Chu Giai Tan c Theo TOB

Theo ban dch cua Linh Muc An Sn V

 

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Ban Van Tan c

Hn 5,000 thu ban sao lai bang tieng Hi Lap

Ban van 27 cuon lam thanh bo Tan c, ta biet c nh rat nhieu thu ban, soan bang nhng ngon t rat khac nhau va hien nay con gi lai trong cac th vien tan mat khap hoan cau. Trong moi thu ban nay, khong co cuon nao la t tay tac gia; nen tat ca eu la nhng ban sao i sao lai cac thu ban ngay xa, a do chnh tac gia t mnh viet ra hay la oc cho th ky viet. Moi sach Tan c, khong tr cuon nao, eu viet bang tieng Hi Lap va hien co trong ngon ng nay hn 5,000 thu ban, ma nhng cuon co hn a viet tren ch cao, va nhng cuon khac viet tren da giay. Tren ch cao, th ta co nhng phan oi khi rat nho trong Tan c ma thoi.

 

Hai thu ban xa nhat va qu nhat: ban Vatican va ban Sinai

Nhng thu ban Hi Lap xa nhat gom phan ln hay toan bo Tan c la hai cuon Thanh Kinh viet tren da giay t the ky th t.

ang qu hn ca la Codex Vaticanus, goi nh the v gi tai Th Vien Vatican. Thu ban nay khong biet t au ma en, lam chng ve Tan c. Nhng rui la khong con nguyen ven, v thieu mat Th Hi Ba 9,14 - 13,25, Th th nhat va th hai gi ong Timotheu, Th gi ong Tito va ong Philemon, sach Khai Huyen. Thu ban th hai goi la Codex Sinaiticus, v a tm ra tai an Vien Thanh n Catarina tren nui Sinai, gom toan bo Tan c; lai con them ca Th Thanh Banabe va mot phan sach "Chu Chan" cua ong Hecmat, la hai cuon se khong con c gi lai trong qui ien dt khoat cua Tan c na. Ban Sinai, hien thi gi trong Bao Tang Vien British Museum Luon on. Hai thu ban nay viet theo loi ch ep, goi la ch hoa hay la ai t Thanh Kinh. o ch la hai ban thi danh nhat trong so chng 250 ban da giay, viet in het hay tng t t nhieu, t the ky th 3 ti the ky th 10 hay 11; ang khac phan ln trong so nay, nhat la nhng ban co hn, ch con gi mot phan, oi khi rat t trong ban van Tan c.

 

Cac thu ban co rat nhieu bien the d biet

Moi ban sao Tan c a lu truyen ti chung ta, khong giong nhau hoan toan, nhng trai lai ta co the phan biet nhieu iem khac nhau vi tam quan trong hn kem tuy nghi, nhng du sao cung rat nhieu. Mot so iem d biet ay ch lien quan ti nhng chi tiet ve ng phap, danh t va th t cac tieng, nhng co d biet lien quan ti y ngha tng oan na kia.

 

Ly do bien the: s sot, sa lai, to iem cho phung t

Ta de kham pha ra nguon goc cac d biet nay. V ban van Tan c trong nhieu the ky keo dai a c sao i chep lai do nhng th ky thong thao nhieu hay t, nhng du sao cung chang co ngi nao thoat khoi nhng s sot thuoc u moi pham vi thng lam cho mot ban sao, du can than the nao i na, cung khong bao gi in het nh ban chnh. Them vao o, mot t ngi th ky, co chu y rat tot lanh, oi khi a tm cach sa cha may oan trong ban chnh, ho cho la sai lam ang ke, hoac thieu chnh xac ve than hoc. Lam nh the, ho a em ban van nhng bien the cha tng co, ma gan nh luon luon la sai lam. Sau het, viec dung nhieu oan van Tan c trong phung t, nhieu khi a gay dp cho ban van de c to iem cho them van ve, hoac v oc quen mieng ma de lam cho cac ban van hoa hp vi nhau.

Co nhien la trai qua cac thi ai, nhng bien thien do cac th ky them vao o a chong chat len nhau, nen cuoi cung khi ban van lu truyen ti thi co may in, th a b nhieu th tam sao that ban, khien cho ta nhan thay rat nhieu bien the khac nhau.

 

Muc tieu khoa phe bnh ban van: lan len nguyen ban

Muc tieu ly tng cua khoa "phe bnh ban van" la can c vao cac tai lieu khac nhau nay, e tai lap mot ban van co nhieu may man toi a la gan vi nguyen ban. Du sao, cung khong at van e hi vong lan len ti chnh nguyen ban c.

 

Kiem ke cac thu ban hi lap va cac ban dch

Cong viec au tien cua khoa phe bnh ban van, la lu y ti moi hnh thc ban van hien thi. Noi the khac, la can kiem ke va phan loai moi but tch ghi lai tat ca hay mot phan ban van Tan c. ay, phai xet en khong nhng nguyen cac thu ban hi lap ma thoi, lai ca nhng ban dch Tan c sang cac ngon ng thong dung ni Kito hu may the ky au (cot yeu la tieng latinh, syriac, va copt). Trong mot so trng hp, cac ban van nay a dch theo nguyen ban hi lap co trc thu ban Vatican hoac Sinai. V the, chung lam chng cho mot tnh trang ban van co hn ban van ta co the at ti nh cac thu ban hi lap xa hn het. Tuy theo mc no giup ta co the tai lap ung nen tang hi van, cac ban dch co se ong vai tro quan trong trong cong trnh thiet lap ban van Tan c.

 

Kiem ke cac cau trch dan trong cac Giao Phu

Ngoai cac thu ban hi van va cac ban dch co thi, khoa phe bnh ban van con co li dung rat nhieu cau trch dan Tan c trong nhng tac pham cac Giao Phu au tien cua Giao Hoi. Cai li khong ai choi cai c cua nhng cau trch dan nay, nhat la v lam khi no giup lan len ti mot tnh trang ban van co trc ca tnh trang do cac ban dch co truyen lai (va do o cung giup i xa hn cac thu ban hi lap co nhat). ang khac, ta co the xac nh mot cach tng oi de dang ve ngay thang va ni cho phat sinh cac cau trch dan, va nh vay ta co mot phng the tien li, e co y niem ve ban van Tan c quen dung thi ky nao xac nh trong khu vc nao o cua Giao Hoi. Trai lai, cac cau trch dan nay co hai ieu bat li. Khong nhng la moi cau ch ghi lai mot khuc ban van, nhng rui cho ta nhat la v cac Giao Phu rat  thng dan theo tr nh, va khong chnh xac bao nhieu, thanh ra khong phai bao gi cung co the hoan toan tin cay vao nhng tai lieu thong tri do cac ngai truyen lai.

 

Phan loai cac ban hi lap va ban dch

Sau khi a kiem ke va phan tch xong xuoi khoi lng cac but tch do cac thu ban hi lap, cac ban dch co thi va cac cau trch dan cua Giao Phu, khoa phe bnh ban van co gang xep theo th t, hau co the li dung toi a, e lan len xa het sc hng ve nguyen ban.

Trong vien anh nay, viec lu tam khao sat a giup cac nha chuyen mon nhan nh rang: khoi lng cac thu ban chia thanh mot so t nhom ln ma thoi. The la ngi ta a co the thanh lap bon gia nh ln, trong o moi ai dien eu la nhng ban sao cung mot ban mau.

Sau cong viec cha hoan tat, nhng a tien hanh xong mot phan ang ke nay, hien nay khoa phe bnh ban van co the can c, khong phai tren mot khoi nhng chng ta le te ma thoi, nhng tren nhng nhom chng ta ai dien cho tng mau ban van, ma nguon goc co the xac nh ve ngay thang va ni cho mot cach bao am t nhieu.

Nhng mau ban van chnh do khoa phe bnh neu bat len, la cac mau sau ay:

 

Ban van Antieukia hoac Syri

Mot ban van goi la "Antieukia" hay "Syri", v thng xuat hien tai Antieukia vao khoang nam 300. Bang chng ban nay la toi a ai a so cac thu ban hi lap, nhat la cac ban mi hn, v ban ay rat mau tr nen ban thong dung nhat trong the gii byangtin va v the, cung goi la ban "byangtin" hoac "koine ekdosis" (an ban chung). No lam chng cho ac iem cham lo ve van hoa va sang sua, a ieu hoa vi nhau cac ban van song song t nhieu va tap hp cac bien the thuoc cung mot oan. Gia tr phe bnh cua no khong c bao nhieu. Du the, ngi ta a can c vao nhng bien the muon mang cua ban van nay, e thc hien cac ban in Tan c au tien, ma trong hn ba the ky a c ngi ta coi la ban thong dung (textus receptus).

 

Ban van Alecxandi

Mot ban van khac goi la Alecxandi. Chng ta chnh la ban Vatican va trnh o thua kem, la ban Sinai. Tre nhat la a co vao khoang nam 300 va may phat minh gan ay khien ta ngh rang, t na oi vi cac Phuc Am, th a co sm hn kha nhieu. Ngi ta thng goi no la ban "trung hoa", v hnh nh khong phai la ket qua do cong trnh duyet lai that co he thong va y hng. Tat ca hay gan nh tat ca cac nha chuyen mon eu cong nhan la, xet theo toan the, no co gia tr phe bnh rat cao, bat nguon t mot tap truyen thu ban ac biet trung thanh, hay t mot cong trnh phuc hng van ban co pham tnh cao, tc la ieu khong ang ngac nhien may trong gii Alecxandi. V the, t na cuoi the ky 19, cac ban in Tan c thch va co ly e theo mau ban van nay. Mac dau the, cung khong nen coi o la mot chng ta luon luon va khap moi ni eu vo ngo ca.

 

Ban van Tay Phng

Mot ban van khac na goi la "Tay Phng". Danh t nay co t the ky 18, va to ra khong ung, t na mot phan. V cac ban dch co Latinh Tan c va mot so thu ban Hi La, nh ban Bede (the ky th 4?) oi vi cac Phuc Am va sach Cong Vu, that co lam chng la mau ban van nay a pho bien rong rai ben Tay Phng cung co: bang chng la mot so ban dch ben ong, nhieu cau trch dan va nhieu khuc thu ban hi lap co thi. Trong nhieu trng hp, ban "Tay Phng", ma nguon goc va s nhat tr van con la nhng van e cha giai quyet nay, xuat hien nh la hnh thc Tan c co bang chng co hn het va pho bien hn het. Dau hieu rieng cua no la khuynh hng ro ret a giai thch, xac nh, dch quanh, ieu hoa, la nhng cai rat thng lam cho no ra xa nguyen ban, nhng cung co mot t trng hp, cac bien the xa cua no, nhat la khi van tat, ang cho ta lu tam.

 

Phac qua lch s ban van

Khong phai ch co the nhan ra may gia nh thu ban ln tren ma thoi. Con co nhng hnh thc trung gian gia may kieu mau ro ret hn va nhac en tren nay. Tuy nhien, khong can i vao cac chi tiet ay mi giup hieu c tat ca hng thu cua phng phap nay: co lap mau ban van va at v tr no vao thi gian va khong gian, nh cac d kien thi gi va a ly do cac ban dch, cac cau trch dan va, khi co dp, th ca khoa co t hoc cung cap cho. Nh the la oi vi tng bien the, tng cuon sach hay toan bo Tan c, co the phac qua t na la mot lch s ban van, giup nhan thay nhng hnh thc nao co bang chng co hn het va rong rai hn het, va do o nhng hnh thc nao, vi nhng ieu kien khac ngang nhau, co nhieu may man la gan tng ng vi nguyen ban hn.

 

Phe bnh noi dung ban van

Cong viec phe bnh, goi la "phe bnh hnh thc" nay, van cha u. V du nang gap thay, oi vi mot oan van, vao the ky th 2 hay th 3, co hai bien the pho cap t nhieu, ma kho biet nen chon cai nao. Bay gi phai nh en khoa "phe bnh noi dung".

Khoa nay cot yeu khong con xet nhng bien the nh la chng ta cho cac mau ban van Tan c khac nhau. Nhng trai lai, no bat au t nguyen tac coi noi dung tng bien the la mot no rieng biet, phat xuat t s can thiep trai mua, co y thc hay khong cua mot ngi th ky. oi tng khoa phe bnh noi dung trc tien la tai lap lai cho chnh xac, ngi th ky mang trach nhiem ve viec lam nay ra bien the ay, a can thiep cach nao, va v nhng ly do nao ma can thiep nh the. Xac nh c nh vay roi, th van e se tng oi de, tc la gi lai lam hnh thc au tien, bien the nao xuat hien la nguon phat sinh moi bien the sai lam. Tuy nhien phng phap nay khien cho phan oan chu quan cua nha phe bnh can thiep rong rai vao. Nha phe bnh phai ong thi khai thac s hieu biet ca nhan ve ban van, s thong thao ve cach x tr thng quen cua cac ngi th ky, cung nh ve cac lam loi ho thng pham vao hn ca. Tnh cach chu quan cua phng phap nay giai thch mot phan ln v sao, theo qui tac chung, ngi ta ch dung e bo tuc cho khoa phe bnh hnh thc ma thoi.

 

Thanh qua 150 nam phe bnh ban van

Du sao nhng ket qua do khoa phe bnh ban van Tan c thu lm c, t khoang 150 nam nay, that la ang ke. Hien nay co the coi la ban van Tan c a thiet lap han hoi roi. Ch co the at lai van e mot cach nghiem chnh, khi nao kham pha c them nhng tai lieu mi.

Nhng thanh qua nay a co the gay nen nhng tien bo rat ln, ma ta co the nhan ra gia cac ban in Tan c hien ai vi nhng ban in t nam 1520 ti khoang 1850, trc khi ap dung gat gao nhng qui tac cua khoa phe bnh ban van.

 

Hai ban in hien ai va khoa hoc hn het

Ban in hien thi pho bien hn het la ban in Nestle-Aland can c tren ba ban in noi tieng khoa hoc hien ai, a thc hien vao na cuoi the ky 19, do cac ong Tis-chendorf, Wescott vi Hort, va Weiss. Cuon Greek New Testament do Kinh Thanh Hoi xuat ban va do cac ong K. Aland, M. Black, B.M. Metzger va A. Wikgren thc hien, a co lam cho ban van c hoan thien hn.

 


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