Chu Giai Tan c Theo TOB

Theo ban dch cua Linh Muc An Sn V

 

Prepared for internet by Vietnamese Missionaries in Taiwan


 

Dan Vao Phuc Am Nhat Lam

 

Phuc Am, theo ngha danh t Hi Lap, trc tien co ngha la Tin Mng cu o (x. Mc 1,1), la li rao giang Tin Mng ay. o la ngha Thanh Phaolo hieu, khi ngai noi en Phuc Am ngai giang: tc la li ngai loan bao n cu o ni Ban Than c Giesu la ang Kito. Vay Phuc Am hay Tin Mng, au tien khong phai la mot cuon sach, mot tac pham van chng hay la lch s. S d goi la Phuc Am hay Tin Mng, bon cuon sach gan cho Thanh Mattheu, Macco, Luca va Gioan chnh v moi cuon nay eu cong bo Tin Mng ay, trong thien tng thuat cac li noi viec lam cua c Giesu, cung nh ke lai cuoc T Nan Phuc Sinh cua Ngi.

oc gia hien ai a tm s chnh xac. Ho luon luon tra cu nhng s kien phan minh, kiem chng ro rang. V the ho ngac nhien khi oc ban Phuc Am nay, thay li van ri rac, lc o thieu lien tuc vi nhau. Nhat la khi ho thay sach ay bao ham nhieu mau thuan xem ra khong the nao giai ap, lai khong the tra li cho moi van e ho at ra. Phan ng nh the that la may man, neu giup oc gia neu len nhng van e chan chnh va trc het la van e the van cua bon Tin Mng. Cac ngi bien soan Phuc Am, khong phai la nha van lam viec ni ban giay, theo cac tai lieu a kiem ke ay u, cung khong phai la nhng ngi viet lch s ve Chua Giesu Nadaret, t luc sinh ra cho ti luc qua i. Cach bien soan Phuc Am, th khac han. Chua Giesu a noi, a loan bao Tin Mng Nc Chua, a qui tu cac mon o, cha lanh cac benh nhan, hoan tat nhng hanh vi bao ham nhieu y ngha. Sau o Ngi a qua i va phuc sinh vinh hien. V tin vao Chua Phuc Sinh, nen cac mon o, roi cac v giang thuyet, a loan bao viec Ngi Phuc Sinh, nhac lai cac li Ngi a noi, ke lai cac viec Ngi a lam, tuy theo nhu cau i song cac Giao oan lien he. Trong khoang bon mi nam, nhng truyen khau a hnh thanh, a ghi lai va lu truyen, bang li rao giang, bang phung t, bang viec day giao ly, tat ca cac tai lieu, ma ngay nay ta gap thay trong sach Tin Mng. ang khac, co the la mot so trong cac tai lieu tren, trong tien trnh lch s ay, a c ghi lai thanh van. V du nh cac nh thc dung trong phung t, cac li tuyen xng c tin, nhng tap ghi chep cac li Chua Giesu a noi, hay ban ke s tch Thng Kho cua Ngi. Han la s Thng Kho Chua Giesu a sm lam thanh nhng tch truyen sap xep ro rang phan minh.

Vay cac nha bien soan Tin Mng a lam viec theo cac tai lieu co truyen ay. Trong i song ay bien ong cua cac Giao oan au tien, nhng tai lieu co truyen nay a thanh hnh nhieu cach khac nhau. V Tin Mng, trc khi co nh thanh ban van, a la li rao giang song ong. Chnh li giang nay nuoi dng c tin cho Kito hu, giao huan cho cac tn o, thch nghi theo nhng moi trng khac nhau, ap ng nhu cau cua cac Giao oan, linh ong hoa li kinh phung t, dien ta mot suy ngh ve Thanh Kinh, sa cha lai may iem sai lam, co khi con giai ap lai ly chng cua oi phng.

The la cac Phuc Am gia a thu thap va ghi chep, theo vien anh rieng moi ngi, nhng tai lieu cac ngai gap thay trong li truyen khau. Nhng khong phai cac ngai ch sao chep lai thoi. Chnh cac ngai cung biet mnh co nhiem vu phai loan bao Tin Mng cho nhng ke ng thi, phai giao huan va giai ap cac van e do cac Giao oan neu len. Sau nay ta se thay vien anh rieng cho moi phuc am gia. ay xin nhan manh ti s kien cot yeu. Nhng cong trnh nghien cu trong may the he gan ay, ve lch s cua tap truyen va cua s hnh thanh cac cuon Tin Mng, khien cho s kien ay thanh hien nhien, khong ai phi bac c. o la nhieu chi tiet ac biet trong sach Tin Mng, dien ta c tin va i song cac cong oan kito hu au tien. Sau ay la may oan van giup lam sang to ieu qua quyet ay. V du may ban van ke lai ba tiec ly cua Chua Giesu. Ta co bon ban dch khac nhau (Mt, Mc, Lc, 1C), nhng thc s chia lam hai mau: mot ben la Thanh Mattheu va Thanh Macco, mot ben la Thanh Luca va Thanh Phaolo. Nhng hai mau nay, khac nhau ve nhieu iem, ch la ghi lai may mo thc co truyen a tr nen co nh trong thoi quen phung t. Thanh Phaolo lu truyen ieu ngai a nhan lanh. Cac phuc am gia, khong thuat lai moi chi tiet trong ba tiec ly, nhng tap trung vao may c ch va li noi cua Thay Ch Thanh, nh Giao Hoi van quen nhac lai trong khi c hanh phep Sung An. Nh vay, kieu noi: chuc tung, do Thanh Mattheu va Macco dung, co le ghi lai thoi quen x Paletin (theo kinh Chuc Tung cua ngi Do Thai). Con Thanh Luca va Phaolo dung ch ta n (hi lap la eucharisteo), th gi nh moi trng hi lap. Nhng v du khac ve hai d ban ghi lai cung mot tap truyen nh kinh Lay Cha (Mt 6,9-15; Lc 11,2-4) hay cac Chan Phuc (Mt 5,3-12; Lc 6,20-26) giup ta va thay c ban chat cac tap truyen ghi lai, va biet t tng rieng cua tng phuc am gia.

Viec i qua truyen khau cung giai thch v sao nhieu tch truyen co ve nh la nhng oan van nho, tap trung vao mot li noi hay mot viec lam cua Chua Giesu, ma khong xac nh a xay ra khi nao hoac ni nao. Nguyen may kieu noi m au trong trong, a neu ro ieu ay roi: trong nhng ngay ay (Mt 3,1; Mc 8,1); Khi ay (Mt 11,25), sau o (Lc 10,1). Moi tch truyen nay ban au a ghi lai va lu truyen biet lap vi nhau. Con viec sap xep vao cho no cho kia thng la do cac phuc am gia. Trong viec dung cac tap truyen, co khi ngi ta con em nhng ky niem thng hay ke i ke lai ay ong khung vao may loi van co nh: v du nh may tch truyen ong khung cho mot li Chua Giesu a noi, may canh tranh luan, cha lanh hay la lam phep la. Nhieu khi ta co the de nhan ra may th tch truyen nay eu theo mot loi trnh bay rieng.

Vay phai coi nhng tap truyen ay lam sao, neu chung a c quen dung en the, trc khi tr nen co nh trong sach Tin Mng?  Phai danh cho chung ngan nao uy tn? Chung co lien lac the nao vi lch s Chua Giesu? Muon tra li may cau hoi ay, ta co the noi rang: cac tai lieu ay, chnh la bay nhieu chng tch ve niem tin vao Chua Giesu la ang Kito. V the, chung muon giup ta gap g chnh c Kito, nh s ta tin va nhn nhan Ngi. Vay Tin Mng la mot li rao giang va cac phuc am gia, ke ca Thanh Luca la ngi quan tam ve lch s, a muon trc tien la chng ta Tin Mng. Nhng ieu ay khong co ngha la cac ngai dng dng oi vi ac tnh lch s cua may s kien mnh ke lai. Nhng cac ngai chu tam ti viec lam cho noi bat y ngha cua s kien, hn la dien lai ung y nguyen tng ch cac li Chua Giesu (x. nhng hnh thc khac nhau cua cac Chan Phuc, cua Kinh Lay Cha, cua nh thc Sung An), hay cac hoan canh va chi tiet nhng viec Ngi lam. Chung dien lai mot tap truyen nay a la mot loi giai thch. Nh nghien cu t m cac ban van, ta mi thay c li nay li khac hay tch no tch kia la nhng iem chac chan dien lai lch s ve s vu Chua Giesu; cac s gia co san nhieu phng phap, e co dien lai cac iem nay.

ay co the xac nh ve hai iem:

- Chac chan la ta khong the nh qua tap truyen, ma kiem chng bang lch s, tat ca noi dung cac cuon Tin Mng. Nhng qua tap truyen, co nhieu dau hieu lam sang to them phan con lai trong cac ban van, giup ta biet c rang:  niem tin vao c Kito Phuc Sinh a bat nguon sau xa ni cuoc song va cac hanh vi tai the cua c Giesu Nadaret.

- Ta ch biet c cac li noi viec lam cua Chua Giesu nh qua cac "ban dch", do cac tap truyen co va bien soan cua phuc am gia. Viec phien dch t tieng Aram sang tieng Hy Lap la kha canh ro rang nhat trong viec lu truyen nay. V nh vay, ta co the dien lai nhng g Chua Giesu a noi bang tieng ban x cua Ngi, cung nh cac hoan canh chnh xac, khi Ngi giang day hoac cha benh nhan. Tuy nhien, nhng co gang nay, trong chi tiet, ch co the ung t nhieu ma thoi. Nhng gii han cua viec kiem chng lch s nay, xuat phat t chnh ban chat cua Tin Mng. Niem tin vao c Kito hang song lam sang to nhng ky niem ve c Giesu tai the, Khong the dien ta niem tin ay bang cach nao khac, neu khong phai bang mot chng t song ong. Ma chng t song ong lai von bao ham nhieu ac tnh, nh tng thuat tng cau tng khuc nhac i nhac lai nhieu lan, ieu chnh, do chnh chng nhan hay ngi ke truyen can thiep vao. Nhng chnh vai tro va quyen nang cua cac ban van nay la keu mi oc gia em long tin cay.

The la viec nghien cu phe bnh cac cuon Tin Mng, giup ta vt qua s oc Tin Mng mot cach ngay th va i sau vao chnh vien anh Tan c. Du co the i xa trong tien trnh tra cu nay, ta van phai at ra cau hoi: c Giesu la ai? oc gia nao muon oc Tin Mng theo vien anh nay, nhat la va oc va nghien cu va oi chieu cac ban van, at se khong thay mnh bap benh tr trui, ma con luon luon kham pha them c nhieu iem hn ieu mnh c tnh luc au. V moi cuon Tin Mng co nhieu yeu to giai ap va co loi hieu rieng ve cac s kien trong tap truyen, nen se giup oc gia kiem chng va lam cho them phong phu s mnh hieu biet ve Chua Giesu. V nh ay, ma co the luon luon i t c Giesu tai the ti niem tin cua cong oan Kito hu au tien t long xac tn cua cac chng nhan ti chnh ang la nguon phat sinh s xac tn nay.

 


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