Chu Giai Tan c Theo TOB

Theo ban dch cua Linh Muc An Sn V

 

Prepared for internet by Vietnamese Missionaries in Taiwan


 

Tieu Dan Th 2 Thanh Phe-ro

c Ki-to ang Ban Thien Tnh

 

Loai van

Sau li chao thng quen (1,1-2), tac gia nhac lai ac tnh cua n keu goi ki-to hu (1,3-11). Song hiep thong vi Ban tnh Thien Chua, ki-to hu c keu goi nen thanh. V the ho phai trung tn vi li cac Tong o va ngon s (1,12-21). V li giang Ki-to giao khong can c tren nhng bien ngon hoang ng (1,16), nhng tren li chng cac tong o va tren li s ngon do Thanh Linh cam hng (1,21).

Roi tac gia kch liet tan cong mot cach het sc linh ong cac giao s gia, to cao ho bang hoai ca ve giao ly ca ve luan ly (2,1-22). Ho khong the nao thoat ly hnh phat, nh cac thien than pham toi ngay xa va cac dan thanh So-o-ma va Go-mo-ra (2,6).

Sau t tan cong dai o, lai tiep phan quang dien khi mao ch. 1 vi van e Chua cham tre Quang lam (3,3-13): Chua nhn nhuc ch, nhng Ngay cua Ngi se en (3,9).

Th ket thuc bang li keu goi tnh thc (3,14-18).

Ban van nay giong vi mot "Chuc th" hn la mot bc th thng. Chuc th la loi nang gap trong cac tap truyen do-thai i ay. Mot bai giang t biet do nhan vat nao thi danh noi trc khi qua i, giup ong quang dien mot so iem giao ly can nhac lai cho cong oan.

Bc th dang ve ac biet nay co ang chiem a v trong Tan c chang? oc gia kim thi lo oi thoai khi ng trc nhng li lang ma va s va (chng hai), co the t at cau hoi o.

 

Than hoc

Nhng bc Th em lai nhng xac nh mi oi vi viec giai thch va cam hng Thanh Kinh, cung nh s hnh thanh qui ien. Cac li s ngon Cu c va li chng tong o eu c sap tren cung mot bnh dien la lam can c cho mot niem tin vng chac (1,19; 3,2). Khong ni nao trong Tan c qua quyet ro rang hn ve tnh linh hng cua Thanh Kinh "Khong li s ngon nao trong Kinh Thanh nen giai thch theo y rieng mnh. V khong bao gi mot li s ngon lai do y ngi pham a noi, nhng chnh v c n thuc ay cua Thanh Linh, nen mi co so ngi a noi nhan danh Thien Chua" (1,20-21).

Trong Th ta lai thay lan au tien nhac en mot tuyen tap cac Th T. Phao-lo (3,15-16), mac dau khong tat nhien bao ham toan bo cac van th cua T. Tong o, nhng cung c coi la thanh phan lam tron Thanh Kinh.

Sau het Th nay con mot hng thu khac la cng quyet at van e Chua cham tre Quang lam: "Li Ngi ha Quang lam au roi? T ngay cac To phu a tng khuat nui, th moi s van con y nguyen nh mi tao thanh" (3,4)? Tac gia kch liet to cao s thieu niem tin o va co gang tra li: cn hong thuy xa la hnh bong viec phan xet cuoi cung, ma tac gia dung cac pham tru thi ay e dien ta (3,6). The gii cu, la se thieu huy i, hau nhng cho cho "tri mi at mi la ni c ngu cho n cong chnh" (3,10-15). Va nhat la oi vi Chua, khong co y niem thi gian: oi vi Chua, "mot ngay nh the ngan nam va ngan nam nh the mot ngay" (3,8). Noi la Ngi cham tre, nhng ch la s Ngi yeu thng va nhn nhuc ch. Ngi muon cho ai nay co thi gi an nan tr lai. V the, ngay t bay gi, moi ngi phai lo song thanh thien. Nh giao huan canh chung nay, tac gia nhac lai mot chieu kch quan trong trong i song ki-to hu.

 

Cac oi phng

Tac gia to cao nhng quan "vo ao" len vao trong Giao Hoi (2,1). Ho la ai? a tr lai c tin Ki-to giao, nhng ho a choi bo roi va gi ay ho lieu mnh lam hai Cong oan na, v ha cho s t do gia doi (2,19). Be roi ho chu trng, va co tnh than hoc, v ho choi bo Chua a cu chuoc mnh va khinh de cac thien than 2,10-11), va co tnh luan ly, v ho song buong tuong va pham toi khong bao gi chan (2,14).

Muon xac nh ho la ai, ngi ta a noi en phai "ngo ao". T ac la mnh hieu biet cao hn va t do hoan toan, khinh re xac tht, nhng ho van song buong tuong, phong tung. o la ly do giai thch kha canh va luan ly va than hoc cua cac ieu ho sai lam. Cung v the ma tac gia nhan manh ti s "hieu biet" Ki-to giao oi lap vi s thong minh gia cac ngi roi ao (1,2.3.5.8.12.16; 2,20.21; 3,17-18).

Con viec ho khinh de cac bac "Vinh quang" (2,10), th kho biet ro la am ch cai g. Phai chang, theo tac gia nhan xet, toi chung pham la goi ten cac thien than? V trong Do-thai giao, va cach rieng la ni phai E-xe-nien, ta thay cam lam nh the, v ton knh cac thien than va s dung ten cac ngai theo muc tieu ma thuat. Hay trai lai, chung coi cac ngai thc s khong co hay la khong troi vt chi? Va nh the la ho vt qua t tng T. Phao-lo ch nhan manh la cac thien than thua kem c Ki-to (Ep 1,21; Co 2,15). That la kho xac nh, v trong chuoi dai cac li lang ma (chng hai) tac gia dung nhng kieu noi thng quen va mo ta mot bc chan dung chp nhoang ve ten vo ao.

 

Cac ngi nhan Th

Cac ngi nhan Th quen vi Thanh Kinh va cac tap truyen khai huyen do-thai, ma tac gia am ch nhieu lan, nhng khong bao gi trch dan minh nhien (tr 1,17). o la cac thien than pham toi (2,4) hong thuy (2,5), thanh So-o-ma va Go-mo-ra (2,6-7); ong Ba-la-am con ong Bo-so (2,15) va cac tap truyen ve the gii bat nguon t nc va b la huy i.

Th nay, nhat la 2,1-3,3, co lien he hien nhien va chat che vi Th T. Giu-e (G). Ta gap lai trong o nhng quan niem rat giong nhau, thng dien ta bang danh t in nhau t dung trong toan bo Tan c. Hnh nh ca hai Th eu theo mot dong hng dan. V du nh but chien chong lai cac giao s gia ma ca hai Th eu goi la "bon ngi chuyen dieu ct hoai nghi" (2P 3,3; G 18), ba hoa nhng li lo lang trong rong (2P 2,18; G 16), che chen say sa tr tren (2P 2,13; G 12), v toi cua chung nh toi cua thien than sa oa, cua thanh So-o-ma va Go-mo-ra, cua ong Ba-la-am.

Tr khi hai Th 2P va G cung cam ng mot cach biet lap theo mot ban van co hn, co ve chac la Th 2P tuy thuoc vao Th G. Ni nhieu oan, ban van 2P xem ra tuy tong. Xet chung tac gia lam sang sua hn nhng oan song song Th G, bo qua may yeu to ky d oi vi oc gia t quen cac tap truyen nguy th, nh cuoc chien au tong lanh thien than Mi-ca-e (G 9), cac thien than oi bai (G 6), li dan sach He-noc (G 14). Phai chang 2P de dat oi vi cac nguy th? That kho xac nh.

ang khac 2P neu van nan Chua cham tre Quang lam, trong khi G khong at van e.

Cac d biet tren ay to ra mot moi trng an re chac vao cac tap truyen do-thai, tre hn moi trng Th G; lai ci m hn vi van hoa hi-lap. Bang chng la ngoai nhng bo qua a neu tren nay, con co li van thanh nha, tham ch khong loai tr chut ve cau ky trong viec lam dung cac danh t kep t dung, ngi ta a em c 56 ch ch dung trong mot mnh Th nay ma thoi. o la t le cao nhat trong Tan c. Phai chang Th nay la mot co gang muc vu e dung hoa cac khuynh hng a phng to hien trong Th G vi nhng trao lu ci m hn nh thay dien ta trong cac Th T. Phao-lo? Phai chang la muon tong hp cac khuynh hng khac nhau trong long Hoi Thanh s khai?

ang khac, v Th nay c Giao oan A-lec-xan-i cong nhan va b Giao oan Sy-ri chong oi, nen co le la xuat phat t moi trng ki-to hu goc do-thai tan c gia ngi hi-lap.

 

Tac gia

Tac gia t ong nhat vi ong Sy-me-on Phe-ro Tong o (1,1). Th th nhat c nhac en 3,1, nen t nhien ngi ta hieu o la Th 1 T. Phe-ro. ang khac, tac gia nhac lai mnh co mat khi Chua bien hnh (1,16); sau khi ngai loan bao mnh sap qua i (1,14).

S ong nhat hoa luon luon b ngi ta chong oi ay, gay nhieu thac mac. Mot ang khong nen hieu sat qua may ch dan ve tieu s tac gia dung e t ong nhat vi T. Tong o. o la nhng chi tiet thuoc loai van "Chuc th".

ang khac, trong hai Th co nhieu d biet ve li van: 599 ch khac nhau oi vi 100 ch chung nhau. Van e lien quan ti canh chung khong phai cung la mot. S khac nhau nay gia thiet la co mot khoang cach thi gian kha dai gia hai Th.

Tac gia xem ra khong thuoc ve the he ki-to hu au tien a qua i roi (3,4). Th nay co sau Th Giu-e, thng c coi la bien soan vao nhng thap nien cuoi the ky 1. Sau het va nhat la, nh chung ta a thay, Th ro rang nhac en qui ien Thanh Kinh: co mot tuyen tap cac Th T. Phao-lo, du cha ay u, nhng c ke vao bo "Thanh Kinh" cung nh cac van th tong o va ngon s khac.

ang khac, v khong the lui qua xa viec soan bc Th tham nhuan rat sau cac tap truyen ki-to hu goc do-thai nh vay, nen ta co the e ngh thi ky bien soan vao khoang nam 125, do o Th khong the bat nguon trc tiep t T. Phe-ro.

Tuy nhien, phai chang co the noi ti mot "trng phai T. Phe-ro", trong o, chieu theo giao huan cua T. Tong o, ngi ta a bien soan Th nay di hnh thc mot chuc th linh thieng, e nhac nh la can phai gi gn c tin? Ve iem nay, xin nhac lai la, theo mot tap truyen cua tac gia Eu-se-b (Lch s Giao Hoi II,16,1), T. Mac-co mot thi a la cong tac vien cua T. Phe-ro (x. 1P 5,13), th ve sau a loan bao Tin Mng tai A-lec-xan-i, la moi trng cong nhan Th nay trc het.

 

Tnh qui ien

Cung vi sach Khai huyen, Th nay la cuon trong Tan c a gap nhieu kho khan hn het trc khi c cong nhan vao qui ien. V chnh nh Giao oan A-lec-xan-i ma Th nay a t t thau vao toan the cac Giao oan. Khong co mat trong qui ien Mu-ra-to-ri (t lau trc nam 200), lan au tien Th nay c ong O-ri-gien (sinh nam 185/6, qua i nam 254) trch dan ma noi la Th b chong oi. Ong Eu-se-b (qua i nam 340) con xep Th nay vao so ban van ang tranh luan. Mai ti the ky 5 Th mi c a so Giao oan cong nhan, the ky 6 c cong nhan Sy-ri. Tuy nhien, vao khoang nam 200 a gap thay Th nay trong mot ban dch Tan c bang tieng Ai-cap va khoang cuoi the ky 3 trong ban ch cao so 72.

 


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