Chu Giai Tan c Theo TOB

Theo ban dch cua Linh Muc An Sn V

 

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Tieu Dan Phuc Am Thanh Macco

c Kito Giang Vien Thien Chua

 

Th t va nhng e tai chnh yeu

Tin Mng th hai xuat hien la mot chuoi tch truyen, xet chung th van tat va khong co lien he that chnh xac vi nhau. Khung canh ro rang hn het la do may ch dan a ly cau tao thanh. Hoat ong Chua Giesu phat trien tai Galile (1,14) va chung quanh vung nay mai cho ti mien dan ngoai (7,24.31; 8,27). Roi Chua Giesu i qua x Pere va thanh Gierico (ch. 10), e tien len thanh Gierusalem (11,1).

Khuon kho ay khong noi cho ta biet noi dung sach nay sap xep lam sao, v cai cho phoi noi dung nay chnh la s quang dien may e tai cot yeu.

A. Tin Mng

Ngay t may ch au tien, sach a tuyen bo mnh lu tam ti "Tin Mng ve c Giesu Kito, la Con c Chua Cha" (1,1), roi chay kp lai goi la "Tin Mng ve c Chua Cha" (1,14), hoac noi trong la "Tin Mng" (1,15). oi vi Thanh Macco cung nh Thanh Phaolo, tieng Phuc Am ch Tin Mng danh cho het moi ngi, va chnh viec on nhan Tin Mng ay la cai xac nh niem tin Kito Giao: nh Chua Giesu, c Chua Cha a the hien cac li Ngai ha ban n cho ho (x. 1,1). V the, phai cong bo Tin Mng cho het moi ngi (13,10; 14,9). Trach vu nay xac nh tnh hien thi, la cai khien cho Thanh Macco khong s thch nghi mot so li Chua Giesu: bi khi Chua Giesu khong con di the nay na, th viec bo mnh va bo moi s v Chua, chnh la bo v Tin Mng (8,35c; 10,29). V tac ong c Chua Cha bay to qua i song va cuoc T Nan Phuc Sinh cua Chua Giesu, van con tiep dien the gian nay, nh li giang a trao pho cho cac mon o. Tin Mng con hn mot s iep t ni c Chua Cha va lien he ti Chua Giesu Kito, Tin Mng chnh la tac ong cua c Chua Cha gia loai ngi. o chnh la hien tai, ma Thanh Macco can c vao e quay ve d vang, hau noi len cai "bat au" (1,1), va nh anh sang nay e neu ac tnh cua i song kito hu.

B. c Giesu la ang Kito, la Con c Chua Cha

Cac li c Chua Cha phan ha a bat au the hien, nh li giang Thanh Gioan Tay Gia, la ngi m ng cho Chua Giesu Nadaret. (1,2-8). Con Chua Giesu, c Chua Cha tuyen bo la Con cua Ngai, roi chien thang Satan tren hoang a, va bat au rao giang Tin Mng tai Galile (1,14-15). T ay mot v kch bi hung khi s, o la viec bay to c Kito la Con c Chua Cha theo hai giai oan phan biet vi nhau.

1. Quyen nang cua giao huan va cac viec lam cua Chua Giesu chong vi nhng nang lc cua Ac Than, la ieu cong chung a rong rai nhn nhan (1,21-45; 3,7-10...). Nhng s kien Chua Giesu la Con c Chua Cha, o la ieu can gi b mat (1,25; 3,12). S chong oi cua cac ngi tuan gi Le Luat Moi Sen mot cach gat gao, bat au no tung (2-3,6) va i ti cho coi Chua Giesu la kh cu cua Qu Vng (3,22-30). Tuy nhien, cac mon o th phan biet ro rang vi quan chung (4,10.33-34). Va gia cac mon o ay, thay v cau hoi cua moi ngi: "vay Ngi la ai?" (4,41). Co nhieu cau tra li khac nhau (6,14-16; 8,27-28). Va mac dau cac ong khong hieu sau xa ve s mang Chua Giesu (6,52; 8,14-21), nhng cac mon o cung i ti cho nh mieng Thanh Phero, e nhn nhan Ngi la c Kito (8,29). Nhng Chua ra lenh cho cac ong phai im lang (8,30).

2. T o, khi s mot ky giao huan mi: Con Ngi can trai qua au kho, can chu chet, roi phuc sinh. Li giao huan ba lan nhac i nhac lai nay (8,31-33; 9,30-32; 10,32-34), dan oc gia i ti cho Chua Giesu cham tran vi oi phng Ngi tai Gierusalem (ch. 14 va 15), ieu b mat ve Chua Giesu khong con che ay na. Li Ngi tuyen bo trc toa Cong Ngh len an t cho Ngi (14,61-62) va li vien ai oi trng noi khi Ngi chu chet (15,39) eu noi tiep vi li c Chua Cha mac khai, khi Chua Giesu chu thanh tay va Bien Hnh (1,11; 9,7) va bien minh cho nhan e cuon sach: c Giesu la ang Kito, la Con c Chua Cha (1,1). Gia hai thi iem ay, s thieu de dat ham y khong hay cua ma qu (1,24.34; 3,11) cung nh niem tin vao ang Thu Han ni cac mon o (8, 29), Chua Giesu eu bat phai lang thinh: v y ngha cac li ay khong the xuat hien, trc khi Chua Giesu chu thng kho va chu chet.

Tch Thng Kho, chnh la tuyet nh sach nay. Khong nhng la tch ay c chuan b bang nhng cuoc xung ot tai Gierusalem, bang ba lan loan bao theo sau li Thanh Phero tuyen xng c tin, bang li ky nhan ngay t cau 3,6. Nhng tch ay con giai ap cho cau hoi at ra, ngay t hanh vi cong khai au het cua Chua Giesu theo Thanh Macco (1,27) va giup ta hieu v sao sach nay nhan manh ti ieu quen goi la b mat ve ang Thu Han (x. 1,34; 1,44; 8,30). Han la s nhan manh ay, trong thi ky Ngi song the gian nay, nh a nhn nhan Ngi sau khi Ngi Phuc Sinh vinh hien. Nhng v ieu b mat lien quan ti may tc hieu dien ta long tin kito hu (1,1; 3,11; 8,29), nen Thanh Macco hnh nh muon ch cho ta biet, may tc hieu ay cha hp thi va co the lam cho ngi ta cha nhn nhan s that cua chung, trong canh hen ha cua Chua chu ong anh thap gia.

C. Chua Giesu va cac mon o

Ngay luc "bat au" Tin Mng Thanh Macco, Chua Giesu khong xuat hien mot mnh, nhng cung vi cac mon o, la nhng ngi phai tiep tuc cong trnh a khi s. Ngay t khi Chua Giesu bat au hoat ong cong khai Galile, Thanh Macco at ngay viec keu goi bon ngi chai li theo Chua Giesu (1,16-20), ma khong xet coi s ay co the that ve phng dien thi gian va tam ly hay chang. Ve sau, Thay Ch Thanh luon luon co cac mon o i theo, ch tr khi Ngi sai cac ong i rao giang (6,7-30). Ngi ch le loi mot mnh, trong hoi Thng Kho, sau khi cac ong a bo tron i. Nhng trc khi ket thuc, sach nay lai hai lan loan bao la cac mon o se oan tu Galile chung quanh c Kito Phuc Sinh (14,28; 16,7). Chnh a v danh cho cac mon o trong suot ban tng thuat se giup ta phan biet nhieu phan khac nhau.

1. Trong giai oan au cua viec Chua Giesu to mnh ra, ba canh lam sang to s lien ket ngay cang chat che hn gia Chua va cac mon o: o la viec keu goi bon ong, e "bat ngi nh anh ca (1,16-20), viec chon nhom Mi Hai, e song vi Ngi va e Ngi sai i rao giang (3,13-19) sau het la chnh viec sai cac ong i giang Tin Mng (6,7-13). Ba tch nay co kem theo nhng cai nhn tong quat ve hoat ong cua Chua Giesu hay ve nhng phan ng do Ngi gay nen (1,14-15; 3,7-12; 6,14-16), dng nh ngi ke truyen cam thay can nh v tr trc khi tiep tuc.

Trong oan au (1,16-3,6), cac mon o cha hoat ong g ben canh Chua Giesu, nhng Ngi to mnh lien i ci cac ong, trc nhng li ch trch thai o cac ong oi vi may ieu luat do thai (2,13-28). oan th hai (3,7-6,6), th oi lap cac ong vi nhng ke thu cua Chua Giesu, cung nh vi ho hang phan xac cua Ngi (3,20-35) va phan biet cac ong vi quan chung, v cac ong c giao huan cach rieng biet (4,10-25.33-34) va c ac an chng kien may phep la dieu ky (4,35-5,43). Viec oan tuyet vi Nadaret chuan b cho oan th ba (6,7-8,30), trong o nhom Mi Hai c sai i rao giang, c xuat hien theo t cach la "s o" (6,30), c uy nhiem cho viec nuoi quan chung (6,34-44; 8,6). Tuy nhien, cac mon o on nhan nhng ieu mac khai vt qua kha nang mnh (6,45-52; 7,17-23). S cac ong khong hieu, trc ay a b khien trach nhan dp cac du ngon (4,13), nay lai cang tr nen day ac hn (6,52; 7,18; 8,14-21). Viec cha mot ngi mu vao cuoi oan nay (8,22-26), co gia tr neu gng mau oi vi cac ong (x. 8,22).

2. Sau khi Thanh Phero tuyen xng ang Thu Han, moi lan trong ba lan loan bao cuoc T Nan Phuc Sinh, cac mon o eu khong hieu va keo theo nhng li tuyen bo thanh thc ma gat gao ve so phan ca nhan (8,34-38) va cong oan (9,33-50; 10,35-45) cua nhng ngi phai vac thap gia mnh ma theo Chua Giesu. Tuy co lan dan chung hay nhng ngi khac vi mon o, xuat hien tren san khau, nhng Chua Giesu lai chnh yeu noi vi mon o hoac giai thch rieng cho cac ong cac ieu Ngi oi hoi (9,28-29; 10,10-16; 10,23-31). Luon luon i t Thay Ch Thanh ti mon o, va oi vi moi ong th i t t y ha mnh ti vinh quang a ha. Nhng trong khi Chua Giesu muon lien ket may ong vao vi so menh cua Ngi, th cac ong van khong hieu. oan nay lai ket thuc bang viec cha mot ngi mu, roi ngi ay i theo Chua Giesu (10,46-52).

Hai oan tiep theo (ch. 11-13 va 14-16) bay to Chua Giesu lien he vi am ong, vi cac oi phng Ngi, vi nhng tham phan Ngi. Nang gap thay nhng lan am ao quan trong vi cac mon o. Chua Giesu day cho cac ong hieu nang lc cua c tin va cua li cau nguyen (10,20-25), nhan nhu cac ong ve cach an khi Con Ngi quang lam (13,1-37), soi sang cho cac ong hieu y ngha cai chet cua Ngi trong khi i ch Nc Chua (14,22-25), bao trc cho hay cac ong se bo Ngi (14,26-31), bao cac ong coi chng cn cam do (14,37-40). Nhng viec cac ong bo tron tai vn Gietsemani va may lan Phero choi Thay, anh dau s that bai cua cac ong trong viec i theo Chua Giesu. Tuy nhien, nh the cha phai la het ca, v khi phuc sinh roi, Chua Giesu se i trc mon o sang x Galile (14,28; 16,7).

S nhan manh ti viec cac mon o cham tin, lien tuc khong hieu va vang mat trong gi thc s hoan thanh viec mac khai c Kito la Con c Chua Cha, chac chan la ap ng theo mot y nh a suy ngh trc. V a nhn nhan vai tro cac ong phai tiep noi Tin Mng, th khong the ngh o la chu tam trc tiep cong kch cac mon o tien khi cua Chua Giesu. V long tin vao Chua Giesu ch phat trien sau khi Ngi Phuc Sinh, nen Thanh Macco a co the coi i song cua Ngi khi con the gian nay, nh thi ky mac khai that s, nhng cach de dat ma thoi, v can gi b mat, va mot cach han che, v cac mon o khong hieu. S khong hieu nay lai lam noi bat len mot cach nghch thng, chnh huyen nhiem Chua Giesu, la ieu khong the nao nhan thc c, neu khong nh long tin vao Chua Phuc Sinh.

S khong hieu ay, lai co gia tr kieu mau cho long tin ni kito hu, v long tin nay luon luon de b cham tre nh long tin cac mon o, oi vi cac ieu c Chua Cha mac khai. Thanh Gia van la ieu vap pham. Muon that s cong bo va on nhan Tin Mng chan chnh, khong nhng can phai trung thanh vi cac li tuyen xng c tin, lai con phai song trung thc theo chan Chua Giesu na. Ch co mot cach t t va cam go tap song theo so phan mon o cua Chua Giesu mi co the giup ta dan dan hieu biet Huyen Nhiem cua Ngi.

 

Cach the Thanh Macco

Ngi ta thch ca tung Thanh Macco, v co tai ke truyen. Ng vng ngheo (tr khi noi nhng g cu the va ghi nhng phan ng do Chua Giesu gay nen), cau van ri rac, cac ong t lai chia ma khong lo cho cac th tng ng vi nhau: chnh nhng cai vung ve nay lai giup cho cau chuyen linh ong them va gan vi loai van noi. Tuy nhien, ben di chi tiet "song ong" thng thay xuat hien ng net qua s lc, chng to la tai lieu a tr nen tap truyen roi hay la a c nan uc theo cong dung cac cong oan. Khi ngi ke truyen lam cho canh tr song lai, th khong phai cung cap t bien ban ngay th cua mot quan sat vien trc tiep au. ang khac, s thieu han moi ch dan ve thi gian phan nao lien tiep, s dng dng vi tam ly cac nhan vat, hnh anh uc san ve am ong: bay nhieu yeu to khong cho phep ta oc Phuc Am nay nh mot cuon tieu s thng noi ve Chua Giesu. Nhng, mac dau khong ton cong lam van chng, nhng Thanh Macco rat co tai gi len bc chan dung linh ong cua mot con ngi nghch han vi cac hnh anh uc san, v neu bat len nhng phan ng khong ng, long cam thng hay tnh coc can, s ngac nhien hay li qua quyet. Tat ca tam hon con ngi ay trut vao mot cai nhn, nhng cai nhn nay co the chat cha thnh no hay nhan t (3,5.34), cat van hay lu y thiet tha (5,32; 11,11), tnh tham thiet (10,21), s uy nghiem m ve u buon hay thanh than (10,23.27). ng trc con ngi ay, moi thai o eu co the c, t kinh hoang cho ti ngac nhien, t nghi ng cho ti quyet nh giet i, va oi vi mon o, th i t quyen luyen khong ly luan cho ti s khong hieu va bo ri.

 

Nguon goc sach nay

Ngay vao khoang nam 150, o Papia, giam muc thanh Hiarapoli chng nhan Phuc Am th hai do Thanh Macco, la "thong ngon" cua Thanh Phero, viet. Co le sach nay a bien soan Roma, sau khi Thanh Phero qua i (t ngon chong Macxion the ky th 2 va Thanh Irene) hoac ang khi Thanh Phero con song (theo o. Clemen Alecxani). Con Thanh Macco, th ngi ta coi la chnh ong Gioan Macco, goc tai Gierusalem (Cv 12,12), ban ng vi Thanh Phaolo va Banabe (Cv 12,25; 13,5.13; 15,37-39; Co 4,10), roi vi Thanh Phero tai "Babylon" co le la Roma theo 1P 5,13.

Y kien chung chung cong nhan sach nay xuat phat Roma, sau cuoc bat b cua vua Nero vao nam 64. May ch la tinh hi lap hoa va nhieu kieu noi la tinh co the dung lam dau ch. t na la s cham lo giai thch cac phong tuc Do Thai (7,3-4; 14,12; 15,42), phien dch cac ch Aram, nhan manh ti anh hng Tin Mng oi vi dan ngoai (7, 27; 10,12; 11,17; 13,10) gia thiet la sach danh cho cac ngi khong phai Do Thai song ngoai x Paletin. Con s nhan manh ti viec vac thap gia mnh e theo chan Chua Giesu, ieu ay co the bao ham tnh ac biet hien thi, trong mot cong ong ang b vua Nero bat b. ang khac, trong Thanh Macco co loan bao viec pha huy en Th, ma khong am ch ro rang cach the xay ra cac bien co nam 70 (khac vi Mt 22,7 va Lc 21,20), nen khong co g ngan tr viec sap xep ngay thang bien soan Phuc Am th hai vao gia nam 65 va 70.

Moi tng quan sach nay vi giao huan cua Thanh Phero, th kho xac nh hn. Kieu noi o. Papia (thong ngon cua Thanh Phero), khong c ro rang. Nhng a v danh cho Thanh Phero trong sach la cai ung ho gia thuyet tap truyen Thanh Phero, manh me hn cac chi tiet mo ta bao ham dang ve chng t cua ngi mat thay tai nghe. Trong nhom Mi Hai, ch co ong Giacobe va Gioan la noi bat len, hnh nh co y bao am cho li chng cua Thanh Phero. Song khong v the ma phnh nnh ngai. Nhng neu ngai khong co luon luon ong vai tro tot ep, th o khong phai la dau ch muon cong kch ngai au.

V the, van e nguon tai lieu Thanh Macco a dung van con y nguyen. Cac phe bnh gia tng tng cac nguon ay theo nhng cach khac nhau. Viec so sanh vi Thanh Mattheu va Luca khien ho nhan manh ti tam quan trong cua Thanh Macco oi vi nguon goc hai Phuc Am kia, hay gia thiet la, ngay trc Thanh Macco, a co san mot tong hp au tien cua tap truyen ve Chua Giesu roi. Du theo gia thuyet nao, viec bien soan Phuc Am Thanh Macco cung cho ta oan biet mot giai oan trc cua tap truyen, trong o cac viec lam va li noi cua Chua Giesu a c lu truyen, ma cha thay trnh bay tong quat ve i song hay giao huan cua Ngi. Tch Thng Kho, han la phai xuat hien ban au nh mot chuoi truyen gom nhieu canh. Nhng gom gop s lc, nh "ngay song tai Caphnaum" (1,21-38) hay may cuoc tranh luan 2-3,6, a co the thanh hnh rat sm va co mat trong cac nguon tai lieu cua Thanh Macco.

Mot van e khac cha giai quyet: cuon sach nay ket thuc lam sao? Thng thng ngi ta cong nhan la phan ket hien thi 16,9-20, a them vao sau, e ieu chnh lai phan ket sach xem ra qua ot ngot c.8 (x.16,9). Nhng se khong bao gi ta biet c phan ket nguyen thuy sach nay b mat hay la Thanh Macco lai ngh rang li qui chieu c.7 vao tap truyen nhng cuoc hien tai Galile a u ket thuc ban tng thuat cua ngai.

 

Tam quan trong sach nay

Thanh Macco oi vi chung ta, van la mau au tien ta biet c ve loai van goi la Phuc Am hay Tin Mng. oi vi viec dung trong Giao Hoi, ngi ta thng thng lay Phuc Am cua Thanh Mattheu va Luca lam hn sach ay, v hai cuon nay, tuy la nhng tong hp en sau nay, nhng co noi dung rong rai hn nhieu. Nhng nghien cu van chng va lch s thuoc the ky 19 va 20 a phuc hoi gia tr cho Phuc Am th ba. Ngay nay ngi ta khc t, khong con muon xay dng mot cuon tieu s Chua Giesu can c nguyen vao nhng canh do Thanh Macco ghi lai. Tuy nhien, s tho s, thieu sa soan, s doi dao thanh ng semt, tnh n gian cua suy t than hoc, eu ch cho thay tnh trang co s cua nhng tai lieu ngai x dung. Cac nhan vat va ni cho co nhac en ten trong sach, eu la xuat phat t nhng tap truyen co knh. Cac li giao huan cua Chua Giesu, viec nhan manh ti s Nc Chua a gan, cac du ngon, cac cuoc tranh luan, cac lan tr qu, tat ca bay nhieu ch tm c v tr lch s phat sinh cua chung trong i song cua Chua Giesu tai Paletin. Nhng ky niem khong xuat phat trc tiep t mot tr nh ca nhan. Chung a thanh nh thc, trc tien la e ap ng nhu cau loan bao Tin Mng, giang day giao ly, c hanh phung t trong cac giao oan, nen chung an re sau vao chng t cua cac mon o tien khi.

Cong nghiep cua Thanh Macco la lam cho chung tr nen co nh, trong luc i song cac giao oan lan truyen ra ben ngoai x Paletin, va suy t than hoc c kch thch nh gap g cac nen van hoa ngoai lai, nen lieu mnh mat lien lac vi nhng nguon goc Tin Mng. Ngai a thanh cong trong viec gn gi cho song ong, khong the xoa nhoa, cai nhn vao mot i song ay bien ong, kho long hieu cho thau ao. Vay con ngi ay la ai? Trc cau hoi o, Thanh Macco ghi lai cau tra li cua cac tn o tien khi, cung la hang chng ta au tien. Nhng oi vi ai ch bang long nhac lai cau tra li ay ma thoi, th Thanh Macco lai m ra cau hoi o va nhac cho ta nh rang: c tin muon c ren luyen trung kien, th phai dan than theo got Chua Giesu la ang luon luon tac ong nh qua Tin Mng gia loai ngi chung ta.

 


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