Chu Giai Tan c Theo TOB

Theo ban dch cua Linh Muc An Sn V

 

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Tieu Dan Th 1 Thanh Phe-ro

c Ki-to Mau Gng au Kho

 

Th 1 Phe-ro khong lam cho cac nha than hoc lu y bao nhieu v khong bao ham quang dien sau xa ve giao ly va khong em lai giao huan nao ac sac oi vi toan bo Tan c. Ngi ta a ghi nh Th nay nhat la oan van ve chc "t te vng ton" va oan van nhac en viec c Ki-to rao giang cho Am phu. oi vi phan con lai, ta de chng minh Th nay co ho hang vi cac Tin Mng Nhat lam, vi cac bai giang trong Cong vu Tong o, vi cac li khuyen luan ly cua T. Phao-lo. Tuy nhien, s ong qui gia Th nay vi cac ban van rat khac nhau ve hnh thc o, ha lai khong co g e noi vi ta ve viec day giao ly trong thi ai cac Tong o va ve phan cot yeu trong i song ki-to hu ay ? Nhieu nha chu giai hien thi xac tn ve ieu ay. V the viec nghien cu Th nay a lai gay hng thu gia cac nha chuyen mon t nhieu nam nay.

 

Cac ngi nhan Th

Th bao ham t ch dan giup ta nhan nh chnh xac ai la ngi nhan Th. Th gi cho ki-to hu trong nam tnh thuoc e quoc Ro-ma trong mien Tieu A, la nhng kieu bao tan c c n "la chon" (1,1). Ban au danh t "Tan c" ch cac ngi Do-thai song ngoai x Pa-le-tin, nen thoat nhn, xem ra cau ay gia thiet ay la cac ki-to hu goc Do-thai. Thc ra danh t nay rat co the a dung cach tng trng e ch ki-to hu Tan mac khap hoan cau (x. 2,11), ma a so phai la goc ch dan. V li am ch loi song cua ho khi xa, thch hp vi cac ngi cu ch dan hn la cu tn o do-thai (1,14.18; 4,3). Tuy nhien, ho a quen thuoc vi Thanh Kinh. Bang chng la Th nang dung cac s kien trong Cu c.

Cac cong oan nhan Th nay a so la do cuoc truyen giao T. Phao-lo sang lap, ngha la neu khong trc tiep do T. Phao-lo, th t na do nhng cong tac vien cua ngai, t may trung tam chnh toa ra nhieu tnh khac nhau trong mien Tieu A (x. v du ong E-pa-pha em Tin Mng en cho thanh Co-lo-xe: Co 1,7). Viec to chc cac tha tac vu trong Th, cha phan hoa bang trong cac Th Muc vu va thch hp vi thi ky tng oi co trong i song Giao Hoi s khai: ch thay nhac en cac v ky lao ma thoi (5,1-4) va gian tiep e cap ti cac ta vien (x. 4,11). Con a v xa hoi cac phan t thuoc nhng cong oan ay, noi chung la a v thap hen. Bang chng la oan quang dien ac biet dai ve cach an net cac toi t hay la no le (2,18-25).

 

Tac gia, ngay thang va ni bien soan

Theo cac s kien trong Th, tac gia la T. Phe-ro "Tong o cua c Gie-su Ki-to" (5,1) la "ky lao", la "chng ta cho cac au kho c Ki-to" (5,1), a viet Th nay "nh ong Sin-vanh" (5,12), va ben canh ngai khi ay co ong Mac-co la "con" ngai (5,13). Viec gan Th cho Tong o Phe-ro, mot trong cac ban van muon nhat trong Tan c, a lam chng ve ieu ay (2P 3,1). Ve sau, T. I-re-ne, ong Tec-tu-lien, va ong C-le-men A-lec-xan-i eu ch T. Phe-ro la tac gia Th nay. Them vao o la s kien, theo s gia Eu-se-b, ong Pa-pi-a, hoi au the ky 2, xac nhan tng quan mat thiet gia T. Tong o Phe-ro va T. Mac-co, tac gia Tin Mng 2 (x. ca Cv 12,12).

Tuy nhien mot so nha chuyen mon a hoai nghi Th nay chnh tong la cua T. Phe-ro. ay la may luan c chnh ho a ra vi nhng cau ngi ta co the tra li cho ho:

a) Tieng hi-lap trong Th co mot pham tnh rat cao, nen xem ra kho co the gan cho T. Phe-ro la tay thuyen chai x Ga-li-le c. Va ngi ta cung khong giai ap iem kho nay bang cach qua quyet la T. Phe-ro a viet ban van bang tieng A-ram, roi nh ai o (Sin-vanh: 5,12) dch sang tieng hi-lap. V trong trng hp nay, se khong giai thch c v sao li trch dan trong Th eu trc tiep rut ra t ban van hi-lap Cu c, khong tr cau nao. Nhng luan c nay khong quyet liet. Ngi ta a ky nhan rang tieng hi-lap a thong dung Pa-le-tin thi Chua Gie-su, nh cac but tch gan ay mi kham pha c chng minh ieu ay. Nh vay T. Phe-ro rat co the a biet tieng nay. ang khac, T. Phe-ro a co the cay nh cong tac vien cua ngai la ong Sin-vanh e soan ban van, o la ly do co the giai thch v sao van hay nh the.

b) Ngi ta cung nhan nh tnh song oi ro rang gia mot so y tng trong Th va than hoc T. Phao-lo. Ch xin nhac may v du: viec dung hnh anh hon a vap pham trong Cu c (1P 2,4-8 va Rm 9,32-33), li khuyen phuc tung quyen bnh (1P 2,13-17 va Rm 13,1-7), hay viec dung nh thc "trong c Ki-to" (3,16; 5,10.14). Ma mot oan van nh Ga 2,11-14 ha lai khong chong lai chu trng cho la giao ly Thanh Phao-lo khong anh hng g tren t tng T. Phe-ro ay ? - Thc ra may iem giong nhau nhan thay gia Th nay va cac Th T. Phao-lo, ta co the giai thch de dang, v a co mot can ban giao ly chung cho toan the Giao Hoi s khai, T. Phe-ro va T. Phao-lo eu s dung can ban ay. Con s kien An-tieu-kia ghi lai trong Ga 2,11-14 noi ung ra, khong phai la oi lap than khoa gia hai Tong o: ieu T. Phao-lo trach T. Phe-ro, la thai o ngai trong mot hoan canh rieng, ch khong phai la than hoc cua ngai.

c) Th 1 T. Phe-ro khong to ra s biet trc tiep nao ve c Gie-su tran the nh cac Tin Mng trnh bay vi ta. Tac gia ch noi chung ve cac au kho va s chet cua c Ki-to va hoan toan khong e cap chi ti y niem trung tam trong giao huan cua c Gie-su (v du nh "Nc Chua", "Con Ngi"). T. Phe-ro la mon o rat gan vi c Gie-su, phai chang se khong dien ta cach thc khac? Ngai ha lai khong qui chieu cach chnh xac hn vao kinh nghiem a song ben canh Thay mnh o ? - ap lai van nan tren, ngi ta dan ca mot chuoi oan van Th nay phan anh cac li c Gie-su a noi (1,8 va G 20,29; 2,2 av2 Mc 10,15ss; 2,12 va Mt 5,16; 2,23 va Mt 5,39; 3,9 v Lc 6,28; 3,14 va Mt 5,10; 5,3 va G 13,15-17; x. 2,25 va Mt 9,36). Hn na nhieu trong so cac li neu ra o, lai xuat phat t cac mach van trc tiep lien he ti ban than T. Phe-ro (v.d. 5,2 va G 21,15-17; 1,4.13 va Lc 12,33.35.41). Gan ay ngi ta cung nhan manh ti tam quan trong cua e tai V Toi T au kho trong Th nay. e tai ay bat nguon t sach ong I-sai (52,13-53,12), ta thay hien ro mot trat trong cac Tin Mng (Lc 22,37 va Is 53,12), trong cac bai giang T. Phe-ro (Cv 3,13.26; x.4,27-30) va trong Th nay (2,21-25). Co nhien khong nen qua e cao gia tr that cua cac oan van giong nhau nh the, v a co nhng tuyen tap cac li c Gie-su lu hanh rat sm trong toan Giao Hoi. Nhng du sao, chung cung minh chng rang ly luan can c vao s "thieu ky niem trc tiep ve c Gie-su tran the" la ly luan rat ang hoai nghi.

d) Co le Th am ch cac lan bat b cong nhien au het mot cach tong quat (ch khong phai thuan a phng), nen ta khong co the at v tr Th vao trc trieu ai hoang e o-mi-xieng (nam 81 en 96 sau Cong Nguyen), va do o lau nam sau khi T. Phe-ro qua i (4,12 va 5,9). - Y kien nay cung phi bac c. Trc tien phai ky nhan rang tam trang trong Th nay phan anh khac  xa sach Khai huyen trong o trnh bay hien nhien la Nha Nc bat ao. Con trong Th 1 T. Phe-ro, khong co g nh the. V Th con day phai ton trong chnh quyen, hoan toan giong nh Th Ro-ma (1P 2,13-17 va Rm 13,1-7) va ac biet neu vai tro tch cc cua chnh quyen (2,14). Them vao o la s kien Th nay khong dung cac "danh t chuyen mon ch s bat b"... hay cac ch nh vu kien, toa an, to cao... nhng ch dung cac danh t than hoc, nh cam do, th thach, cac au thng phai chu oan v s cong chnh. a han, ay ch la nhng "khuay khuat, phe bnh, ci nhao, ngc ai, mach leo, khai tr... ma ki-to hu a la nan nhan, ngay t au, do cac ong hng dan ngoai hay cac ngi ong ao trc ay" (Spicq). V the khong co g ngan tr ta at v tr Th nay thi ky tng oi xa, vao luc T. Phe-ro con song.

Tom lai, cac van nan trnh bay tren ay khong dt khoat at lai thanh van e cac s kien trong Th va trong tap truyen. Vay ta co the nhan Th nay thc s do T. Phe-ro bien soan, co the la nh ong Sin-vanh giup (Sin-vanh la ten la-tinh cua ong Si-la trong Cv 15,22.40; 18,5; x. 2C 1,19). Con ngay thang bien soan co le vao khoang t lau trc khi hoang e Ne-ron bat ao (nam 64 sau Cong Nguyen), noi khac i la t lau trc khi T. Phe-ro qua i. Co le T. Tong o viet Th nay tai Ro-ma, neu ta theo loi giai thch co phan ung hn het ve li nhac en thanh "Ba-by-lon" 5,13, la ten tng trng ch Thu o e quoc Ro-ma.

 

Loai van, nhat tr va muc tieu Th nay

Nhieu nha phe bnh lu y ti nhng am ch ve phep thanh tay ac biet la trong ba chng au Th. Hn na mot so ngi tng la thay co oi thay bau kh ke t 4,12: khong con xem au kho nh ieu co the xay ra, nhng nh thc tai hien thi (4,12; 5,9; x. 2,20; 3,14.17). Can c vao may xac nhan nh the, ngi ta a neu nhieu gia thuyet khac nhau ve loai van va nhat tr cua Th nay, ma nhan manh cach rieng la Th bat nguon t phung t. Ngi th cho la Th phan anh phung vu thanh tay (1,3-4,11), roi co le ve sau lai them vao o mot ban van muon hn nham cung co niem tin ni cac ngi thu tay (4,12-5,14). Ngi khac khong cho cac d biet gia 1,3-4,11 va 4,12-5,14, la quan trong va coi 1,3-5,11 la nh mot bai giang ve phep Thanh tay, roi sau ngi ta a them 1,1-2 va 5,12-14 cho co ve mot bc th. Sau het co ngi lai coi o la phung vu tuan Phuc sinh.

Nhng may gia thuyet tren ung phai nhieu van nan: v s nhat tr trong ng vng va li van cua Th nay khien cho kho nhan c la co hai oan nguon goc khac nhau. Li gi va li ket th co lien quan ro rang vi phan than ("kieu bao": 1,1 va 2,11; x. 1,17; li khuyen nhu, e tai cua Th: 5,12 va 2,11). Hn na li ta n (1,3-9) va "qui luat" luan ly ki-to giao (2,13-3,7) cang tang cng xac tn la tac gia a quan niem ban van nay nh mot bc Th. ung la ngi ta a ngac nhien v thieu ghi chu ca nhan ve tac gia va ngi nhan Th. Nhng o la v la Th xuat phat t mot v co uy quyen trong Giao Hoi ma khong phai la v sang lap cac cong oan ngai gi Th cho. Con s oi thay vien anh ke t 4,12, th ng qua phong ai, v ngay 1,6 a coi cac au thng la cai hien thi roi. ang khac, nguyen mot viec can c vao ban van Th nay ma lai a ra qua nhieu gia thuyet khac nhau ve mot phung vu hay bai giang thanh tay, ieu ay u chng minh la gia thuyet het sc ho o. Them vao ay con hai s kien: mot la khong gap li chnh xac nao nhac en le nghi thanh tay trong Th (ngc lai vi cac ban van nh Rm 6,3-4; Co 2,12; Tt 3,5), tr ra co mot lan, nhng la trong oan van co gia tr ien hnh (3,21); hai la khong gap trong ban van dau vet mot tien trnh, cho phep ta sap xep lai cac giai oan cua le nghi thanh tay (v nh ong t hi-lap am ch viec tai sinh 1,23, th a dung 1,3 roi; x. 1,3).

Vay khong co ly nao e hoai nghi tnh th tn va s nhat tr cua Th 1 T. Phe-ro. Th nay an re chac chan vao ca mot tap truyen giao ly chung cho Giao Hoi s khai. Cau ket (5,12) xac nh ung muc tieu Th nay: khuyen ln va cung co long tin cac ki-to hu ma nhiet tam khi ay lieu mnh hoa ra nguoi lanh va long can am lai b th thach trc nhieu gian nan khon kho. Muon c vay, tac gia qui chieu vao cac li giao huan, nhng ki-to hu ay a nghe, khi ho an nan tr lai va chu thanh tay.

 

Noi dung Th nay

Khong the neu lc o theo luan ly cho Th nay. Chnh la v ac tnh rieng cua ban van nay, trong o cac li khuyen luon luon xen ke vi cac iem giao ly e bien minh va tang cng cho chung. Noi chung, th li khuyen "menh lenh cach" i trc tuyen ngon giao ly "trc tran cach" e lam can c cho li khuyen (ngc vi cac Th chnh cua T. Phao-lo, trong o phan giao ly au vi "trc tran cach" lien quan ti nhng chi ki-to hu hien co roi trong c Gie-su Ki-to, roi tiep en phan th hai gom li khuyen vi "menh lenh cach" keu mi ho song cho xng vi cac ieu mnh a tiep thu). Cung lam co the chap nhan mot tien trnh trong li khuyen nhu, neu ta xet la tnh hien thi cua moi ham e a tr nen xac nh ke t 4,12.

Co the trnh bay noi dung Th theo cach sau ay:

Li gi va chao tham: 1,1-2.

Ta n (theo loi van cac li chuc tung do-thai, x. Ep 1,3-14) keo dai them trong mot suy t ve s mac khai chng trnh Thien Chua: 1,3-12.

Li khuyen mot: gi ki-to hu goc ch dan mi ho dt khoat oan tuyet vi nep song cu cua ho: 1,13-2,10.

Keu goi song thanh thien v chnh niem hi vong do c Ki-to a sam cho ta: 1,13-21.

May li nhan nhu ve i song cong oan: 1,22-2,2,3.

Nen tang giao ly: s d Thien Chua a chon ki-to hu e nen thanh phan cua en th linh thieng ma c Ki-to la nen tang, chnh la e ho cong bo nhng ky cong cua ang a keu goi ho vao anh sang: 2,4-10.

Li khuyen hai: 2,11-3,12.

Tuyen bo chung ve loi song phai theo gia ch dan; 2,11-12.

Cac ngha vu ki-to hu tuy theo a v: ngha vu oi vi chnh quyen, ngha vu toi t oi vi chu, ngha vu v chong oi vi nhau: 2,13-3,7.

Lai keu mi thng yeu nhau theo tnh huynh e: 3,8-12.

Li khuyen ba: 3,13-4,11.

Keu mi tn nhiem trc s chong oi cua the gian: 3,13-17.

Nen tang cho long tn nhiem nay: s toan thang cua c Ki-to: 3,18-22.

Hau qua thc hanh cua gng c Ki-to, la oan tuyet vi toi loi: 4,1-6.

Tnh thc trong i song cong oan: 4,7-11,

Li khuyen bon: do cn bat b hong en gay nen: 4,12-19.

May li khuyen rieng: 5,1-11.

Nhac lai cac ngha vu cac thu lanh cong oan: 5,1-4.

Khiem nhng va tnh thc: 5,5-11.

Ket Th: 5,12-14.

 

i song ki-to hu theo Th 1 T. Phe-ro

Ngi ta thng khong biet gia tr rieng cua s iep Th 1 T. Phe-ro. Ma gia tr nay hien len ro rang ngay luc ngi ta lu y ti tnh canh Th nay muon nham. Tac gia khong con phai at nen tang c tin la nhng ieu a day cho oc gia biet roi (1,12). ung hn, ay la ng trc nhng kho khan ngay cang ln ma cac cong oan ki-to hu gap phai, khuyen ho kien tam tr ch, chnh v niem hi vong a giang cho ho trc ay. Muon vay T. Tong o hng mat oc gia nhn vao c Ki-to, e ho y thc (hay lai y thc) ve quyen nang cua s song mi trong Ngi (1,3; 2,2). Hn na, tac gia con nhan manh ve tnh toan thang cua niem hi vong ho a tiep thu, la nguon hoat ong kien tr va han hoan trong cuoc song moi ngay.

a) An re sau vao cong trnh cua c Ki-to

Tac gia chac chan la oc gia c Thien Chua la chon trong c Gie-su Ki-to va t ay ho thuoc ve dan Ngai (1,2-3; 2,9). Tuy nhien, ong muon giup ho an re sau hn vao cong trnh Thay ho a tng hoan tat. Chnh theo hng o, ong nhac lai cho ho nh hien te c Ki-to (1,2; 1,19) va cac au thng Ngi (2,21-24), e ho noi gng (2,21). Cung the, ong nhan manh ti s toan thang pho cap tren moi pham vi vu tru (3,18-22) va chnh s chet cung khong ngan can c (4,6; x. 3,19). T ay, tn o phai lien ket vi Vien a goc, la nen tang cong oan (2,4-8).

Ve iem nay, nen ghi chu la Ki-to hoc cua Th nay gan vi giao ly trnh bay au sach Cong vu (cach rieng trong cac bai giang T. Phe-ro) hn  la vi Giao ly T. Phao-lo (v du nh e tai v Toi T au thng, theo may xuat x ghi tren nay; vai tro phep thanh tay: Cv 2,38-40 va 1P 3,21; x. ca Cv 2,31 va 1P 3,18). Cung nen ky nhan la ta gap thay am vang nhieu li tuyen xng c tin hay la thanh thi cua cong oan ki-to hu (v.d. 2,22-24; 3,22; 4,5).

b) Niem cay trong song ong

e tai cay trong rat quan trong ngay au Th (1,3.13.21). Niem cay trong ay xet theo ba quan iem la nguon goc, oi tng va cac hau qua. Ve nguon goc: cay trong khong phai la ket qua do tr ve hay do nhng co gang loai ngi, nhng chnh la hong an nhng khong Thien Chua ban cho nh s c Gie-su Ki-to phuc sinh (1,3) (nen lu y s phuc sinh cuac Gie-su Ki-to lien he ti mc nao vi viec the hien n cu thoat: 1,21; 3,21). Ve oi tng, th cay trong hng ti Nc tng lai, ti gia tai bat diet bao am cho tn o, hng ti luc niem tin se bien thanh s nhn thay va dan Thien Chua c chiem hu cach vien toan va dt khoat n cu o a ban cho ho trong c Gie-su Ki-to (1,4.7.13). Con ve cac hau qua oi vi i song hien thi cua cac tn o, th khong c lan cay trong vi thai o khac ky hay la long nhan nhuc thu ong, nhng phai coi nh ong lc cho nep song mi (1,13-15). Niem cay trong giup tn o han hoan chien au (1,6), khong phai mac dau th thach (thoat tien xem nh mau thuan), nhng la gia th thach kia (4,12-13). The gian khong ngng at van e cay trong, nhng tn o phai luon luon san sang giai thch niem cay trong ay mot cach bao am an toan (3,15-16).

c) Lam chng trong cuoc song moi ngay

Th nay nhan manh ti s mang cua dan Thien Chua gia tran gian: Thien Chua a chon nhng con ngi e ho phung th Ngai va chieu toa s nhn biet cac cong viec Ngai tren khap the gian. V the trong Th 1 T. Phe-ro, e tai la chon i oi vi chc t te cac tn o (2,5; 2,9; x. Rm 12,1). Th phuc vu oi ho phai lam se thc thi trc het trong Giao Hoi (1,22; 2,1-5; 3,8-12; 4,7-11; 5,1-7). Cac ky lao thi hanh trach nhiem rieng e gn gi cong oan trong viec thc thi tnh huynh e (5,1-4). Nhng cung co moi ngha vu lien quan ti nhieu kha canh khac nhau trong i song: chnh tr, xa hoi, gia nh (2,11-3,7). Cac ch th ve quan iem nay eu gan vi nhng qui luat luan ly ngi ta gap thay trong van chng thi ay hay trong Do-thai giao. Tuy nhien, chung nhan them mot nh hng va noi dung mi nh qui chieu vao Chua Ki-to (2,13) va nh lu y ti moi ngi, gom ca nhng ngi thap hen hn het. Hnh nh cac ch th ay khong at lai van e oi vi nhng g co the tranh luan trong cac c cau xa hoi ng thi. Be ngoai cac ch th ay khong co chi la cach mang. Nhng, trong mot khuon kho san co, chung neu cho tn o ng hng phai theo. o la em lai mot s iep cay trong, trong long yeu men Chua va nh s bien hoa ben trong than phan con ngi o, giup cai cach nhng g can thiet trong i song xa hoi. Xin them la, noi chung, Th nay khong to thai o chong lai the gii ch dan. ung hn Th neu ro trach nhiem cua ch dan Thien Chua oi vi ho: trong bat c hoan canh nao, du khac kho bao nhieu i na, cac tn o phai hanh ong lam sao e soi sang cho ngi ngoai (2,11-12; 3,13-17).

Th nay nhac cho ki-to hu thuoc bat c thi ai nao nh tat ca nhng chi bao ham trong niem "cay trong song ong" ho at vao c Gie-su Ki-to. o la tn nhiem bam chac vao Chua toan thang va hoat ong kien thiet e phung s Ngi. 

 


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