Chu Giai Tan c Theo TOB

Theo ban dch cua Linh Muc An Sn V

 

Prepared for internet by Vietnamese Missionaries in Taiwan


 

Tieu Dan Th 1, 2 & 3 Thanh Gio-an

c Ki-to Nguon Song Tin Yeu

 

Hoan canh bien soan

Cac Th T. Gio-an t na hai Th au, trong thc te khong bao ham chi tiet ve hoan canh bien soan va ve ban than tac gia. Nhng xet chnh ban van th co the biet u chac chan ve tnh trang cac ngi nhan Th va nhng ly do thuc ay tac gia bien Th cho ho.

T giong but chien cua nhieu oan van, ta co the ket luan la cac cong oan c gi Th ang trai qua mot cn khung hoang. Viec tuyen truyen nhng giao thuyet khong the dung hoa vi mac khai Ki-to giao ang e doa lam mat s tinh tuyen cua c tin. Ai la nhng ngi a rao truyen giao thuyet ay? Ho c menh danh la phan ki-to (1G 2,18.22; 4,3; 2G 7), la ngon s gia mao (1G 4,1), la ngi doi tra (2,22), la ten du do (2G 7); ho thuoc ve the gian (1G 4,5) va e cho than ta thuyet hng dan mnh (4,6). Mi ay ho con thuoc cong oan (2,19; x. 2G 9); nhng bay gi ho tm cach me hoac cac tn o con muon song trung thanh (2,26; 3,7) em ti cho tn o mot giao thuyet khong phai cua c Ki-to (2G 10).

Ta thuyet ay tai ieu nao? V lam theo mot than b kieu ngo ao, ho t ac la biet Thien Chua (1G 2,4) xem thay Thien Chua (3,6; 3G 11), song hiep thong vi Ngai (1G 2,3), trong anh sang (2,9), mac dau giao thuyet va cach an net ro rang la mau thuan vi mac khai Ki-to giao. Nhat la ho theo lap trng ta thuyet trong van e Ki-to hoc: ho khong nhn nhan c Gie-su la ang Ki-to (2,22) va la Con Thien Chua (4,15; 2G 7); ho choi bo viec Nhap The (4,2; 2G 7) va "chia re" c Gie-su, v ho tach ri ni Ngi c Gie-su lch s vi Con Thien Chua va phu nhan Con Thien Chua a en thc s bang nc va mau (1G 4,3l 5,6). i song luan ly cua ho cung ang trach nh vay: theo mot khuynh hng ro rang ngo ao, ho t ac la mnh khong co toi (1,8.10) va khong lo gi cac lenh truyen (2,4) cach rieng la lenh truyen anh em phai thng nhau (2,9).

T lau ngi ta a tm cach hieu xem cac giao s doi tra nay cu the la ai. Theo li chng cua T. I-re-ne, th Tin Mng T. Gio-an nham vao ta thuyet Xe-rinh-to. Ta rat de hieu la cac Th cung nham vao giao huan cua ong. Thc vay, giao huan nay xem ra co nhieu iem hoa hp vi ly thuyet cua cac giao s b Th nay to cao. Van theo T. I-re-ne, ong Xe-rinh-to a day rang: luc sinh ra, c Gie-su ch la mot ngi nh bao nhieu ngi khac, khi thu tay, c Ki-to tren tri mi xuong ket hiep vi Ngi, nhng khi T nan, th lai rut lui (co le x. 1G 2,22; 5,6). Nhng nhieu iem giao ly khac c gan cho ong Xe-rin-to, khong con e lai dau vet nao ni cac Th T. Gio-an. Du xac nh lch s nay ung hay khong, th trao lu cac Th nham vao co le giong vi phong trao do-thai hoa "tien ngo ao", ma cac Th viet khi b tu cung nh cac Th Muc vu eu a lo chong lai va ve sau se a ti nhng he thong ln cua phai ngo ao the ky 2.

Nhng muc tieu tac gia khong muon tan cong cac ngi theo ta thuyet ay. Ngai trc tiep noi vi chnh ki-to hu kia. Ngai muon giup ho e phong cac chu trng cua phai ngo ao va chng minh rang chnh ho, la cac tn o, mi thc s hiep thong cung Thien Chua (1G 1,3). ay cung la ieu noi trong phan ket bc Th: "o may li toi viet cho anh em, e anh em a tin vao Danh Con Thien Chua, cung biet rang anh em co S Song muon i" (5,13). Lai v the ma tac gia nhac i nhac lai, nh la iep khuc, cau: "ay la dau cho ta nhan biet... (1G 2,3.5; 3,19.24; 4,2.6.13; x. 3,10; 2G 6.7.9; 3G 3.12). Ngai muon nh ay ch cho biet phai c dau nao e nhan ra tn o chan chnh. Cac tieu chuan ay la s trung thanh vi c tin ki-to giao c rao giang t au (v.d. 1G 2,22-24) va s tuan theo cac lenh truyen, nhat la lenh truyen anh em phai thng yeu nhau. (v.d. 2,3-6.9-11).

 

Tac gia

Han chac chan la ca ba Th eu do mot ngi viet. Hai Th au phan anh cung mot cn khung hoang, va ca Th th ba cung vay, tuy mot cach gian tiep. T tng, ng vng va li van trong ba Th qua giong nhau, nen kho co the gan cho nhieu tac gia khac nhau. ay la may nh thc ac sac hn: "co nhieu ten du do (hay ngon s gia mao) a hien ra the gian nay" (1G 4,1; 2G 7); "song theo (ngv: bc i trong) s that" (2G 4; 3G 3); "chan thanh yeu men" (2G 1; 3G 1; x. 1G 3,18); lenh truyen yeu men khong phai la "lenh truyen mi", nhng la menh lenh "chung ta von co t au" (1G 2,7; 2G 5); "co Cha va Con" (2G 9) hoac "co Cha na" (1G 2,23).

Nhng tac gia o la ai, th o lai at ra van e. Trai vi T. Phao-lo, khong ni nao tac gia neu ten mnh. 2G 1 va 3G 1, ngai t xng la "Ky lao": tc hieu nay khong ch ngi thu lanh theo pham trat cua cong oan, nhng theo thoi quen cac Giao oan ben ong (ong Pa-pi-a, T. I-re-ne), th ch mot ngi thuoc nhom cac mon o Chua hoac a quen biet vi cac v nay. Vay o la mot ngi co uy tn ln, theo t cach chng nhan ban au cua tap truyen cac tong o. ang khac, tac gia lai t gii thieu la a chng kien cuoc i c Gie-su (1G 1,1-3; 4,14). May ch dan nay ung ho y kien co truyen nhn nhan tac gia la T. Tong o Gio-an. V oi vi Th th nhat, cac chng t co eu ong thanh gan cho ngai. Nhng hai Th nho kia th khac, v chnh la do tc hieu "ky lao", nen the ky 3 va 4, co may ni coi tac gia la mot ong Gio-an "Trng lao" (ngha la: Ky lao) khac vi Gio-an Tong o. Nhng tap truyen tai E-phe-so ch biet co mot ong Gio-an la mon o Chua.

 

e tai van chng va giao ly

Thoat nhn, tng Cu c khong anh hng bao nhieu ti cac Th, v T. Gio-an ch dan minh nhien Cu c co mot lan (x. 1G 3,12). Tuy nhien khong thieu g t ng Thanh Kinh: "trung thanh cong chnh" (1G 1,9), "biet Thien Chua" (2,3-4.14, v.v.), "hi sinh en toi" (3,2; 4,10), "toi lam cho chet" (5,16), v.v. Nhng phai tm hien dien cua Cu c ni Th au, nhat la trong e tai trung tam Th nay quang dien, tc e tai hiep thong cung Thien Chua va "biet" Thien Chua: theo nhieu oan van, "biet Thien Chua" ay hnh nh ong nhat vi s biet Thien Chua ma ngon s Gie-se-mi trnh bay nh dau ch phan biet Giao c Mi (x. cac chu giai ve 1G 2, 3.13.20.27; 3,9; 5,20.21).

Nhng xet theo ng vng, th tac gia tng ong hieu hn het vi Do-thai giao tai Pa-le-tin, nhat la cac phong trao do but tch Qum-ran ai dien. May ch hay kieu noi nh "song theo (ngv: bc i trong) s that" (1G 1,6) "than chan ly" (4,6), "lam ieu bat chnh" (3,4), cung nh s nhan manh vao cai tng phan gia Thien Chua va the gian (4,4-6), gia anh sang va toi tam (1,6-7; 2,9-11), gia s that va doi tra (2,21-27), ta cung gap thay trong Qui luat Qum-ran. Thuyet nh nguyen ni T. Gio-an, khong phai la th nh nguyen sieu hnh va hoan vu, nh trong phai ngo ao, nhng la th nh nguyen luan ly va canh chung, v no trong noi tam con ngi, tuy yeu uoi va toi loi, nhng co kha nang an nan tr lai va do o ket hiep cung Thien Chua. Do tam quan trong ln danh cho s hieu biet, cac Th ng vao trao lu do thai giao khai huyen va khon ngoan, lu y ac biet ti s mac khai cac huyen nhiem. Nhng may nh thc mn trong Do-thai giao nay, tac gia van hang ch than giai thch lai theo ng hng Ki-to hoc.

Mot anh hng khac, noi bat hn, a nen sang to ac biet nh cac cong trnh nghien cu gan ay. o la tap truyen Ki-to giao s khai, cach rieng la tap truyen day giao ly ve phep Thanh tay. T. Gio-an nhan manh vao viec xin oc gia nh "cac ieu ho a nghe" (1G 1,3.5; 2,7.18.24; 3,11; 4,3; 2G 6), nhieu khi con nhac ro ti cai "t au" ngha la giao huan khai tam cho ki-to hu (1G 1,1; 2,7.13.14.24; 3,11; 2G 5.6). Ngai i trong ki-to hu xng thu toi mnh (1G 1,9), ngai keu goi ho tuyen xng niem tin vao c Gie-su la Con Thien Chua a mac xac pham (1G 2,2.3; 4,2.15; 2G 7): o la nhng e tai ve phep thanh tay. Tuy nhien, moi e tai do-thai hay ki-to giao nay, tac gia eu lay lai va hien thi hoa, e mo ta hien trang cac tn o, trong cuoc au tranh khien ho oi lap vi the gian.

 

Th au

Loai van cua Th nay that kho xac nh. V thieu li gi va li ket, lai khong nhac en ten ai, nen kho coi c la bc Th thng, du la Th gi cho mot cong oan a phng (nh phan nhieu cac Th T. Phao-lo). Tuy nhien, tac gia goi oc gia mnh la "cac con yeu dau cua cha i" (x. 2,1), ngai nang nhac ho nh niem tin chung va khuyen ho nam gi trung thanh; vay ngai co thi hanh quyen tong giao tren ho. Hnh nh a gi Th nay cho mot so Giao oan b cung mot ta thuyet e doa. Co le ay la cac Giao oan trong Tnh Tieu A, nh co truyen ghi lai. Ban van T. Gio-an gi cho ho la mot loai Th muc vu, co y nang va soi sang ho tren ng chien au v c tin.

Ve cau truc Th nay, th cac y kien chia re vi nhau. Van e cang phien phc hn, v trong Th rat t phu ng dung e noi. Nhng mot hien tng au y ngha giup ta co the phan biet trong o mot lc o. o la s kien tac gia nhieu lan nhac i nhac lai cung nhng e tai theo cung mot th t. T tng quang dien theo mot tien trnh tron oc, chung quanh mot e tai trung tam, la s chung ta hiep thong cung Thien Chua. Ta thay neu ro e tai nay ngay trong t ngon (1,3), roi lai dien ta tng ng trong cau ket thuc (5,13). Tac gia muon truyen thong cho ki-to hu mot niem xac tn: ho la tn o, th a co S Song muon i. Chong vi phng ta thuyet, ngai chng minh cho ho thay can nhng ieu kien nao e c nhan lanh, va co the theo nhng tieu chuan nao e nhan ra S Song ay. ca bc Th chang qua ch la bai mo ta cac tieu chuan va cac ieu kien cua i song ki-to hu chnh tong, bang mot chuoi bc hoa song song, ro ret la cang them tien trien.

T ngon: (1,1-4): neu e tai can ban.

I. Trnh bay ve cac tieu chuan hiep thong cung Thien Chua (1,5-2,28).

ay xet s hiep thong la d phan Anh Sang Thien Chua. Cac tieu chuan cho s hiep thong la:

1. Bc i trong Anh Sang, sau khi khoi toi (1,5-2,2).

2. Gi lenh truyen yeu men (2,3-11).

3. Niem tin cua tn o oi dien vi the gian va cac phan ki-to (2,12-28).

II. Trnh bay hai ve cac tieu chuan hiep thong cung Thien Chua (2,29-4,6).

Lan nay ta s hiep thong bang danh t lam con. Cac tieu chuan giup nhan ra con Thien Chua la:

1. Thc thi cong chnh va khong pham toi (2,29-3,10).

2. Thc thi bac ai theo gng Con Thien Chua (3,11-24).

3. Phan biet cac than nh tin vao c Gie-su Ki-to (4,1-6).

III. Trnh bay ba ve cac tieu chuan hiep thong cung Thien Chua (4,7-5,12).

Khong con nhac ti tieu chuan tieu cc la khc t toi loi. Hai tieu chuan tch cc la yeu men va tin, th tac gia lan len ti ngon nguon: tren nay mi xet tnh yeu theo kha canh luan ly (2,3-11) va ki-to hoc (3,11-24), th bay gi xet theo kha canh thuoc rieng ve Thien Chua (x. 4,7-9.16); trong hai oan tren, mi dien ta c tin xet la nep song Giao oan, tuyen xng c tin (x. 2,22-25; 3,23; 4,2-6), bay gi trnh bay c tin xet la thc tai than khoa, tin vao (Danh) Con Thien Chua (5,5.10; x. 5,13):

1. (Bo qua viec khc t toi loi).

2. Tnh yeu bat nguon t Thien Chua va an re sau vao c tin (4,7-21).

3. Niem tin vao Con Thien Chua la coi re long bac ai (5,1-12).

Li ket: (5,13-21)

Theo mot so nha phe bnh, neu phan tch Th, ta se nhan ra co nhieu tang van chng. Tham ch co ngi con tach mot ban van s khi bat nguon t thuyet ngo ao hay nhom Qum-ran, ra khoi nhng quang dien luan ly do tac gia them vao. Nhng li van khac nhau khong chng minh co nhieu nguon goc. ac tnh nang ve giao ly hn cua oan van nao o rat co the la do anh hng bai giao ly ve phep thanh tay. Va chnh s eu an cua cau truc la Th la mot dau ch benh vc cho s nhat tr van chng.

Tuy nhien co mot oan, xa kia a gay cuoc tranh luan thi danh, chac chan la khong chnh tong. o la khuc xen vao 5,6-8, quen goi la "cau T. Gio-an" (cac ch trong ngoac n): "V chng ta co ba (tren tri: Cha, ao Ngon va Thanh Linh va thay eu nhat tr ca ba; lai co ba chng ta di at) Thanh Linh vi nc va mau va thay eu nhat tr ca ba". Khuc nay ghi lai trong ban Pho thong St-to C-le-men nhng khong gap thay trong cac thu ban hi-lap trc the ky 15, trong cac dch van co va thu ban tot nhat cua ban Pho thong. Co le o ch la mot cau le chu, roi sau mi a vao chnh van trong qua trnh lu truyen van ban ay ben Tay.

 

Th hai

Khac vi 1G, 2G va 3G la hai ban van van tat co u moi ac tnh cua mot la Th chan chnh.

Th hai gi cho "Ba c chon va con cai Ba". o la tc hieu V Ky lao dung e goi mot trong cac Giao oan Tieu A, thuoc quyen ngai, nhng ta khong biet ro au. Niem tin cua ki-to hu trong cong oan ay lam nguy do hien dien cua may ngi quyen ru phu nhan viec Nhap The (c. 7) va khong trung thanh vi giao ly c Ki-to (c. 9). T. Gio-an muon e phong cac tn o cho khoi giao huan ay (c. 8.10-11): ho a biet S That (c. 1), th cung phai song theo (ngv: bc i trong) S That (c. 4), phai yeu thng nhau (c. 5), nh song trong Anh Sang cua menh lenh xuat phat t Cha va lu truyen trong Giao Hoi t au (c. 4-6). o la may e tai ta thay quang dien dai hn trong Th au.

 

Th ba

Th ba ve li van th giong Th hai cach la lung (so sanh 2G 1.4.12-13 vi 3G 1.3.13-15). Nhng lai co ac tnh ca biet hn nhieu. Th viet cho mot ngi ten la Gai-o, mng cho ong ay bc i trong S That (c. 3; x. 2G 4). Giong co hi but chien la v cn khung hoang a no ra gia cac tn o. V Ky lao trc ay a viet mot la Th cho cong oan. Nhng ong i-o-tre-phe, co le la thu lanh cong oan ay, khong nhn nhan quyen cua ngai (c. 9). Vay V Ky lao buoc long phai viet th lan nay cho ong Gai-o mot trong nhom ki-to hu con trung thanh. T Giao oan ni ngai c tru, V Ky lao ch huy mot nhom giang vien lu ong, phu trach viec lam cho ch dan biet Danh Thanh c Gie-su Ki-to (c. 7). Viec cap dng cho nhom ay moi ni eu do ki-to hu am nhiem, nh the, tn o chng to mnh cong tac vi cong trnh truyen ba S That (c. 8). Nhng ong i-o-tre-phe khong muon tiep nhan nhom ay, tham ch con uoi ra khoi Giao oan bat c ai giup cac v tha sai (c. 10). Muc ch Th nay la khuyen ong Gai-o tiep tuc nang cac v tha sai o.

Vay be ngoai, Th nay ch co tnh muc vu, khong am ch g cac be roi nh hai bc Th kia. Tuy nhien, viec ong i-o-tre-phe kch liet chong oi cong trnh tha sai do V Ky lao ch huy, viec t choi nghe V nay, tc la net ac trng cua than ta thuyet (1G 4,6), li V Ky lao qua quyet rang i-o-tre-phe a khong xem thay Thien Chua (3G 11) - am ch ieu be roi t ac la xem thay Chua (1G 3,6; x. 2,4) -, sau het niem vui V ay noi len, v thay ong Gai-o bc i trong S That (3G 3,4), tc la cach an c xem ra oi lap vi thai o nhng ten quyen ru (2G 4,7): tat ca bay nhieu s kien cho ta gia thiet la i-o-tre-phe phan nao lien luy cung ta thuyet.

 

Th t ba Th

Khong co dau ch nao chnh xac cho phep quyet chac la ba Th a viet ra theo th t nao. Co may tac gia cho la 1G a viet sau cung. Y kien nay co ve ung s that, v vao luc viet Th nay, a co mot nhom phan ki-to tac ri khoi cong oan (2,19), ieu ay hnh nh chng to la be roi a phat trien va cung co them; cach tac gia noi ve be roi xem ra ham y la moi nguy a thanh moi nguy chung. Vay sau khi viet rieng cho mot cong oan a phng 2G va 3G, bay gi tac gia buoc long phai nhac lai cung nhng e tai ay trong mot Th chung, lan nay gi cho cac Giao oan Tieu A thuoc quyen ngai.

 

Than hoc cua Th mot

ay khong co y phan tach ay u ve than hoc cua Th, nhng ch neu len ieu giao huan can ban trong Th ay: Chu y tac gia c dien ta ro rang trong li ket: o la may li toi viet cho anh em, e anh em a tin vao Danh Con Thien Chua, th cung biet rang anh em co S Song muon i" (5,13). Trong canh hoang mang do cac ta thuyet gay nen,  T. Gio-an muon cho Ki-to hu c xac tn rang: chnh ho, ch khong phai nhom ngon s gia doi kia, c co S Song Thien Chua. Trong nhng cau chot, niem xac tn nay no vang nh tieng keu chien thang cua c tin thang tran the gian!" "Chung ta biet rang ai t ni Thien Chua sinh ra, th se khong pham toi... Chung ta biet rang chung ta thuoc ve Thien Chua, con tat ca the gian eu do Ac than thong tr. Chung ta biet rang Con Thien Chua... a ban tr hieu cho ta, e chung ta biet ang Chan That. Va chung ta trong ang Chan That nay, tc trong Con cua Ngai la c Gie-su Ki-to" (5,18-20). Chong lai phai ngo ao kieu cang t ac, ki-to hu phai co gang phat trien va cung co ni mnh th "ngo ao", th "biet Chua" rat chan chnh nay, tc la niem xac tn cua c tin: "Ki-to hu hoan toan khong con gia toi tam, nhng trong Anh Sang va biet ro nh vay!" (J. Mu-ru).

e tai ln cua Th la s cac tn o hiep thong cung Thien Chua o la "thong hiep vi Cha va vi Con cua Ngai la c Gie-su Ki-to" (1,3), nhng bieu lo ra gia ki-to hu bang s thong hiep vi nhau (1.3.6). Trong T. Gio-an, khong gap thay ch thong hiep nay ni nao khac, nhng chnh thc tai ch nay mo ta, th thay noi len trong ca bc Th bang nhieu nh thc gan nh tng ng vi nhau, lam sang to tat ca nguon phong phu cua S Song Thien Chua nay. Tn o la ke "thuoc ve Thien Chua" (2,5; x. 5,20), "ke ay lai trong Thien Chua" hoac "trong Con va trong Cha" (2,6.24.27; 3,6), "ke ay lai trong Thien Chua va Thien Chua lai trong ke ay" (3,24; 4,15.16), "ke ay do Thien Chua sinh ra" (2,29; 3,9; 4,7; 5,1.4), ke ay la "con Thien Chua" (3,2.10; 5,2), "ke ay co Cha va Con" (2,23; 5,12.13; x. 2G 9), "ke ay co S Song" (5,12). Them vao o lai con kieu noi "biet Thien Chua" na (2,3.4.14; x. 3,1; 4,6.7.8). T. Gio-an nhan manh rat nhieu e neu ro s hiep thong nay ch co the at ti nh va trong viec moi gii cua c Gie-su, la Con Thien Chua, ma cac chng ta au tien a tai nghe mat ngam (1,1-3); s d ta "biet ang Chan That" chnh la v ta "trong Con cua Ngai la c Gie-su Ki-to", v chnh c Gie-su Ki-to", v chnh c Gie-su Ki-to" la ang Chan That, la Thien Chua va la S Song Muon i" (5,20).

V ho biet Thien Chua (4,6-7), nen ki-to hu chan chnh luon luon kham pha cach toan hao hn Thien Chua la ang the nao. T. Gio-an ch ba kha canh lam cho huyen nhiem Thien Chua nen hien hien vi tn o: Thien Chua la Anh Sang, Thien Chua la ang Cong Chnh, Thien Chua la Tnh Yeu.

Ngay t au Th, T. Gio-an cong bo cho ki-to hu s iep cao ca ma ngai se to ra cho ho thay tat ca y ngha doi dao: Thien Chua la Anh Sang (1,5). ay cung nh trong Do-thai giao, ch anh sang co ngha la mac khai, ch ay nhac lai e tai trong t ngon: ni c Gie-su Ki-to Thien Chua a mac khai cho ta S Song muon i, ngha la S Song cua Chua Cha va S Song con thao cua ao Ngon von qui ve Cha (2,2). T khi c Ki-to xuat hien, Anh Sang that cua Mac Khai chieu soi cho moi ngi (2,8). oi vi ho, t ay Anh Sang ay la s iep cua Tnh Yeu Thien Chua, nhng ong thi cung la li mi goi ho song trong Tnh Yeu. Moi ke muon lai trong Anh Sang cua Thien Chua nay, eu yeu thng cac anh em mnh (2,10) va song thong hiep vi nhau (1,7).

Mot u pham khac cua Thien Chua co nhac lai hai lan trong Th la: Thien Chua la ang Cong Chnh (1,9; 2,29), nhng cung hai lan ap dung tc hieu nay cho c Ki-to (2,1; 3,7), v Thien Chua mac khai cho the gian biet s Cong Chnh Ngai trong cong trnh cu o. Trong moi oan van tren, u pham cong chnh nay cua Thien Chua c oi chieu vi y niem toi loi: nh s Cong Chnh cua Ngai, Thien Chua cu ta khoi toi, nh ay to ra long Ngai thng yeu ta (x. 2,1-2 va 4,10). Nh mac khai n Cong Chnh cu o cua Thien Chua nay, tn o cam thay phan khi them e chnh mnh cung thc thi cong chnh na (2,29; 3,7), e co gang nen trong trang nh c Gie-su von trong trang vay (3,3).

Li th ba T. Gio-an xac nh ve Thien Chua la cau thi danh hn ca; li ay thc vao trung tam mac khai Tan c: Thien Chua la Tnh Yeu (4,8.16). oi vi T. Gio-an, Tnh Yeu va la hien than, va la thong hiep. Trong Thien Chua, Tnh Yeu ket hiep Cha va Con. Nhng Tnh Yeu cua Thien Chua nay t mac khai va thong ban: moi Tnh Yeu eu do Thien Chua (4,7). T. Gio-an coi toan the cong trnh cu o do Chua Con hoan tat la nh mac khai tuyet vi hn het ve Tnh Yeu Chua Cha (3,16; 4,9-10.16). Tat ca chung ta a biet s iep nay trong c tin, chung ta eu c n keu goi, theo t cach la ki-to thuoc, e cho Tnh Yeu Thien Chua nay nen hoan tat trong ta (2,5; 4,12.17.18), bang cach thng yeu cac anh em ta (4,20), nhng cung thng yeu ho v ban chat thc cua ho la con Thien Chua (5,2). Do mac khai nay, tat ca i song tn o eu la song "trong S That va trong Tnh Yeu" (2G 3). i song tin yeu nay la ieu kien trc tiep lam cho ta biet Thien Chua.

Nhng T. Gio-an khong quen rang cac giao s gian tra cung t ac la mnh "biet Thien Chua". V the ngai nhac i nhac lai nhieu li can dan, e neu len nhng tieu chuan cho i song ki-to hu chnh tong. Co the chia lam hai loai. Trc la cac tieu chuan thuoc pham vi luan ly: tranh pham toi (3,6); ng yeu chuong the gian (3,15); bc i trong Anh Sang (1,7); thc thi cong chnh (2,29; 3,10); tuan gi cac lenh truyen (2,3-5; 3,24; 5,2), nhat la lenh truyen anh em phai thng yeu nhau (2,9-11; 3,10.18-20; 4,13.20; 5,1). Sau la tieu chuan ve giao ly: lai trong li giao huan a nghe t au (2,24); lang nghe nhng ke trong Giao oan rao giang S That (4,6); tin va tuyen xng c Gie-su la ang Ki-to Con Thien Chua (2,23; 4,2; 5,1.10). Con viec ban Thanh Linh (3,24; 4,13), ung ra khong phai la tieu chuan, nhng la sc manh ben trong kch khi c tin va tnh huynh e.

Viec thong hiep chnh tong cung Thien Chua va anh em nay se sinh ra nhng hau qua nao? Tac ong li Thien Chua va sc manh c tin lam cho ki-to hu chien thang s toi va the gian (2,13.14; 4,4; 5,4-5); ai song cho vien man i song lam con Thien Chua, th noi c la khong the nao pham toi (3,6.9; 5,18). Ke ay hoan toan vang phuc Thanh y Thien Chua, nen loai tr moi ieu s hai ra khoi tam hon (4,18), va c han hoan gi niem tin con thao trc Ton Nhan V Tham Phan Toi Cao (2,28; 3,21; 4,17) va trong khi cau nguyen (5,14), nen chac chan c nham li (3,21-22; 5.14-15). V the, s cac tn o hiep thong, oi vi ho, se la nguon bnh an (2G 3) va lam phan khi trong ho niem vui ki-to hu (1G 1,3).

 

Ket luan

Cac Th T. Gio-an trnh bay mot tong hp ve i song ki-to hu chnh tong. Song hiep thong cung Thien Chua, nen the hien vien toan Giao c mi gia Thien Chua va Nhan loai, nh hang ngon s a loan bao cho thi ky cu o. Giao c nay la mi, trc het la v mac khai c Gie-su Ki-to a em lai cho ta - mac khai ve Tnh Yeu cua Cha - nhng cung v tac ong Thanh Linh lam cho Chan ly nay c noi tam hoa. Nh vay, niem tin va long yeu men tr nen luat mi cho cac mon o cua c Ki-to. Muon giup cho Mac Khai nay sinh hoa ket qua hoan toan hn na, T. Gio-an nhan manh ti s can phai co mot tap truyen luon luon qui chieu ve nguon goc; ngai cung nhan manh ti tam quan trong cua s phan biet cac than, ti s xc dau noi tam (chrisma), va kinh nghiem c tin cua cac tn o: o la bay nhieu iem giao ly sau nay ngi ta se nhac lai va quang dien dai hn trong cac mon than khoa linh ao, va huyen b ki-to giao.

Tuy cac Th nay bao ham giao huan ve s hiep thong cung Thien Chua, cung nh mot nen luan ly va mot than khoa huyen b, nhng cung e ngh vi ta mot giao ly ve canh chung. V ta khong the nao lai khong lu y ti tam quan trong cua vien anh canh chung ve ngay tan the trong Th nay. T. Gio-an noi: ay la gi chot. Chung ta la ki-to hu, th chung ta vao v tr oi lap vi the gian. Nhng chung ta biet la the gian nay qua i. V the, chung ta c keu mi at nen tang tat ca niem trong cay chung ta vao c Gie-su: khi Ngi hien ra, ta se xem thay Ngi nh Ngi hien co.

Tnh thi s cua s iep nay oi vi thi ai chung ta va bat c thi ai nao, o la ieu qua hien nhien. Ngay nay, cung nh trong cac thi ai khac, c tin lam cn khung hoang, ki-to hu muon biet chan ly c tin nam au. Ho i tm nhng tieu chuan giup nhan ra Thanh Linh Thien Chua. oi vi nhng tn o a biet Chan ly ay, T. Gio-an ch xin ho kien tam ben ch trong giao ly cua c Gie-su Ki-to va lay chnh cuoc i yeu men cua ho e lam chng ho tin vao Con Thien Chua.

 


Back to Home Page