Jacques viet thanh Giacobe trong khi Jacques de Tella, Jacques de Saroug van gi nguyen goc. Hoac Jean viet thanh Gioan nh Gioan Tay Gia, Gioan Avila, Gioan Bosco trong khi lai viet la Jean de Cesaree, Jean de Climaque.

Tat ca nhng cach viet theo phien am nay a dan en nhng cach viet ten thanh trong phung vu cung nh cac ten Thanh Kinh khac nhau. V du: Ten thanh Ioannes c phien thanh Gioan, Yoan, Joan. T o ngi ta cung thay s bat ong ve ky hieu cac sach Kinh Thanh gia cac nhom phien dch nh Cac Gi Kinh Phung Vu (CGKPV) (dung ky hieu G, Ga, Gc, G, Gt, Ge), Uy Ban Phung Vu 1971 (dung ky hieu Job, Joan, Jac, Jud, Judith, Joel), linh muc Nguyen The Thuan (dung Yb, Yn, Yc, Y, Yt, Yo), Giao hoang Hoc vien a Lat (dung Gb, Gio, Giac, Ga, Gt, Gl)...

2.3. Nguyen nhan gay ra nhng kho khan nay

2.3.1. Chung ta co the de dang thay nguyen nhan ln nhat gay nen nhng kho khan nay la ngi ta khong phan biet c gia cach viet ten rieng theo goc ch Latinh hoac nguyen ng cua cac tieng khac va viec viet cac ten rieng theo phien am tieng Viet.

Neu tm ve nguon cua cac ngon ng Tay Phng nh tieng Anh, Phap, c, Y, Nga... ta phai i ngc dong lch s e tr ve vi tieng Latinh cua ngi Roma khi ho anh thang ngi Hy Lap va lap nen e quoc hung manh t the ky th III trc Cong nguyen (B.C.). Bat chc ngi Hy Lap, ho cung bat cac dan toc le thuoc phai hoc ch Latinh va ch nay tr thanh ngon ng chnh thc e pho bien nen van hoa va van minh Roma. Mai cho en au the ky XIX, cac ai hoc tren the gii van lay tieng Latinh la ngon ng bac hoc chnh thc. Do o ten ngi, ten mien, ten vat, ten thu, ten cay... trong cac khoa hoc t nhien va sieu nhien nh trong cac mon than hoc ton giao eu viet bang tieng Latinh, roi nh o ca the gii eu hieu nh nhau.

That ra, neu muon tm ve nguon ngon ng co le ngi ta phai tr ve vi tieng Hy Lap co trc tieng Latinh (vao nam 403), nhat la oi vi mot so ten trong Thanh Kinh Tan c. Con neu muon tm xa hn na, ta phai tr ve nguon goc tieng Phenixi la he thong ky hieu ngon ng theo am v au tien cua the gii, xuat hien vao khoang the ky XV B.C. roi dan hnh thanh nen ngon ng Kinh Thanh vi 23 ky hieu (phu am, nh aleph, beth...) ma ngi Hy Lap a chon va a them 5 nguyen am, hnh thanh nen bang ch cai (alphabet) e vt qua nhng kieu ch tng hnh, tng thanh cua Ai Cap, Trung Quoc (x. Ngi a tin UNESCO, Nguon goc ch viet, so 4, 1995).

Ta chon tieng Latinh khong phai v chung la nguon xa nhat, nhng v la th tieng pho thong cua gia nh nhan loai a dung trong mot thi gian rat dai e de dang hieu c nhau. V du: Sach tien tri Aggaeus (vi ky hieu Ag) thay v viet Haggai hay Khac-gai (goc ch Phenixi). Cac anh ch em trong Nhom Phien dch cac Gi kinh Phung vu a rat ung khi tm ve nguon xa hn e phien am cac ten rieng trong Thanh Kinh. Tuy nhien co gang nay co le can c nhn lai trong hoan canh hien nay e ap ng vi nhng tien bo cua tieng Viet va yeu cau hoi nhap vi the gii cua dan toc.

Tuy nhien, chung ta nen lu y en s phat trien cua bang ch cai Latinh trong dong lch s e tm ra s hon on trong cach viet phien am tieng Viet. Khi au bang nay ch co 23 ch cai. Vao khoang nam 1000 sau Cong nguyen (A.D.), ch U va ch V c tach ra va them ch W cho mot so ngon ng khac. Vao khoang nam 1500 A.D., ch J mi c tach ra khoi ch I va hnh thanh nen bo ch cai cua nhieu nc (x. Ngi a tin UNESCO, Nguon goc ch viet, so 4, 1995). V the, khi viet cac t bat au bang ch I, ngi ta a phan biet am I hay J trong cac ngon ng Au My. V du: Iesus, Iacob, Israel, Isaac c viet thanh Jesus, Jacob, Israel, Isaac. Khi viet cac t bat au bang V, ngi ta a phan biet am V hay am W. V du: Tieng Latinh: Vincentius c viet thanh Vincent (Phap), Vincent (Anh), nhng Venceslaus (Latinh) lai viet thanh Venceslas (Phap), Wenceslaus (Anh). Con tieng Viet se viet nh the nao?

Ch quoc ng ta ang dung von la cach ky am tieng Viet bang ch cai Latinh nh cac linh muc dong Ten goc Bo ao Nha nh Joao Ruiz, Gaspar Luis, Cristoforo Borri, Alexandre de Rhodes (ac Lo), Gaspar d'Amaral va mot so ngi Viet nh Igesico Van Tn, Bento Thien sang tao ra trong nhng nam 1620-1659. Cac nha sang tao au tien nay a dung mau t Latinh da vao mot phan tieng Y va tieng Bo ao Nha e phien am ngon ng ngi Viet thi o (x. o Quang Chnh, Lch s ch quoc ng, 1620-1659, Tu sach Ra Khi, Sai Gon-1972). Vi 24 ch cai (them ch vao 23 ch cai goc cua mau t Latinh), ngi ta a phien am hau het cac tieng nc ngoai cho en gia the ky XX. Khi gap cac am kho nh F, J, W, Z ngi ta viet thanh Ph, Gi, Oa, D. V du: Franciscus (Phanxico), Jesus (Giesu), Washington (Oasinhtn), Zacaria (Dacaria). Ch D cua tieng Latinh viet thanh cua tieng Viet. V du: Daniel (anien), Debora (ebora), Damas (amat).

Khi cac nha ngon ng quyet nh a them 4 ch F, J, W, Z vao bang ch cai tieng Viet e viet c cac tieng nc ngoai theo ung nguyen ng cua chung, th chung ta thay co s trung lap mot so am va tao nen s hon on trong cach viet ten rieng tieng nc ngoai. V du: ch F bay gi co the viet thanh F hay Ph, ch J co the viet thanh I, Y, J hay Gi (th du nh Iesus, Yesus, Jesus hay Giesu), ch W co the viet thanh V hay W, va ch Z co the viet thanh Z hay D.

Tat ca nhng s hon on nay co the giai quyet neu chung ta can am tm ve nguon cua cac ngon ng e viet ung t goc cua chung vi mot so nhng phan biet e ton trong net ac trng cua moi loai ngon ng.

2.3.2. Nguyen nhan th hai gay nen nhng hon on la ngi ta khong hieu c gia tr quyet nh cua ten rieng. Moi ngi eu co quyen co ten rieng theo s la chon cua chnh mnh va mot khi a c chnh thc cong nhan th khong ai co quyen thay oi, neu khong co ly do chnh ang.

Chung ta nen lu y rang hau het cac thanh nhan t the ky XIX tr ve trc eu mang ten thanh Latinh nen ta dung ten thanh o la le t nhien va hp vi cac ngai. V du thanh Dominicus (Tk XIII). Sau nay v y thc dan toc, ngi Phap oi thanh Dominique, ngi Anh, My oi thanh Dominic, ngi Viet oi thanh ominico, a Minh... Nhng neu ta ton trong ten rieng cua mot ngi a mang ten o that s trong suot i mnh co le ta phai dung ung ten Dominicus. Ten cac Thanh T ao Viet Nam co le cung phai ghi ung nh vay. Nhng ten danh nhan nh Paulus Huynh Tnh Cua, Petrus Trng Vnh Ky khong phai la nhng trng hp ca biet nhng la dau ch cho thay nhng ngi cung thi vi ho a mang nhng ten nay va muon c goi nh vay. Chung ta khong the nhan danh tnh hp thi, tham ch tnh dan toc, e oi ten cua to tien ong ba v lam nh vay la xuc pham en chnh nhng ngi mang ten o. V the, nhng cach viet chuyen t US sang O, t S sang T,... co the lai tr thanh s xuc pham en nhng ngi a song trong lch s.

iem yeu kem trong bo T ien Bach khoa Viet Nam ve van e nay co the la ngi ta khong nhan ra gia tr u viet cua ten rieng so vi ten phien am theo tieng Viet. Ngi ta a neu ly do ten phien am la ngon ng dan toc e a no len trc ten goc theo nguyen ng. V du: Ten phien am cua nha bac hoc ngi Phap la Giun lai at trc ten goc Joules, hay ten phien am cua v hoang e Roma la Xeda lai at trc ten goc Caesar... Theo s nhan nh cua chung toi, cach sap at nay khong hp ly, khong ton trong ten rieng va lam bien dang ch goc khien ngi oc kho tra cu. Neu ngi ta sap ngc lai e ten goc len trc ten phien am, nhng bat li tren khong con na va gia tr bo t ien mi that s c nang len theo ung ngon ng hoc the gii.

oi vi cac ten rieng, Toa Thanh Vatican trc ay a tng co khuynh hng Latinh hoa cac ngon ng khac giong nh khuynh hng Viet hoa cac tieng nc ngoai. V du: Vietnammensis thay v Viet Nam, Saigonnensis thay v Sai Gon. Tuy nhien trong mot vai chuc nam gan ay Toa Thanh a ap dung nhng tien bo cua khoa ngon ng hoc e viet cac ten rieng theo ung ngon ng cua moi quoc gia. Trong cuon Annuario Pontificio 2006, nien giam chnh thc cua Toa Thanh, do Nha Xuat Ban Vatican phat hanh nam 2006, chung ta thay ghi cac ten rieng theo nguyen ng. V du: Nguyen Minh Nhat, Turmenistan, Viet-Nam, Washington, Warszawa, Xuan Loc... Trong cuon lch phung vu chnh thc Ordo 2006-2007 bang tieng Latinh, chung ta cung thay viet ten cac v thanh theo nguyen ng va ton trong ten goc Latinh, va ton trong tnh dan toc cua moi v. V du: Raimuldus Penyafort, Sarbelius Makhluf, Louis Maria Guignion de Montfort, Carolus Lwanga... V the khi HGMVN quyet nh viet cac ten rieng theo goc Latinh, chung toi thiet ngh viet ten rieng theo cach thc cua Toa Thanh tren ay la thch hp va ung an hn ca, v van gi c tnh hoi nhap vi the gii, va bao ton c ban sac dan toc cua moi quoc gia.

2.3.3. Nguyen nhan th ba tao nen s hon on la ngi ta hieu lam tnh chnh xac cua ten goc vi s de dai phat am tieng Viet khi ngh rang ngi Viet khong the oc c nhng am kep nh Bl, Cl,#... hoac nhng am kho cuoi am tiet nh s, l,... e roi phai tach am hay oi am cho de oc. V du: ten Clara c phien thanh C-la-ra hay Israel c phien thanh t-ra-en. That s ngi Viet t xa van co the oc nhng am kep nh cha ac Lo a ghi nhan trong cuon Phep Giang Tam Ngay qua ch "Chua Bli"... Ngay nay cac hoc sinh a lam quen vi ngoai ng ngay t nho nen khong the nai ly do tao s de dai trong phat am e bien oi ten goc cua ngi khac. Cach phien am nay nh muon noi en s non kem, que mua va sai lam trong cach phat am cua ngi Viet ma mot t dan a phng con ang gi cho en ngay nay. Tr ve vi nguyen ng cua ten rieng e oc theo ung moi ngon ng la chung ta chng to kha nang phat am cua ngi Viet cung nh kha nang hoi nhap cua tieng Viet vao nen van hoa cua the gii.

Tuy nhien chung ta cung phai ghi nhan rang, trong may chuc nam qua nhieu ngi Cong giao a quen vi cach phat am va cach viet phien am nay, nhat la oi vi cac linh muc, tu s va mot t giao dan khi ho s dung ban dch Kinh Thanh va sach Phung vu cac Gi kinh cua Nhom Phien dch CGKPV cung nh Sach Le Roma nam 1992 cua Uy ban Phung t. Mot khi thoi quen a hnh thanh, ngi ta se kho chap nhan cach viet va cach oc ung cac ten rieng theo nguyen ng. Rat nhieu ly do a c a ra e bao ve tnh hp ly cua thoi quen nay nh no noi len s hoi nhap vao nen van hoa dan toc, tao s phat am de dang cho ngi bnh dan, giup cho viec sang tac cac ban thanh ca de dang hn vi cac am m tan cung bang a, o, e thay v am ong nh us, is, el,... Co ngi con vien dan quyet nh cua Cong ong cac Giam muc ong Dng, nam 1924 ve viec sa cac kinh oc hang ngay e bao ve cach phien am nay. Tuy nhien ngi Cong giao Viet Nam chung ta khong the choi bo nhng tien bo cua khoa ngon ng hoc gan ay cung nh 6 trieu ngi tn hu Viet Nam khong the tach ri khoi cong ong dan toc e tao mot cach viet ten rieng khac la va bat ngi khac phai theo mnh. Chung ta cang khong quen tnh cach khai pha va m ng cua ngi Cong giao Viet Nam trong viec phat minh ch quoc ng e co nhng hng i ung an, phu hp vi s phat trien cua khoa ngon ng hoc tren the gii.

Chung toi con nh nhng phien hop cang thang cua UBPT trong hai ngay 22 va 23 thang 8 nam 1996, ban ve van e nay, khi c cha Em. Le Phong Thuan lam chu tch uy ban. Khi o chung toi e ngh cach viet ten rieng theo cac tien bo cua ngon ng hoc nhng hau het cac thanh vien eu bo phieu cho cach viet cu theo phien am tieng Viet, tach ri tng am vi dau noi va dau giong. Trong buoi hop, tien s Cao Xuan Hao va tien s Pham Hu Lai, dong Ten, la cac nha ngon ng hoc c mi trnh bay quan iem cua mnh. Tien s Hao cung e ngh ngi Cong giao nen suy ngh ve viec viet cac ten Latinh danh cach. Chnh cac nha khoa hoc nay a giup HGMVN quyet nh ve cach viet ten rieng theo ung ban Nova Vulgata vao thang 9.1996 va thang 10.1997 trong cac hoi ngh thng nien. Nhng g ma nhieu thanh vien uy ban t choi th mi nam sau (2006), Hoi ong Quoc gia Ch ao Bien soan T ien Bach khoa Viet Nam a the hien cu the trong bo t ien nay. Nhac lai chuyen cu khong phai e phien trach ai, nhng chung toi ch muon gi y rang tien bo khoa hoc va s hoi nhap vi dan toc nh ang mi goi chung ta m rong tam tr e on nhan nhng ieu mi me va dam thay oi cho kp vi thi ai, roi con dam i bc trc trong vai tro ngi phat minh va xay dng ch Quoc ng nh to tien anh dung cua chung ta.

Chung toi a oc cac ban dch Thanh Kinh chuan b cho sach bai oc mi cua UBPT va mong c nhng ten rieng c sa oi theo hng giai phap tron ven ma chung toi se gii thieu sau ay. Tuy nhien, phai nhan rang ban dch Thanh Kinh cua Nhom Phien dch CGKPV cho en nay van la ban tot hn ca. Hn na, Nhom cung a thc hien thanh sach bai oc dung trong thanh le. Neu quyet tam thc hien sach bai oc, ta ch can xem lai mot so iem cho hp vi ban Nova Vulgata va co the hoan thanh sm mot cong trnh ma t may chuc nam qua chung ta a bo biet bao cong sc, mo hoi va ca nc mat ma van cha at c ket qua nh long ngi mong c. Tan tham tam, chung toi tha thiet cau nguyen cho s hp tac cua UBPT va Nhom Phien dch CGKPV. Neu cac ten rieng trong ban dch Thanh Kinh cua cac anh em trong nhom c oi mi theo ng hng ma chung toi mao muoi e ngh va e anh em quyet nh chon la, chung toi tin tng rang Giao hoi Viet Nam se co nhng ban van Thanh Kinh tot nhat dung trong thanh le cung nh trong i thng. Va chung toi em ngay cau nguyen cho s hp tac nay.

 

3. e ngh vai ng hng e giai quyet nhng kho khan

Trc khi chon la giai phap hanh ong, co le chung ta nen xac nh mot so ng hng e giai quyet van e. Chung ta co the chon la giai phap de dai, hon hp hay tron ven tuy theo cac ng hng sau ay:

3.1. Giai phap de dai

ng hng: An than, "d hoa vi quy", chap nhan nhng thc te ang co vi nhng khac biet va hon on trong nhng cach viet theo phien am, bat chap nhng tien bo khoa hoc, nhng quy nh chnh thc cua Nha Nc, coi thng trnh o dan tr va khong can hoi nhap vi dan toc cung nh the gii.

Giai phap: Gi nguyen nh cu nhng cach viet ten rieng hien nay.

3.2. Giai phap hon hp

ng hng:

- Chap nhan mot so tien bo trong khoa ngon ng hoc e oi mi cach viet ten rieng.

- Ton trong mot so quy nh cua Nha Nc va cac to chc hu quan.

- Muon hoi nhap vao ngon ng chung cua cac nc tren the gii.

- Tin tng vao trnh o van hoa va kha nang phat am cua ngi Viet.

- Tuy nhien, e tranh xao tron va thay oi nhieu, nhng ngi chon giai phap nay e ngh gi lai mot so ten rieng a qua quen thuoc hoac oi mot so ch theo cach phien am cua ngi Viet.

Giai phap:

+ Cac ten rieng tieng nc ngoai goc Latinh c viet theo ban Nova Vulgata, viet lien cac am tiet, khong anh dau giong va e danh cach.

+ Cac ten rieng c viet ung theo ngon ng cua moi quoc gia. Cac t vi ch F, J, W, Z c gi nguyen, tr mot so ten van J c chuyen thanh Gi nh Giesu, Gioan,...

+ Gi lai cach viet qua quen oi vi ten Chua Giesu, cac thanh tong o, cac thanh s, mot so nhan vat gan gui, va mot t a danh trong Thanh Kinh (Giesu, Phero, Phaolo, Anre, Gioan, Giacobe, Giua, Bartolomeo, Philipphe, Toma, Barnabe, Matthia, Mattheu, Marco, Luca, Giuse, Gioan Phaolo II, Phongxio Philato, Giue, Gioan, Gierusalem,...

+ Gi lai cac ten a c Viet hoa thong dung nh Phap, c, Y, My... cac ten thanh nh aminh, Phan Sinh, Bien c,...

+ Cac van us c chuyen thanh o hay e. V du: Benedictus (Beneicto), Philippus (Philipphe),...

+ Cac van d trong tieng Latinh va nhieu tieng khac c viet thanh , am ch c viet thanh k theo cach phien am tieng Viet. V du: Achim (Akim).

3.3. Giai phap toan dien

ng hng:

- Ton trong lch s va ton trong con ngi e viet ung ten rieng theo ngon ng a tng co trong lch s.

- Chap nhan s xao tron trong mot thi gian ngan e oi mi cach viet ten rieng theo ung tien bo trong khoa ngon ng hoc cua Viet Nam va the gii.

- Ton trong cac quy nh cua Nha Nc va cac to chc hu quan e hoi nhap vao nen van hoa dan toc.

- Tch cc hoi nhap vao ngon ng chung cua cac nc tren the gii.

- Tin tng vao trnh o van hoa va kha nang phat am cua ngi Viet. Ngi Viet Nam a quen vi tieng Latinh t lau va cac linh muc, tu s ch can ton chng mot vai phut e day cach phat am cho giao dan khi gap t la.

Giai phap:

+ Cac ten rieng tieng nc ngoai goc Latinh c viet theo ban Nova Vulgata, viet lien cac am tiet, khong anh dau giong va e danh cach. Rieng ten Giesu c viet thanh Jesu thay v Jesus danh cach (nominatif) cho hp vi li cau xin (lay Chua Jesu) ho cach (vocatif), d cach (datif), dung cach (ablatif) v tieng Viet khong c chia thanh 6 cach nh tieng Latinh. Mot t khac nam trong luat tr la t Kito (Christus), chung toi khong biet nen chon la the nao cho hp khi t nay i chung vi t Jesu. Ngi ta co the dung t Christo hay Kito nh a quen thuoc.

+ Cac ten rieng c viet ung theo ngon ng cua moi quoc gia. Cac t vi ch F, J, W, Z c gi nguyen. Ke ca nhng ten quen thuoc nh Giesu, Gioan,#... cung viet theo nguyen ng nh Joannes, Joseph,...

+ Ton trong cac ten a c Viet hoa thong dung nh Phap, c, Y, My... cac ten thanh nh aminh, Phan Sinh, Bien c,... tuy theo s chon la cua moi ca nhan. Nhng khi nhac en con ngi lch s, ta nen viet ung ten goc Dominicus, Franciscus, Benedictus,...

+ Ten goc nay la ten chnh. V the phai at trc ten viet theo phien am tieng Viet, neu co. Hien nay ngi ta ch viet ten nguyen ng va hieu ngam ngi oc phai biet cach phat am. Neu khong biet th phai hoi ngi chuyen mon hay tra cu trong cac t ien. Do o, khi viet cac t goc Latinh, khong can them dau mu (^) cho cac am o hay e e tr giup cach oc. V du: viet Dominicus, Benedictus ch khong viet ominicus, Beneictus,... UBPT co the phoi hp vi Uy ban Giao ly c tin hay cac to chc van hoa e xuat ban cac loai t ien co ten phien am theo tieng Viet.

Kem theo phan trnh bay nay, chung toi cung gi en oc gia bang ten cac thanh knh trong nam, bang Ky hieu cac Sach Kinh Thanh va bang Phien dch cac Ten Rieng dung trong Phung vu c e ngh e so sanh cach dung khac nhau cua cac nhom phien dch cung nh cac ngon ng khac. Do cach viet ten rieng dung khac mau t Latinh nh trong ban Nova Vulgata nen mot vai ky hieu c e ngh sa oi. V du: cac sach bat au bang van Gi chuyen thanh van J (Job, Joannes, Jacobus, Judas, Judith, Joel); van D thanh van Z (Zacharias); van X thanh van S (Sophonias); hay mot so sach nh Osea thay v Hosea, Aggaeus thay v Khac-gai hay Haggai,...

 

Ket Luan

Bai viet a kha dai, du chung toi ch muon noi rat van gon. Nhng con ng hoi nhap vao dan toc va the gii trong lnh vc nay dng nh con dai va xa vi hn, bi v chung toi a lng trc nhng kho khan, vat va va ca nhng thach thc cho nhng ngi thien ch. Tuy nhien chung toi van tran ay hy vong e viet len nhng suy t va m c cua mnh ve viec co c s thong nhat trong cach viet ten rieng tieng nc ngoai va ky hieu cac sach Thanh Kinh. Luc nay ay, nhieu nha xuat ban lch block va lch treo tng ang thuc giuc chung toi trao cho ho ban thao e kp in lch cho nam ti. Neu thong nhat c ten cac thanh, cac ky hieu Thanh Kinh theo nhng tieu ch mi, chung ta se co dp gii thieu hnh anh ti ep cua Giao hoi Viet Nam i tien phong trong lnh vc ngon ng hoc, cung nh tch cc hoi nhap vao nen van hoa dan toc va van minh the gii.

Chung toi rat mong quy oc gia sm gop y cho chung toi ve nhng giai phap e ngh. Moi lien lac xin gi ve:

Van phong Th ky HGMVN

72/12 Tran Quoc Toan, P.8, Q.3, TP.HCM

t: (84) 8 8201829

Email: antnnson@hcm.vnn.vn

Xin chan thanh cam n quy oc gia. Cau chuc quy v an lanh va tran ay n Chua.

 

Lm. Anton Nguyen Ngoc Sn

 

 


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