Chu Giai Tan c Theo TOB

Theo ban dch cua Linh Muc An Sn V

 

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Tieu Dan Phuc Am Thanh Mattheu

c Kito Vua Ca Nc Tri

 

T Ngon va Ket Thuc

Thanh Mattheu khong co li ta nh Thanh Luca, nhng ngai neu y ngha cua tac pham mnh, trong t ngon m au cho tng thuat ve i song cong khai cua c Giesu (1-2) va trong phan ket thuc cho Phuc Am ngai (28,16-20), khi Chua Phuc Sinh hien hnh mot lan duy nhat: "Thay a c moi quyen tren tri di at. Vay cac con hay i, thau nap lay mon o khap muon dan, thanh tay ho nhan danh CHA va CON va THANH LINH, lo day bao ngi ta vang gi het moi ieu Thay a truyen day cac con. Con Thay, Thay vi cac con, het moi ngay ti khi tan the." Trong ban "tuyen ngon" cua Chua Phuc Sinh nay, co hai iem chnh yeu ta can nhan manh: o la quyen bnh cua c Kito va vai tro cua cac mon o.

1. Phuc Am Thanh Mattheu, cung nh ba Phuc Am kia, ke lai i song va giao huan cua Chua Giesu, nhng ngai neu ro giao ly ban au ve c Kito theo tng loi rieng cua ngai va mot cach ro ret hn. ang Emmanuen, tc "Thien Chua cung chung ta" (1,23) nh Thien Than a loan tin cho Thanh Giuse, se con hien dien theo t cach la "Thay Day va Giao S", nh Ngi a lam khi con tai the va tiep tuc lam nh qua cac mon o Ngi, vi uy quyen vien man Ngi lanh nhan bi c Chua Cha, ch khong phai do Satan (4,8-10), v c Chua Cha a trao pho moi s cho Ngi (11,27).

ung theo li Thanh Kinh, c Giesu a b ngi Do Thai khc t, va v the Tin Mng co the loan bao cho dan ngoai. o la ieu a chng minh van tat trong t ngon. V t ngon nay khong co y ke nhng bien co thi hai nhi cua Chua Giesu, cho bang can c vao nhng co truyen, e dien ta y ngha i song tran gian cua ang a t coi chet phuc sinh. Thanh Giuse a nhan danh toan the Iraen va dong ho vua a Vt on nhan Hai Nhi, tng thai bi phep Chua Thanh Than va sinh ra bi c Maria Trinh N. Roi may nha ao S ai dien cho dan ngoai c Tin Mng mi goi i lanh n cu o. Nhng sau o, ca thanh Gierusalem, cac thng te va vua Heroe a khong hay biet g, hoac t khc va bat b Ngi na. Thay v en th lay Ngi, vua Heroe lai con muon giet Ngi lam mot vi cac hai nhi tai Belem. Nhng Chua Giesu thoat khoi tay vua, va tron sang x Ai Cap, roi ve an c tai Galile la tng trng cho at dan ngoai. The la cuoc T Nan Phuc Sinh c tien bao trong lch s bi at nay, lch s cuoi cung se a ti viec cong bo Tin Mng cho chnh ngi dan ngoai.

Vay Chua Giesu hoan thanh lch s Iraen. Thanh Mattheu con dung cach khac e chng minh ieu ay: o la dan li Thanh Kinh. Thanh Mattheu trng rai rac nhieu li Thanh Kinh, v muon chng to rang: cach Chua Giesu an luon luon c sang to nh li Kinh Thanh: "The la ng nghiem li Chua dung ngon s noi rang" (1,22m). Vay cac ngi t bo Chua Giesu a hieu sai ve ban than Ngi: c Giesu qua that la ang Mexia ngi Do Thai hang trong i.

2. Chua Giesu ay a lay quyen sai nhom Mi Mot i loan bao Tin Mng va lieu cho khap muon dan nen mon o Ngi. Viec loan bao ay, trc tien la loan bao "Nc Tri", theo kieu noi ac biet cua Phuc Am th nhat va cung la hng theo tap truyen do thai ve Trieu ai nc Chua. V Thien Chua la Vua hang hien dien vi Dan Ngai. Vao nhng gi phut xac nh, Ngai lay uy quyen can thiep vao dong lch s. Cach noi ve Thien Chua nh vay han mot phan la do chnh the quan chu Iraen trai qua cac thi ai. Viec ngi Roma chiem ong cang khi manh them niem mong moi viec Thien Chua dung quyen toi cao e can thiep vao. Ngi Do Thai ng thi a noi: That ch co mot mnh Thien Chua la Vua chung toi. Nhng Chua Giesu gi kieu noi "Nc Tri", song Ngi khong hieu theo ngha giai phong chnh tr. Thanh Mattheu cang khong hieu theo ngha ay, v ngai ke lai cac li nay, sau khi Chua Giesu t nan, nen ngai khong the trong thc hien ieu c m nh the.

Trong Thanh Mattheu, kieu noi Nc Tri a thanh tieng chuyen mon, e ch viec Thien Chua nam quyen thong tr dan Ngai, lai co khi con dung nguyen ch Nc ma thoi, nh khi Chua Giesu loan bao "cac huyen nhiem ve Nc" (13,11). Ni khac, trong Thanh Luca va Gioan, thng hay giai thch lai kieu noi ay va co ngha la: s song muon i, thien ang. V the, trong Thanh Mattheu, kieu noi ay co hai ngha. Nen thng phai dch la "trieu ai, vng trieu", hay "trieu ai nc", nhng oi lan phai dch la "Nc, Vng quoc", o la khi co ong t ch ngha "vao trong" i trc (3,2). Nh vay kieu noi ay khong nham nguyen vao tng lai, nhng nham ca vao hien tai. Cac du ngon ve Vng Trieu neu len cac ac tnh cua Vng Trieu ay: khai mac bang c ch ngi gieo giong, Vng Trieu phai sinh hoa ket qua cho ti mua gat cuoi cung, mot cach huyen nhiem, va bat chap moi that bai trai qua. V vien anh canh chung nay, Trieu ai Nc Chua khong the la ong nhat vi Giao Hoi,  cho du tieng "Giao Hoi" (16,8; 18,18) ch cong oan cac mon o loan bao Trieu ai va san xuat cac dau ch Trieu ai ay. Cong oan nay song theo qui luat phuc vu lan nhau (18,12-14), va cung vi Thanh Phero nam gi cha khoa Nc Tri (16,9;18,19). Tuy biet la Trieu ai Nc Chua a khai mac roi, nhng Giao Hoi van con va luon mai cau nguyen: "Xin Cha lieu cho Trieu ai Nc Cha mau en!" (6,10).

 

Ket cau van chng

Thanh Mattheu a lam viec can c vao cac nguon tai lieu chung vi Thanh Macco hay Luca. Nhng trong khuon kho tng ong tong quat nay, ngai gii thieu mot ban tng thuat khac xa Thanh Macco, hoac xet theo so lng va tnh phong phu cac yeu to rieng cua ngai (v.d. 1-2; 5-7; 11,1-30; 24-30.36-52; 18,10-35; 28,9-20), hoac xet theo cach ngai t do x dung cac tai lieu ngai co chung vi Thanh Macco (v.d. so sanh Mt 4,1-11 vi Mc 1,12-13; Mt 8,23-27 vi Mc 4,35-41; Mt 9,9-13 vi Mc 2, 13-17; Mt 14,13-21 vi Mc 6, 32-44; Mt 16,13-20 vi Mc 8,27-30; Mt 21, 18-19 vi Mc 11, 12-24; Mt 21,33-46 vi Mc 12,1-12; Mt 24,1-36 vi Mc 13,1-37), hoac xet theo ngai co toan bo nhng yeu to, co le la lay trong mot tuyen tap cac li Chua Giesu, ma Thanh Luca han la cung li dung (v.d. 3,7-10; 7,7-11; 11,4-6; 12,43-45). rat kho xac nh cac nguon tai lieu ay a cau thanh nhng tuyen tap rong rai hn ti mc nao, nhng nh oi chieu vi Thanh Macco va Luca, ta co the xac nhan cach bien soan cua Thanh Mattheu.

1. Nhng tieng noi ch gi, tr ra 4,17 va 16,21, thng khong co gia tr g (x. 3,1). Cac ch dan ve a ly qua trong va khong the giup ta thiet lap hanh trnh chi tiet; nhng nh ay, oc gia thay mnh ng trc mot i song lch s, ch khong phai mot so canh gom lai ma thoi. Thanh Mattheu con a dung loi "ong khung", tc la lay cung mot tieng, e m au va ket thuc cho mot tch truyen hay mot cham ngon (6,19 va 6,21; 7, 16 va 7,20; 16,6 va 16,12). Ngai a dung kieu song song ong ngha hay la phan ngha, v du nh di hnh thc hai cau chuyen hoan (16,25). Ngai khong s nhac i nhac lai cung mot nh thc (8,12; 22,13; 25,30), dung cung mot kieu noi,  e ch cung mot thc tai (8,2 va9,18; 9,4 va 12,25) hoac cung mot li noi ni mieng nhieu nhan vat khac nhau (3,2; 4,17; 10,7). ac iem cac tch truyen cua ngai la van tat: tnh cach giai thoai cua Thanh Macco bien mat, nhng cho cho loi trnh bay giao ly gon gang va co khi con m ve oai nghiem (so sanh tch truyen cha ba gia Thanh Phero Mt 8,14-15 va Mc 1,29-31).

Thanh Mattheu rat a tap hp lai tng chuoi theo so em (nh so 7, 3, va 2, th ngai a ac biet) hoac dung may ch moc (nh 18,4-6). Macco va Luca ch sap cac tai lieu lai gan nhau, con Thanh Mattheu gop li noi va tch truyen (nh 8,5-13 sanh vi Lc 7,1-10 va 13,28-29), e tao nen mot y ngha sau sac hn. Ngai thch gom cac li giao huan tng t lai vi nhau: v du nh xem kinh "Lay Cha" vao mot toan the a ket cau ang hoang (6,7-15 trong 6,1-18). Ngai soan nhng "bai giang" e trnh bay cho thau ao hn (nh 10,17-42; 13,35-53; 25). Thanh Mattheu them vao chuoi phep la 8,1-17, hai chuoi phep la khac na (8,23-9,8 va 9,18-34); sau ba li tien bao ve so phan Con Ngi, ngai lai them nhng li quang dien giao huan cua Chua Giesu (nh 18,5-35; 19,1-20,16).

Sau het va nhat la ta nhan thay, cung trong pham vi ket cau van chng nay, co nam toan bo, v khong co tieng nao ung hn, nen ngi ta quen goi la "bai giang" cua Chua Giesu. o la nhng tap hp cac li Chua Giesu lam thanh nh gieng moi cua Phuc Am nay, va sau moi bai lai cham ket bang cau: "Khi c Giesu noi het bay nhieu ieu ay" (x. 7,28). Cac bai giang ay lan lt trnh bay "s cong chnh cua Trieu ai Nc Chua" (5-7), cac ngi rao giang Trieu ai Nc Chua (10), cac huyen nhiem cua Trieu ai Nc Chua (13), con dan cua Trieu ai Nc Chua (18), s tnh thc va trung thanh can phai co, trong khi ch Trieu ai Nc Chua xuat hien canh chung (24-25).

2. Can c vao cac ac tnh hien nhien ve van the nay, oc gia tm cach lam nhng tap hp rong rai hn. Nhng bay gi khong con phai la Thanh Mattheu oi hoi ieu ay, nhng chnh la oc gia e ngh. V the, an ban nay khong muon bat buoc Phuc Am phai chia ra nhng phan ln. Du vay, ay chung toi thiet tng la nen ghi lai ba mau phan chia, theo nh cac phe bnh gia quen e ngh ve "lc o" Phuc Am Thanh Mattheu.

a) Lc o gian n hn het la lc o theo a ly, tng t nh lc o ngi ta ngh la mnh gap thay ni Thanh Macco. S vu Chua Giesu tai x Galile (4,12-13,58), hoat ong cua Chua Giesu mien bien gii Galile, roi len ng i Gierusalem (14,1-20, 34), sau het Chua Giesu giao huan, chu thng kho, chu chet, roi phuc sinh tai Gieusalem (21,1-28,20). iem kho la do s kien: cha ai co the chng minh la Thanh Mattheu a co chu y than hoc nao, khi nhac en nhng ni chon khac nhau ay. V the, viec phan phoi theo a ly, chang qua ch la cai khung, e sap xep cac tai lieu vao.

b) Ngi khac soan lc o theo nam "bai giang", ma Thanh Mattheu a cham ket moi bai bang nh thc nhac en tren nay. Thc ra o la nam khoi lng gom gop phan cot yeu trong li giao huan cua Chua Giesu. Nhng co phai v vay ma ta c phep phan phoi cac tai lieu thanh tch truyen va bai giang luan phien nhau? S tng ng ngi ta chu trng la nhan thay trong o, ch co the chng minh de dang oi vi may chng 11-12 va 13. Nhng trong trng hp nay, phai chang ta co the goi ch. 11-12 la tch truyen, v hai chng nay gom mot chuoi bai giang van tat, kho xac nh la Chua a giang khi nao va au. Con may toan bo kia, th ta khong the neu moi tng quan chat che gia ch. 3-4 va 5-7, hay gia ch. 14-17 va 18. Nhng neu muon lien ket ch. 8-9 vi 10 hay 19-23 vi 24-25, th chnh la go ep ban van. Phuc Am Thanh Mattheu khong phai la cuon giao ly kem nhng v du e lam sang to them, nhng trnh bay mot i song lch s bao ham mot gia tr giao ly.

c) V the, ngi khac lai ngh la Thanh Mattheu a muon da tren gieng moi a o, e tng thuat v bi kch i song Chua Giesu. Neu lu tam en nhng ban "toat lc" (4,12-17; 12,15-21...), en nhng oan noi ket (12,15-21 va 3,13-17; 11,1-12, 50 va 8,1-9,34), en nhng ghi chu ve a ly noi bat ten (8,1-9, 34; 14,1-16,20; 20,29-28,20) hay b m i (11,1-12, 50; 16,21-20,28), en nhieu loai thnh gia khac nhau, nhat la dan chung (8,1-9,34), cac ke thu (11,1-25,46), th ta co the phan chia toan the thanh hai phan chnh.

Trong phan th nhat (3,1-13,58) Chua Giesu xuat hien, nhng dan Do Thai t choi, khong tin vao Ngi. V co Toan Nang trong viec lam cung nh li noi, (4,12-9,34) Ngi sai cac mon o i loan bao Tin Mng (9,35-10,42). Bay gi ngi ta phai la chon theo hay la chong lai Chua Giesu: cac thnh gia c keu mi phan biet nhng g xay ra, nhan dp cac phep la Chua a lam khi trc (11-12) hay li giao huan mi bang du ngon (13). Sau het Chua Giesu b dan Ngi t bo (13,53-58).

Trong phan th hai (14-38, Chua Giesu trai qua con ng dan Ngi i qua Thanh Gia e ti Phuc Sinh vinh hien. Tng thuat nay chia ra hai muc: trc het la tren can ban a ly (14,1-16, 20), roi tren can ban giao ly (16,21-20,34). Chua Giesu co dp ban bo cho cong oan Ngi mot giao huan ac biet. Muc sau, th xay ra tai Gierusalem, Chua Giesu khi s vao thanh Gierusalem cach trong the, roi chiem hu en Th (21,1-22); sau o Ngi cham tran vi cac ke thu: Ngi dung ba du ngon bay to y nh c Chua Cha (21,28-22,14), roi vinh thang may cuoc tranh luan va cam bay ging ra tm cach bat be Biet Phai (23). Sau o Ngi loan bao cuoc phan xet toan the the gian (24-25), roi Ngi e cho thien ha xet x va len an Ngi (26-27). Sau cung, c Chua Cha cho Ngi Phuc Sinh (28).

Nh the, Thanh Mattheu ke lai mot v kch. Chua Giesu a oi dan Do Thai phai lien ket tron ven vao Ban Than Ngi. Ngi loan bao viec nhan dan ngoai vao trong Nc Tri. S gap g nay, le ra phai lam cho dan Chua c nen hoan tat, nhng v ngi Iraen khc t, nen mi bien thanh phan re, xot xa. V the cong oan cac mon o, trung tn theo giao huan Chua Giesu phuc sinh, t ay la dan that cua Chua. Dan nay c thoat ly quyen lc nhng ke lam vn nho khi loan va phai sinh hoa ket qua nh c Chua Cha trong i (21,43).

 

Cong oan Thanh Mattheu

Do cach la chon va ca loi dan xep cac tai lieu, Tin Mng Thanh Mattheu bay to nhng moi lu tam cua moi trng, trong o Tin Mng xuat hien. Xin neu ba kha canh sau ay:

1. Thanh Mattheu la phuc am gia nhan manh hn het ti Le Luat, Thanh Kinh va cac phong tuc Do Thai. ay la ba v du: ngai chap nhan ba ky luat ln cua long ao do thai (tc la chia se cho ngi ngheo, cau nguyen, gi chay); Khac vi Thanh Macco (7,3-4), ngai khong cam thay can giai thch cac phong tuc nay. Sau het, Chua Giesu u tien giang cho dan Ngi (10,6; 15,24). Nhng e ieu chnh s nhan manh o, th Tin Mng lai neu bat len s hoan tat ma Le Luat can biet en va Thanh Kinh bay to ra ni chnh ban than Chua Giesu, va sau cung neu ro cac lam dung do cac tap truyen biet phai gay nen. Tat ca eu can giai thch lai triet e, nh ta nhan thay ni may cau "oi chat" trong bai giang tren nui ch. 5. Thanh Mattheu nhan manh ti viec chuyen Tin Mng sang dan ngoai: vay ieu ngai lu y, chnh la Tin Mng phai no tung ra theo kch thc toan the the gian nay; Con Ngi se keu goi het moi ngi eu chu phan xet (25,31-46), het moi dan thien ha eu c keu mi nhan lanh giao huan cua Chua Giesu (28,19).

2. Trong Thanh Mattheu, khac vi Thanh Macco, cac mon o khong phai la ngi an on va thieu kha nang hieu biet; cac ngai chiem a v oc nhat vo song trong che o mac khai. o la nhng ngon s, nhng ngi khon ngoan va thong giao trong Luat mi (13,52; x. 23,34). Nhng, khi lam lu m bo mat lch s cac ngai, Thanh Mattheu co y bien cac ngai thanh nhng kieu mau lau dai. V the cac ngai tng trng cho cach an net moi mon o ve sau, ca khi cac ngai xuat hien la ngi kem long tin cung vay (8,26; 14,31; 16,8; 17,20).

3. Sau het, chan dung c Kito chu anh hng cong oan Kito hu, ni Thanh Mattheu a song. Chung toi a neu len cach Chua Giesu hoan tat li Kinh Thanh, bien minh cho y nh cua c Chua Cha va lam nen tang cho khoa minh giao ao Chua Kito sau nay. ang khac, Thanh Mattheu co cach nhan manh rieng e trnh bay Chua Giesu la Thay day, la V Giao Huan tuyet luan (5,2.19; 7,29; 21,23; 22,16; 4,23; 9,35; v.v.). Trong Thanh Macco, danh t nay co ngha chung nh trong the gii co thi. Trong Thanh Luca, ngi ta thay Chua Giesu day cac mon o cau nguyen (Lc 11,1). Trong Thanh Gioan, giao huan Chua Giesu lien quan ti nhat la ban than Ngi (G 8,20.28). Con trong Thanh Mattheu, ieu chnh yeu, Thay Ch Thanh giang day, la s "cong chnh" mi, tc la s trung thanh mi oi vi Le Luat Thien Chua (5, 19-20; 7,29; 15,9; 28,20). Ngi la V Thong Ngon "canh chung", co san "uy quyen" toi cao cua c Chua Cha, e va giup thnh gia quyet nh bo cac "tap truyen nhan loai", ma hang thong giao la ngi gn gi (15,9) va giang day cho ho biet ve s hoan thien mi (5,48; 19,21).

Ngay t au Tin Mng, Chua Giesu a la ang Kito, Con chau vua avt, va la Con cua chnh c Chua Cha. Theo t cach la Con cua c Chua Cha va la ang Kito, Chua Giesu la "Thay Day", la V Thong Ngon co quyen quyet nh ve thanh y c Chua Cha. The mi hieu v sao mon o, het nh mot kito hu, a xng Ngi la "Chua", va Thanh Mattheu bo qua nhng net mo ta cn thnh no hay niem au yem thiet tha cua Chua Giesu trong Thanh Macco, v ni ay, Chua Giesu xuat hien trang nghiem te chnh mot cach vng ben hn trong Thanh Macco (so sanh Mt 13,35 vi Mc 6,3; Mt 15,33 vi Mc 8,4...).

 

oc gia, ngay thang bien soan, tac gia

oi vi cac giao phu co thi, s viec rat la n gian: Phuc Am th nhat do tong o Mattheu viet "cho cac tn hu goc Do Thai" (Origien). Nhieu ngi nay van con ngh nh vay, mac dau khoa phe bnh hien ai chu y hn ti s phien phc cua van e. Nhieu nhan to giup ta xac nh ni xuat phat Phuc Am th nhat. Hnh nh hien nhien la ban van hien thi phan anh cac tap truyen aram hay la hi ba: ng vng ung la theo kieu paletin (buoc, ci: 16,19, ach phai mang, Trieu ai Nc Tri...), nhng kieu noi Thanh Mattheu xet la nen giai thch cho oc gia mnh, nhng thoi tuc khac nhau (5,23; 12,5; 23,5.1523). ang khac, hnh nh cung khong phai la ban dch t nguyen ban aram, nhng lam chng la mot bien soan bang tieng hi lap. Tuy Phuc Am nay ac biet tham nhuan cac tap truyen Do Thai, nhng khong the qua quyet la xuat phat t Paletin. Thng thng ngi ta cho la a bien soan Syri, co the la tai Antieukia (Thanh Inhaxio qui chieu vao o, khoang au the ky th 2), hoac tai Pheniki, v co nhieu ngi Do Thai song trong cac mien nay. Sau het, ta co the thoang nhn thay cuoc tranh luan chong ao Do Thai Hoi ng chnh thong cua hang Biet Phai, theo ung nh thay xuat hien ni hoi ngh hoi ng tai Giamnia vao khoang nhng nam 80. Chieu theo nhng ieu kien ay, nhieu tac gia cho la Phuc Am th nhat a bien soan vao khoang nhng nam 80-90, co le sm hn t nhieu; ngi ta khong the nao at ti s hoan toan chac chan ve van e nay.

Con tac gia, th Phuc Am khong noi g ti. Tap truyen co nhat trong Giao Hoi (o. Papia, giam muc thanh Hiarapoli, na au the ky th 2), coi Phuc Am th nhat la cua tong o Mattheu-Levi. Nhieu Giao Phu (o. Origien, Thanh Gierom, Thanh Epiphan) cung theo chieu hng ay, va mot so tac gia a muon suy dien la ta co the gan cho Thanh tong o nay mot hnh thc au tien, bang tieng Aram hay la Hi Ba, cua Phuc Am Thanh Mattheu hien thi bang tieng Hi Lap. Nhng viec nghien cu Phuc Am khong kien chng cho may gia thuyet ay, ma cung khong lam cho chung hoan toan mat gia tr. V the, a khong biet chnh xac c ten tac gia, ta nen bang long vi may net ghi lai trong chnh Phuc Am: xem nghe nghiep, th biet chu nhan. Thong thao Thanh Kinh va cac tap truyen Do Thai, hieu biet, ton trong, nhng cat van gat gao cac thu lanh ton giao cua dan mnh, noi tieng la bac thay trong nghe thuat giao huan va lam cho thnh gia mnh "hieu" Chua Giesu, luon luon nhan manh vao cac hau qua thc hanh cua li mnh giao huan: bay nhieu net, co the ap lai kha ung vi chan dung mot ngi thong giao do thai a tr nen kito hu, mot "chu nha lay t trong kho mnh ra nhng cai mi va cai cu (13,52).

 

Tnh cach hien thi cua Phuc Am th nhat

Ngay t the ky th 2, Phuc Am thanh Mattheu a c coi la Phuc Am cua Giao Hoi, co le v nhng tap truyen sach ay ghi lai ve "Giao Hoi" (16,18 va 18,18), va ung hn, chnh v s phong phu va cach sap at kheo leo nhng tai lieu trong sach. Ngay nay, Phuc Am nay cung con co the la nh vay, mien la ta khong oi hoi nhng g sach ay khong muon va khong the cung cap cho ta. Khi cat van Giao Hoi, Thanh Mattheu khong lo nhac lai tng ch cac ngon t thi Chua Giesu, ngai co tai nen ong nhat vi tieng noi cua Giao Hoi ma chnh ngai la phat ngon vien, ti mc ngi ta that kho phan biet c tieng noi cua mot "chng nhan a tng mat thay tai nghe". V the, ta ng en vi Thanh Mattheu, trc tien e dien lai lch s cua thi qua kh, nhng phai biet oc trong o Phuc Am cua cong oan Thanh Mattheu. Cach tot hn het, e hieu Tin Mng nay, la lay thai o cua tn o, theo nh Thanh Mattheu dien ta. oc gia con phai tranh, ng lay lam kho chu v ac tnh semt cua van the ngai, v du nh tiec v ngai dan than vao nhng cau nang ne trch dan Thanh Kinh. Neu biet than trong nh the, th Phuc Am Thanh Mattheu noi rat hay oi vi ngi Kito hu hien thi.

Bi la Tin Mng ve viec Iraen nen hoan tat nh c Giesu, nen cung to ra Giao Hoi an re sau vao tap truyen nguyen thuy. Giao Hoi khong phai la mot "Iraen mi", nhng la "Iraen chan that"; Giao Hoi khong ke v Iraen, nhng ch ng cho Iraen cha an nan tr lai vi Chua Giesu, biet phai tien bc theo loi nao, e cho chnh mnh c nen hoan tat, va ngc lai, chnh Iraen o la ni Giao Hoi can phai kham pha ra chnh nguon goc cua mnh.

V khong ong hoa Giao Hoi vi Nc Tri, Thanh Mattheu nhac lai cho Giao Hoi hien thi nh chan dung chan chnh cua mnh. Han la can the che, cho cong oan cua Chua Giesu song sot c, nhng the che ch la tam thi ma thoi: chnh Nc Chua va ch co mot mnh Nc Chua, mi thong cho Giao Hoi y ngha cua mnh, nh at Giao Hoi vao ung v tr cua mnh oi vi c Chua Cha va Chua Giesu Kito, ang hoat ong trong lch s loai ngi.

Thanh Mattheu keu goi kito hu hien thi co thai o cac mon o thi Chua Giesu. Cung vi cac mon o, kito hu co the nhn nhan Chua mnh toan nang, va nghe Chua trach mnh thieu long tin cay, nhng cung co the lanh t ni Ngi s mang i rao giang Tin Mng cho ti tan cung the gii. The la hien thi hoa c moi tng quan gia tn o vi c Giesu la Chua Te ho tin.

Trong mot the gii ang bien oi, Chua Phuc Sinh to ra Ngi ang hien dien va mi goi cac tn o khong ngng tr lai vi cac li giao huan Ngi a ban bo khi con song i: c Kito Phuc Sinh la mot vi c Giesu ngi Nadaret, a nh qua Tin Mng ma nen hien dien: o la chnh trung tam cua chng t Thanh Mattheu.

 


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