Kinh Thanh Tan c

New Testament

Ban dch Viet Ng cua Linh Muc Nguyen The Thuan, CSsR.

Prepared for Internet by Vietnamese Missionaries in Asia


 

Tieu Dan

Cac Sach Yosua, Tham Phan,

Rut, Samuel Va Cac Vua

 

 

Trong qui ien Thanh kinh Hipri, cac sach Yosua, Tham phan, Samuel, va cac Vua c at trong phan "Cac tien tri" va c goi la cac tien tri "tien" oi chieu vi cac tien tri "hau" (Ysaia, Yeremia, Ezekiel va mi hai tien tri nho). Goi la cac sach tien tri v co truyen thong cho rang cac sach nay do chnh cac tien tri bien soan (coi Josephus, Barba, 14e va 15a): Yosua bien soan cac sach mang ten ong, Samuel, sach Tham phan va sach Samuel; Yeremia, sach cac Vua. Mat khac, cac sach nay cung trnh bay dung mao cua mot so tien tri (Samuel, Ga, Natan, Elya, Elisa, Ysaya, Yeremia...) hoat ong gia dan c chon. Cac ngai noi vi dan Li cua Thien Chua va ong thi vach ra nhng viec bat trung, that tn cua Israel trong lien lac vi Yave, ang a lap giao c vi dan.

Nhng xet ve noi dung th cung co the noi c rang cac sach nay noi tiep cac sach Ngu kinh: nhan vat chnh cua sach Yosua a xuat hien trong Ngu kinh va c ch nh noi tiep s mang cua Mose, trong phan cuoi sach Th Luat. Va cho rang cac sach nay, cung vi Kinh Th luat, lam thanh mot khoi dien lai mot giai oan ln cua lch s ton giao cua Israel keo dai ti tan cuoi thi cac Vua: Israel la dan c tuyen chon va c Thien Chua ban cho mot le luat (Tl). Dan c tuyen chon ay ti nh c tai at c ha ban (Yos). Nhng cuoc song cua dan c chon tai ay la mot chuoi nhng boi giao roi tr lai (Thp). Ly tng ve Than quyen, b lung lay sau cuoc khung hoang a ti viec thanh lap vng quyen, a c thc hien di trieu ai avt (S). nhng s suy oi a khi au t trieu ai Salomon va sau mot chuoi nhng bat trung cua dan, Thien Chua a ra an phat (V). Sach Th luat co the a c tach ra khoi khoi nay khi ngi ta muon thu tap tat ca nhng g lien quan en con ngi va s nghiep cua Mose.

Ve mat van chng ngi ta cung nhan thay co mot s thong nhat nao o gia hai khoi tuy rang kho ma phan biet cac nguon van khac nhau trong cac sach Yos, Thp, S va V, nh a lam trong Ngu kinh. Anh hng cua tinh than va ao ly Th luat tren cac sach nay phai nhan la ro ret.

Gia thuyet ve s "nhat khoi" tren ay co the chap nhan c. Nhng can phai e y iem nay la viec soan thao trong khuynh hng Th luat a da tren cac van kien, tai lieu khac nhau ve thi buoi va tnh chat. Do o co s kien nay la cac sach, hoac cac phan trong mot quyen sach van gi nguyen tnh cach ca biet cua no. Mat khac viec soan thao trong khuynh hng Th luat nay a khong c thc hien mot luc va moi sach con mang nhng dau chng cua nhieu t an hanh. Nguyen ve sach cac Vua, - dau chng ro rang nhat - ngi ta nhan ra co t la hai t soan thao. Mot t sau cuoc cai cach ton giao cua Yosias, mot t sau cuoc lu ay.

Trong hnh thc cuoi cung, cac sach nay la mot cong trnh cua mot trng phai gom nhng ngi co long ao, tham nhuan t tng Th luat, a suy ngh ve qua kh cua dan va a rut ra mot bai hoc ton giao. Nhng ho cung con gi lai c nhng truyen thong, hay nhng van ban len ti thi anh chiem at Ha va nhng trnh luat ve nhng bien co noi bat cua lch s Israel. Nh the lch s Israel, trong cac sach nay, a c trnh bay nh mot "lch s thanh". mot lch s nhn di nhan gii ton giao. Va s gia cung nh cac tn hu van co the tm thay ay nhng gia tr. Ngi tn hu se khong ch nhn ra ban tay cua Thien Chua trong tat ca moi bien co, ma con nhan ra trong chnh moi u ai kem theo nhng oi hoi cua Thien Chua oi vi dan Ngi chon, mot s chuan b dan dan cho mot Israel mi, cong ong cac tn hu.

- Sach Yosua: co the chia ra lam ba phan:

a) anh chiem at Ha, 1-12

b) Phan chia at ai gia cac chi toc, 13-21

c) Cuoi i Yosua, cach rieng dien t cuoi cung cua ong va hoi ngh tai Sikem, 22-24

Trong phan I, ngi ta nhan ra, trong cac ch. 2-9 mot so truyen thong, oi khi song song vi nhau, dnh vi en th cua nhom Benyamin tai Gilgal va trong cac chng 10-11 hai tng thuat ve chien tran, Gabaon va Merom, gan lien vi cuoc chinh phuc cac mien Nam roi ca mien Bac Phaletin.

S kien cac trnh thuat cua cac chng 2-9, goc t Gilgal, tc xuat phat t nhom Benyamin a khong lam lu m dung mao cua Yosua - trong cac trnh thuat nay, tuy ong thuoc chi toc Ephraim, - bi v cac phan t Benyamin va Ephraim a cung vao Canaan trc khi ong o tai phan at cua ho. Khong the choi cai chieu hng giai ngha cac s kien hay hoan canh co the quan sat c cua cac trnh thuat nay. Nhng tnh cach suy luan luan ay ch nham vao nhng hoan canh, hay nhng hau qua cua cac bien co hay ngi ta khong the phu nhan tnh cach lch s cua chung, tr trng hp ve anh ha thanh Hai.

Phan II co tnh cach mot ban o a d. Chng 13 at v tr cho Ruben, Ga va na chi toc Manasse a co phan ben kia song Yoran, vao sinh thi cua Mose, theo Ds 32 (coi Tl 3 12-17) Cac chng 14-19 lien quan ti cac chi toc pha Tay Yoran, a au ket hai loai van kien: mot van kien mo ta ranh gii cac chi toc. Mc o chnh xac khong eu va phan chnh yeu co the len ti thi tien quan chu. Va van kien khac la danh sach cac thanh. Chi tiet nhat la danh sach cac thanh cua Yua,15. Danh sach nay, c bo sung bi mot phan cac thanh cua Benyamin, 18:25-28, a phan cac thanh ra lam mi hai khu. Danh sach nay phan anh nen hanh chanh cua vng quoc Yua, co the di thi Yosaphat. Chng 20 ke khai cac thanh t nan, danh sach cac thanh nay han khong co trc trieu ai Salomon. Ch. 21, cac thanh Levit, c them sau thi lu ay, nhng a s dung nhng ky c ve thi quan chu.

Trong phan III, ch. 22 ve viec tr ve cua cac chi toc ben kia Yoran va viec lap te an b song, mang dau tch cua soan thao theo chieu hng Kinh Th luat va t te. Goc cua chng nay la mot truyen thong rieng, nhng thi ky va y tng cua truyen thong nay kho xac nh. Ch. 24 gi lai mot ky c xa va xac thc ve hoi ngh tai Sikem va ve khe c ton giao c ky ket tai ay.

ieu chac c la khong phai chnh Yosua a la tac gia trc tiep cua sach mang ten ong. Sach a c viet ra da vao nhieu nguon tai lieu khac nhau, va la mot trong nhng tap sach hon tap nhat cua Thanh kinh Cu c. Chung chung, co the ke nh c soan thao theo hng Th luat cac oan sau: Ch. 1 (phan ln ): 8:30-35 10:16-43 11:10-20 12 22:1-8 23 24. S kien ch. 24, c duyet theo tinh than Th luat. c duy tr ben canh ch. 23 do mot ban tay khac soan nhng da vao chng 24, la dau cho thay co hai t an hanh sach ke tiep nhau.

Sach Yosua a trnh bay cuoc anh chiem tron ven at Ha nh cong trnh cua toan the moi chi toc hp lc lai va di quyen ch huy cua Yosua, nhng trnh thuat trong sach Thp 1 th lai khac: trnh thuat nay cho thay moi chi toc chien au rieng re e gianh phan at rieng cho mnh va thng xuyen b that bai. Trnh thuat nay thuoc truyen thong goc Yua va co nhieu yeu to cua truyen thong nay c a vao trong phan trnh bay khung canh a d cua cua sach Yosua: 13:1-6 14:6-15 15:13-19 17:12-18. Hnh anh gi lai mot s chinh phuc at Ha mot cach rieng re va tng phan mot nay hp vi thc te cua lch s hn (thc ra, cung ch la phong oan!) Viec nh c tai Mien Nam Phaletin a c thc hien t Caes va Namsa va chnh yeu la do bi cac nhom se ch sat nhap vao Yua mot cach t t: nhom Caleb, nhom Qenizzi v.v va nhom Simeon. Viec lap c trung phan Phaletin la cong trnh cua cac nhom a qua song Yoran di quen ch huy cua Yosua gom cac phan t cua cac chi toc Ephraim. Manasse va Benyamin. Trng hp pha Bac th lai khac. Viec lap c ay co mot lch rieng. Cac chi toc Zabulon, Issakhar, Asher va Neptali co the a lap nghiep ay vao mot thi khong xac inh c va a khong xuong Aicap. Cac chi toc nay a c tiep xuc vi long tin vao Yave cua cac nhom do Yosua cam au mang en va tai Sikem, ho a cong khai chap nhan long tin vao Yave o. Ho a lam chu thc thu vung at cua ho sau khi anh bai ngi Canaan a tng c hiep hay e doa ho. Tai cac vung, cac mien khac nhau ay, viec lap c a c thc hien bang nhieu cach khac nhau: bang quan s, bang s xam nhap t t va trong hoa bnh, bang nhng giao c vi cac dan a san trong mien. Phai coi la co tnh cach lch s vai tro cua Yosua trong viec nh c Trung phan Phaletin, t bien co qua song Yoran ti hoi ngh tai Sikem. Xet thi buoi cua cuoc xuat hanh (coi ta), co the e ngh mot nien bieu sau: Xam nhap pha Nam vao khoang 1250; cac nhom t ben kia song Yoran vao anh chiem trung phan Philetin, t nam 1225, va cac nhom pha Bac bat au banh trng vao khoang 1200 trc ky nguyen.

Ve giai oan lch s phc tap va c thiet lap lai theo gia thiet tren ay. Sach Yosua a a ra mot hnh anh c n gian hoa va ly tng hoa. Ly tng hoa: cuoc anh chiem c trnh bay nh mot anh hung ca noi tiep Xuat hanh trong o ngi ta thay Thien Chua tiep tuc can thiep trc tiep va mot cach ngoan muc e benh vc dan cua Ngi. n gian hoa v Yosua a c trnh bay nh mot nhan vat co mat trong tat ca moi bien co, ngi ieu khien tran chien cua nha Yuse, 1-12. ngi ta gan cho ong viec phan chia at ai cung khong phai la a c thc hien trong mot thi gian ngan. 13-21 va sach ket thuc vi nhng li ga t cua Yosua va cai chet cua ong, 23 24 29-31. Qua thc, t au ti cuoi sach, ong a la nhan vat chnh. Cac Giao phu coi ong nh mot dung mao bao trc c Yesu: khong phai ch v ong a mang cung mot cai ten vi Ngai, nhng con la viec qua song Yoran a ngi ta cung ong vao at Ha la hnh anh B tch thanh tay trong c Yesu, ang a ngi ta vao Thien Chua. Va cuoc anh chiem at ai a tr thanh hnh bong cua s banh trng cua Giao Hoi.

Qua thc, manh at Canaan nay trong nhan gii cua Cu c la e tai ch thc cua sach Yosua: dan a tm thay Thien Chua cua mnh trong sa mac, nay c lanh nhan phan at cua mnh, va lanh nhan t ban tay Thien Chua cua mnh, bi v cac Yave a anh giac cung vi Israel, 23:3-10 24:12-22 va a ban cho ho lam gia nghiep at ha cho cha ong ho, 23:5-14.

Sach Cac Tham Phan gom ba phan khong eu nhau: a) phan dan nhap 1:1-2 5 b) phan chnh 2:6 - 16:31 c) va hai oan c them vao noi ve cuoc di dan cua nhom an, vi viec thanh lap en th cua ho, 17-18 va tran chien phat toi con cai Benyamin a pham tai Gibah 19-21.

Phan dan nhap, 1:1 - 2:5, trnh bay mot cach s sai viec cac chi toc lap c Canaan. Cac chi toc nay a hoat ong mot cach le te va thng xuyen gap that bai. Trong hnh thc hien tai, phan nay muon cat ngha tnh trang b e doa cua Israel. Thi cac tham phan. Bc tranh lch s nay khac vi bc tranh trog Yos va c trnh bay di nhan gii cua nhom Yua.

Phan chnh, 2:6 - 16:31 e cap en lch s cac tham phan. Cac hoc gia hien tai phan biet sau khuon mat tham phan "ln": Otniel, Ehu, Baeaq (va eborah) Gheeon, Yeptre va Samson. Hanh ong cua cac v tham phan nay c ke mot cach ty m. Va sau Tham phan nho: Shamgar, Tola, Yair, Ibxan, Eglon va Abon. Nhng ngi nay ch c nhac qua. Ban van th khong phan biet theo kieu nay, nhng cung a cho thay co mot s khac biet tham sau gia hai nhom, va danh hieu tham phan c at chung cho ho la do viec soan thao a gop cac yeu to khong an nham g vi nhau. Cac "Tham phan ln" la nhng anh hung Giai phong. Cac "tham phan ln" nay tuy khac ve goc gac, ve tnh tnh, ve hanh ong, nhng eu co mot net chung: ho a lanh nhan mot n rieng, ho c Thien Chua chon ac biet e sung vao s vu giai thoat. Truyen ve ho, trc tien c truyen khau di nhieu hnh thc khac nhau, roi dan gia, nhieu yeu to khac nhau c them vao. Cuoi cung, cac truyen nay c gom vao lam thanh mot cuon sach, "sach cac ngi giai phong" c soan trong vng quoc pha Bac vao buoi au thi quan chu. Sach gom truyen ve Ehu, ve Baraq va eborah, co le a chu anh hng cua trnh thuat Yos 11 ve Yabin tai Khaxor, truyen Gheeon, Yerubbaal, truyen Yepte, hai bai th co, ca vnh eborah, 5, va li keu goi cua ong Yotam 9:7-15. Trong sach nay, nhng v anh hung cua vai chi toc c phong ai va c a len hang quoc gia ieu khien thanh chien cho ca Israel. Cac "Tham phan nho" phat xuat t mot truyen thong khac. Khong thay cac tham phan nho nay co hoat ong giai thoat nao. Ngi ta ch cho biet qua ve goc cua ho, ve gia nh va ni chon cat ho, va ni ho a lam "tham phan" tren Israel trong mot so nam nhat nh. Tham phan bi ong t shaphat, co ngha la sa tr, gan vi cai tr, cam quyen. Quyen hanh cua ho khong vt qua mot thanh hay mot khu. o la mot the che chnh tr gia che o bo lac va che o quan chu. Cac nha soan thao au tien, theo khuynh hng Th luat co nhng hieu biet ch xac ve cac tham phan nay, nhng a phong ai quyen hanh cua cac tham phan Israel va a xep at cho ho theo th luat trong nien bieu. Cac soan gia a em gan danh hieu tham phan len tren cac v anh hung trong "sach cac anh hung Giai phong" va cac v anh hung nay do o tr thanh nhng "tham phan cua Israel". lay cho no ap cho kia, ngi ta a at c con so mi hai tham phan, tng trng cho tat ca mi hai chi toc cua Israel.

Va cung chnh viec soan tac a tao ra khung canh thi gian co trong sach. Soan tac Th luat, tuy duy tr nhng hieu biet ch xac ve tham phan nho, nhng a cam chang cac trnh thuat bang nhng moc thi gian gia tao vi cac con so c le la bon mi nam - mot the he mi - hay gap oi len la tam mi nam, hoac ch co mot na la hai mi nam, co la sao e, cong vi cac d kien khac cua Thanh kinh, co the co mot tong so la bon tram tam mi nam, phu hp vi khoang cach, theo nhan gii Th luat, gia thi Xuat hanh khoi Aicap va luc xay dng en th, 1V 6:1. Trong khoang cach o, lch s cac tham phan lap ay giai oan t khi Yosua chet ti luc Samuel khi au s vu cua ong.

ieu trc tien cac soan gia theo khuynh hng Th luat a em lai sach Tham phan la cai y ngha ton giao cua no: Y ngha nay c dien ta trong phan nhap e chung, 2:6 - 3:6 va trong phan nhap e rieng cua truyen Otniel, thuoc soan tac Th luat va c dung e ong khung cac truyen tiep theo sau: con cai Israel a bat trung cung Yave va a b Yave pho nop cho ke ap bc chung. Con cai Israel a keu cau danh Yave va c Ngi oai thng ban cho mot v cu tinh, mot tham phan. Nhng roi dan lai an bat trung, roi b phat... Sach Tham phan nay co t la hai t an hanh. Nhng dau chng ro ret nhat la: hai yeu to noi tiep nhau trong phan nhap e, 2:11-19 va 2:6-10 + 2:20 - 3:6 va hai ket luan cho truyen Samson, 15:20 va 16:30, co ngha la ch. 16 a c them vao.

Sach nay cha co cac phu chng. 17-21. Cac chng nay khong ke chuyen cac tham phan ma lai noi cac bien co xay ra trc viec thiet lap the che quan chu va do o cac chng nay a c a vao phan cuoi sach, sau khi lu ay ve. Cac chng nay hoa lai nhng truyen thong co xa va a co mot qua trnh van chng dai hay tien van chng, trc khi c a vao ay. Cac ch. 17-18 thuoc mot truyen thong cua nhom an va cac chng 19-21 thuoc ve truyen thong khac co the a xuat phat t Benyamin va duyet lai tai Yua trong chieu hng chong lai vng quyen Saul tai Gibah

Sach Tham phan hau nh la nguon duy nhat cho chung ta biet ve thi ai cac tham phan. Nhng khong the da vao ay e viet mot lch s lien tuc ve thi nay. Nien bieu a ra trong sach co tnh cach gia tao. Nhng cach ap bc cung nh cac cuoc giai phong ch lien quan ti mot phan at ai. Va giai oan cac tham phan khong keo dai qua mot the ky ri.

Cac bien co chnh ky c con gi lai ch co the c nh thi gian mot cach phong chng. Cuoc toan thang Tanak di thi eborah va Baraq, 4-5, co the xay ra vao khoang gia the ky XII, trc khi quan Maian xam nhap (Gheeon) va trc khi dan Philitin banh trng ra ngoai phan at cua ho (Samson). Va co the rut ra ket luan la trong giai oan lon xon nay, ngi Israel a phai chien au khong ch vi dan c Canaan, nh cac dan trong ong bang Izrel b eborah va Baraq anh bai, ma con phai ng au vi ca cac dan sung quanh: Moab (Ehu) Ammon (Yapte) Maian (Gheeon) va Philitin mi keo ti (Samson). Trc s e doa o, moi nhom lo bao ve lay phan at cua mnh, thng th lien minh vi nhom ben canh, 7:23, nhng cung co trng hp mot chi toc hung manh co the phan oi v a khong c mi chia chien li pham, 8:1-3 12:1-6. bai ca eborah, 5, che dieu cac chi toc a khong ap lai li keu goi, nhng ieu ang chu y la Yua va Simeon a khong c nhac en ten.

Hai chi toc nay song pha Nam, cach biet vi pha Bac bi cac thanh Gabaon va Yerusalem khong thuoc Israel va tnh trang co lap nay la mam mong cho s ly khai sau nay. Ngc lai cuoc toan thang tren Tanak a em ve cho Israel canh ong Izrel va noi lien nha Yuse vi cac chi toc pha Bac. Nhng s thong nhat gia cac thanh phan khac nhau ay c bao am trc tien bi s thong chia cung mot long tin: tat ca tham phan la nhng ke tin ni Yave va en th hom bia Silo a thanh trung tam qui tu moi nhom. Mat khac, cac cuoc au tranh nay ren luyen nen tinh than quoc gia va chuan b cho gi phut, trc mot e doa chung, tat ca se hp lc lai, di thi Samuel.

Sach tham phan day con cai Israel bai hoc nay la, s ap bc la hnh phat do long bat tn va s chien thang la hau qua cua s tr ve vi Thien Chua. Sach huan ca, ca ngi s trung thanh cua Tham phan, Hc 46:11-12. Ho trnh bay cac thanh cong cua ho nh phan thng cho long tin cua ho, ho thuoc ve khoi "am may nhan chng" khuyen khch tn hu bo toi loi va can am gang chu th thach, Hr 11:32-34 12:1.

Sach Ba Rut trong ban LXX, Vulg, va cac ban dch hien ai, c at sau sach Thp. Trong T.K Hipri, Rut c ac trong phan "cac th trc" nh mot trong nam cuon sach c oc trong cac ngay le ln. Rut c dung trong le nam mi. Mac du e tai cua Rut a ve thi cac tham phan, coi 1:1, nhng sach khong thuoc soan tac theo tinh than Th luat, mac du soan tac nay chay dai t Yosua ti cuoi cac Vua.

ay la cau chuyen ve ba Rut, ngi Moab, v mot ngi Belem ti lap c tai Moab. Sau khi chong chet, ba a tr ve Yua vi me chong la ba Noemi va a ci Boaz, mot ngi ba con cua chong, theo luat "anh em chong". Con cua hai ngi la Obe, se la ong cua avit.

Mot oan them vao, 4:18-22, trnh bay mot pho he avt, song song vi1 Ks 2:5-15.

Ngi ta tranh luan rat nhieu ve thi ky soan tac sach nay. Moi thi t avit, Salomon ti Nehemia c a ra lam gia thiet. ay la mot cau chuyen xay dng, muc ch ch la vach cho thay long tin tng at ni Thien Chua quan phong va tinh than pho quat ay la giao huan cua trnh thuat. S kien Rut nhn nhan la to mau cua avit a em lai cho cuon sach mot gia tr ac biet va thanh Mt se ghi ten cua Ba Rut trong gia pha cua c Kito, Mt 1:5.

Cac Sach Samuel trong T.K. Hipri ch la mot. Viec phan chia ra lam hai quyen la do ban dch Hilap. Ban dch nay a at cac sach Samuel cung vi sach cac Vua, di cung mot au e: bon sach ve cac Trieu ai, ban Vulg. Goi la bon sach cac Vua. Goi la sach Samuel, v truyen thong cho rang chnh Samuel a soan ra.

Ban van la mot trong so nhng ban Cu c c gi lai trong mot tnh trang bet bat nhat. Ban Hilap cua ban LXX a ra mot ban van thng kha khac, da vao mot nguyen ban ma nhieu khuc c tm thay trong cac hang Qumran. Do o han la phai co nhieu hieu duyet bang tieng Hipri cua cac sach Samuel.

Co the chia sach ra lam nam phan:

a) Samuel, 1S 1-7

b) Samuel va Saul 1S 8-15

c) Saul va avit: 1S 16 ti 2S 1

d) avit 2S 2-20

e) Phu them 2S 21-24.

Tac pham au ket hoac sap xep nhieu nguon van va nhieu truyen thong khac nhau ve buoi au cua thi quan chu. Co mot truyen thong ve thi Hom Bia b cam gi ni ngi Philitin, 1S 4-6, va lien tuc trong 2S 1. Cau truyen c ong khung gia mot trnh luat ve mot thi th au cua Samuel. 1S 1-3, va mot trnh thuat trnh bay Samuel nh v tham phan cuoi cung va phong ve trc giai thoat khoi ach quan Philitin, 7. Samuel ong mot vai tro cot can trong lch s thanh lap vng quyen, 1S 8-12. T lau ngi ta a phan biet trong phan nay hai nhom truyen thong: 9, 10:1-16 11 va 8, 10:17-24 12. Nhom th nhat, la khuynh hng vng quyen va bien co, va nhom th hai, khuynh hng bai quan chu. Khuynh hng th hai phai muon thi hn khuynh hng th nhat. Thc ra, ca hai truyen thong eu xa va ch noi len nhng khuynh hng khac nhau, ch khong phai oi choi. Khuynh hng th hai khong en noi qua "bai quan chu" nh ngi ta ngh. Khuynh hng nay ch chong mot nen quan chu khong ton trong quyen cua Thien Chua. Ch. 13-14 trnh bay cac cuoc chien cua Saul chong lai Philitin di nhan gii bai Saul 13:7b-5a; nhan gii bai bac nay gap lai trong 15, lien quan ti tran chien chong lai dan Amalek. S bai kch Saul nay chuan b cho viec Samuel xc dau cho avit va ve s xung khac gia ong vi Saul, c gop lai trong 1S 16:14 - 2S 1. Phan cuoi cua cau truyen nam trong 2S 2-5: Vng quyen cua avit tai Hebron, cuoc chien chong dan Philitin va viec anh chiem Yerusalem am bao cho viec xac nhan avit la vua tren toan coi Israel, 2S 5 12. Ch. 6 tiep cau truyen ve kham. Li tien tri cua Natan, 7, xa, nhng a c sa lai. Ch. 8 la mot ban tom lc do soan tac. T 2S 9, bat au mot trnh thuat dai se ch ket thuc vi thi au cac vua, 1V 1-2. o la cau chuyen ve gia nh avit cung vi cac cuoc xung ot sau vu noi ngoi, c ke bi mot nhan chng nhan tien trong buoi au cua trieu Salomon. Cau chuyen b t quang bi 2S 21-24, gop lai cac manh vun, goc khac nhau ve trieu ai avit.

Ngoai phan 2S 9-20, co the co nhieu phan khac a c cau tao t nhng the ky au cua thi quan chu: truyen Samuel, hai truyen ve Saul va avit. Cung co the cac phan nay a c au ket vi nhau vao khoang nam - 700, nhng ch c a vao trong tac pham di hnh thc cuoi cung cua no vao thi lch s trong tinh than Th luat. Tuy vay, anh hng cua Th luat ay khong ro ret trong Thp va sach cua Vua. Ngi ta co the nhan ra anh hng nay cach rieng trong nhng chng au tac pham nh 1S 2 22-36 7 va 12, co le trong viec sa lai li tien tri Natan, 2S 7, nhng trnh thuat cua 1S 9-20 a c gi lai hau nh nguyen ven.

Cac sach Samuel bao trum giai oan t au thi quan chu tai Israel cho ti cuoi thi avit. S banh trng cua dan Philitin - chien tran Aphek, 1S 4, vao khoang nam - 1050 - e doa chnh s song cua Israel va bat au cuoc song con cua Israel va bat buoc a ti nen quan chu. Saul, vao khoang nam - 1030, xuat hien nh ke noi tiep cac tham phan, nh c tat ca cac chi toc nhn nhan, uy tn va quyen hanh cua ong co tnh cach bao quat va ben b: vng quyen ra i. Chien tranh giai phong bat au va ngi Philitin b anh lui ve phan at cua ho, 1S 14, nhng cac cuoc cham tran van tiep tuc xay ra ven ra at Israel, 1S 17; 28 va 31. Tran cuoi cung that bai va Saul chet khoang nam - 1010. S thong nhat quoc gia lai mot lan na b e doa. Va avit c xc dau lam vua Hebron do ngi Yua; cac chi toc pha Bac th at Ishbaal nhng b am sat chet va avit c nhn nhan la vua tren ca Israel. Thong nhat c tai lap.

Sach th hai Samuel ch ghi lai van tat nhng ket qua chnh tr cua trieu ai avit. Nhng ket qua that ln lao. Quan Philitin b ay lui vnh vien, thong nhat at nc c hoan tat, Yerusalem tr thanh kinh o chnh cua vng quoc. Tat ca nhng vung ben kia Yoran phai thuan phuc va avit m rong quyen kiem soat tren ngi Aram trong vung nam Syri. Nhng, vao luc avit chet, khoang nam - 970. S thong nhat quoc gia cha thc s c thc hien; avit la vua Israel va Yua nhng hai khoi thng chong oi nhau: cuoc noi loan cua Absalom c cac ngi phng Bac ung ho, Shba thuoc chi toc Benyamin a muon xuoi dan noi day. a co mam mong cho s li khai.

Cac sach nay mang mot tn th ton giao: loan bao nhng ieu kien va nhng kho khan mot nc Thien Chua tran gian. L tng ch at ti di trieu avit; trc o Saul a that bai va tiep theo sau la moi bat trung cua nen quan chu, a ti an phat cua Thien Chua va c nuoi dng vi nhng li ha cho nha avit. Tan c nhac ti ba lan, Cv 2:30 ,2C 6:18 Hr 1:5. c Gie su thuoc giong avit, va khi dan goi ngai la "con avit", la nhn nhan ngai la Mesia. Cac giao phu a so sanh i cua avit vi cuoc i cua c Yesu. c Kyto c chon e cu chuoc moi ngi, lam vua dan thieng lieng cua Thien Chua, nhng ngai lai b chnh ngi nha bach hai.

Cung nh sach Samuel, Sach Cac Vua 1 va 2, trong thanh kinh Hipri ch la mot tac pham. Hai cuon nay tng ng vi hai cuon cua bo sach Trieu ai trong ban dch Hilap va ban Vulg. goi la sach cac vua.

Sach cac vua tiep lien sach Samuel. Phan cuoi cua tai lieu 2S 9-20 nam trong 1V 1-2. 1V 3-11 la mot trnh thuat dai ve trieu ai Salomon, mot trieu ai giau sang vi nhng cong trnh xay cat ln lao huy hoang; vua th ay s khong ngoan. Nhng tinh than chinh phuc cua trieu ai avit khong con: ngi ta ch lo duy tr, to chc, nhat la khai thac. Tnh trang xung khac gia hai thanh phan dan toc van con, va khi Salomon chet, nam - 931, vng quoc c chia ra lam hai do s li khai cua mi chi toc pha Bac. Tnh trang cang tr nen tram trong khi s li khai nay keo theo s ly khai ve mat ton giao, 1V 12-13. T 1V 14 ti 2V 17 la lch s song song cua hai vng quoc, Israel va Yua: thng la lich s cua nhng cuoc xung ot cua gia hai vng quoc anh em va cua nhng cuoc tan cong t ben ngoai, cua Aicap, cua dan Aram. Nguy hiem gia tang khi cac ao quan cua nhng cuoc tan cong khi cac ao quan cua Assur bat au xuat hien trong vung vao the ky - IX va VIII. Nam - 721, Samari that thu. Yua a la mot nc ch hau. Lch s Yua tiep tuc mot mnh cho en ngay Yerusalem b pha huy, nam - 587 trong 2V 18-25 21. Trnh thuat a ac biet chu trong vao hai trieu ai, trieu Ezekias, 2V 18-20 va trieu Yosias, 2V 22-23 c anh dau bi s thc tnh cua tinh than quoc gia va cuoc cai cach ton giao. Cac bien co chnh tr ln khi ay la cuoc xam lang cua Sennakereb di trieu Ezekias nam - 701 va s sup o cua Assur va s thanh lap e quoc Kane, di trieu Yosias. Yua buoc long phai thuan phuc nhng ngi chu mi cua Phng ong. Nhng se noi day va hau qua la hnh phat: nam - 597, cac ao quan cua Nabuchoonosor ti chiem Yerusalem va a mot so dan i ay. Mi nam sau, mot am mu danh lai oc lap a keo theo s can thiep mi cua Nabuchoonosor, ket thuc nam - 587. Yerusalem b sup o va t i ay th hai. Sach cac 1V ket thuc vi hai phu chng ngan, 2V 25 22-30.

Tac pham ke ten ba trong so cac nguon van cua mnh: mot lch s cua Salomon, Ky s cac vua Israel va cac k s vua cua Yua. Ngoai ra con cac nguon van khac, ngoai phan cuoi cua tai lieu quan trong ve avit, 1V 1-2, mot phan mo ta en th, goc t te, 1V 17 2V 1 va 2V 2-13. Cac trnh thuat ve trieu Ezekias, e cap ti Ysaya xuat phat t cac o e cua tien tr nay.

Khi viec soan tac khong s dung cac nguon van th cac bien co c ong khung trong mot khuon mau nhat nh: moi trieu ai c e cap ti mot cach rieng re, au va cuoi cac trieu ai c ghi bang nhng cong thc hau nh nhat nh, kem theo mot s phe phan ve thai o ton giao cua vua. Tat ca moi vua Issrael eu b len an v cai toi "nguyen thuy" cua vng quoc nay: o la viec thanh lap en th Bethel; trong so cac vua cua Yua, ch co tam v la c khen ngi v s trung tn oi vi lenh truyen cua Yave. Nhng s khen ngi nay a sau lan b gii han bi nhan xet: "cac cao an khong b huy"; ch co Ezekias va Yosias la c tan tung khong de dat.

Cac s phe phan hien nhien da vao luat Tl ve s thong nhat en th. Nhng hn na: viec kham pha ra Tl di trieu Yosias va cuoc cai cach ton giao la iem cao cua tat ca lch s nay va tat ca tac pham la mot s minh chng cho luan thuyet can ban cua Tl va c lap lai trong 1V 8 va 2 v17: neu dan tuan gi giao c ky ket vi Thien Chua se c chuc lanh, con neu vi pham se b s phat. Anh hng cua Tl nay con thay trong ieu van moi khi soan gia khai trien hoac chu giai cac nguon van.

Co the viec soan thao th nhat theo tinh than Tl c thc hien trc lu ay, trc khi Yosias chet tai Mgio - 609, va li khen ngi nay, 2V 23 25 (tr cac cau cuoi) se la phan ket luan cua tac pham tien khi. Mot an ban th hai, cung thuoc Tl, c thc hien trong thi lu ay, sau nam 562 neu phan cuoi sach hien tai la 2V 52 22-30, va sm hn mot chut, neu tac pham ngng sau trnh thuat ve cuoc a i ay lan th hai, 2V 25 21. Va cuoi cung, co them t khuc, trong va sau lu ay.

Sach cac V phai c oc trong tinh than, theo o cac sach nay a c viet ra: mot lich s cua cuoc cu thoat. Thai o vo n cua dan c chon, s sup o ke tiep nhau cua hai phan cua dan toc xem ra a lam hong ke o cua Thien Chua. Nhng ngi ta thay luon luon co mot nhom trung tn khong chu qu goi trc Baal, mot so sot cua Sion trung tn vi Giao c, e bao am tng lai. Tnh cach vng chac cua quyet nh cua Thien Chua c boc lo trong s ton tai lien lien tuc la lung cua dong doi avit, mang cac li ha ve Mesia. Va tac pham, di hnh thc cuoi cung cua no, ket thuc tren an hue c ban cho Yuiakin, nh tren bnh minh cua s cu chuoc.

 

Tr ve Muc Luc Kinh Thanh Cu c

 


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