Chu Giai Tan c Theo TOB

Theo ban dch cua Linh Muc An Sn V

 

Prepared for internet by Vietnamese Missionaries in Taiwan


 

Tieu Dan Th Thanh Gia-co-be

c Ki-to Ban Nhan Thien Chua

 

Thoat nhn, khong thay Th Gia-co-be co g huyen b. Bat au la mot nh thc th tn kieu thong thng co nhac ten tac gia, roi ch cho thay o la mot ki-to hu co phan quan trong. Li van hi-lap rat hay cua Th nay, may khuc quang dien ngan ni ch. 2 va 3 soan theo loi van "trao phung" linh ong, triet ly bnh dan quen dung, s tac gia xem ra luon luon khong dung ban van hi-ba, nhng dung ban dch hi-lap Bay Mi, moi khi dan Thanh Kinh Cu c: o la bay nhieu dau ch nguon goc hi-lap cua Th nay. oan but chien soi noi ni ch. 2, c. 14-26, chong lai cach giai thch lam dung giao ly T. Phao-lo ve n cu o nh c tin khong co viec lam, cho phep ta xac nh chac chan bc Th bien soan vao khoang t lau sau gia the ky 1, la thi ky thanh cong ln cua cong trnh truyen giao T. Phao-lo. ang khac v khong thay am ch ve chnh tr va nhac ti en Th Gie-ru-sa-lem, nen hnh nh phai loai thi ky ngi Do-thai khi loan t nam 66 en 70 va thap nien theo sau o. Sau het, Th T. Gia-co-be khong co nhng oan va hap dan, va kho hieu trong cac Th T. Phao-lo hay T. Gioan. Trong Th ch day ve luan ly, oi khi tam thng va du sao cung mn rat nhieu nen luan ly hi-lap thi ay.

 

May van e

Nhng di ve trong suot ay, lai an tang nhng van e kho khan. Tap truyen ve sau a cam thay the, v a nang ngan ngai gan cho Th T. Gia-co-be cung mot uy tn nh cho cac Th T. Phao-lo. Trong khi Th 1 T. Phe-ro va Th 1 T. Gio-an a c moi ngi cong nhan la Kinh Thanh ngay t the ky th 2, th Th T. Gia-co-be ch co chan trong Tan c rat t t, khi s vao au the ky th 3. Mai cuoi the ky th 4, sau nhieu cuoc tranh luan lau dai, Th mi c uy tn qui ien ben Tay, con ben ong a gan nh ong thanh cong nhan roi. Ta biet la ong Lu-te-ro a lai tung cuoc tranh luan chung quanh Th nay, v ong cho la qua t ve "tong o", ti mc oi khi ong dam chu trng o la mot ban van do-thai, nen phai gat ra ngoai qui ien Thanh Kinh. Tuy ngi khac khong theo ong, nhng nguyen mot viec ngi ta a kho cong nhan bc Th T. Gia-co-be trai qua cac thi ai, a la mot ieu mang nhieu y ngha. Ly do la v tac pham ng ngoai cac trao lu than hoc ln cua Ki-to giao the ky 1.

Viec co truyen gan Th nay cho T. Gia-co-be, anh em vi Chua cung gay mot van e. Mac dau khong coi la ong nhat vi ong Gia-co-be, con ong An-phe va la phan t trong nhom Mi hai (x. Mc 3,18 va ss), nhng nhan vat rat quan trong cua Giao oan Gie-ru-sa-lem nay (x. Ga 1,19; 2,9.12; Cv 12,17; 15,13-21; 21,18-25) hnh nh la ngi Pa-le-tin thuan tuy, khong quen biet bao nhieu van hoa hi lap (xem cach rieng Eu-se-b, Lch s Giao Hoi II, 23,4-18). Lam sao co the tng tng ong a viet mot tac pham ro rang la hi-lap en the? Vay neu hieu viec gan nay theo ngha en, th khong co the ung s that. Tuy nhien viec gan nay qua co truyen va tong quat, nen khong the gat phang i. V the ta can nhan thc la trong Th T. Gia-co-be tat ca khong phai hoan toan hi-lap: ng vng va ng phap gom may thanh ng se-mt, han la ta khong the gan tat ca cho anh hng do ban dch Bay Mi. Viec sap lai gan nhau nhng cham ngon van tat ch lien lac vi nhau nh may ch moc ma thoi, trong phan cot yeu cua ch. 1 va 4-5, chac la khong hp vi qui tac van chng hi-lap. Mot chut ho hang vi sach Huan ca, gi cho ta thay la co lien lac vi cac sach Khon ngoan do-thai. Con tam quan trong danh cho may e tai canh chung, cach rieng la e tai phan xet (2,12-13; 4,12; 5,9-12), khien ta lien tng ti Do-thai giao Pa-le-tin va giao huan cua Chua Gie-su. Vay rat co the la T. Gia-co-be, anh em vi Chua, a in dau vet ngai tren Th nay. Mot so ngi cong nhan la ngai a uy cho mot th ky noi tieng hi-lap soan bc Th theo cac li ngai ch dan. Ngi khac cho rang ung hn, nen nhan la a co mot tap truyen cac li T. Gia-co-be, phan nao sanh c vi tap truyen nhat lam, roi mot nha van a li dung tap truyen theo thoi quen van chng thi ay, va at tac pham mnh di uy tn mot ang bao tr thi danh. Trong trng hp nay, bc Th se bien soan vao khoang cac nam 80-90.

Cac nha chu giai hien ai nham vao van e te nh khac, at ra oi vi Th Gia-co-be. Gi cho "Mi hai chi toc Tan c", tc la, neu hieu t ng theo ngha en, gi cho cac ngi Do-thai, Th nay ch nhac en Danh hieu Gie-su Ki-to co hai lan (1,1 va 2,1) va mot cach lt qua, nen mot so phe bnh gia a coi o la them vao ve sau, e ki-to hoa mot ban van thuan do-thai. ay la gia thuyet phieu lu, can phai gat i, v cuoc tranh luan sau T. Phao-lo cua 2,14-26 lam cho khong con the benh vc gia thuyet nay. Nhng van e that van con y nguyen: mot tac gia ki-to hu a co the gi cho ai mot tac pham, trong o ban than Chua Ki-to ong vai tro qua lu m en the? Han la cho ki-to hu thuoc nen van hoa hi-lap con gi tng quan vi cac hoi ng trc kia ho a la phan t. Nhng cung rat co the la cho cac ngi Do-thai hi-hoa, co le theo khuynh hng E-xe-mien, ma tac gia trong thu phuc nh nhan manh ti nhng g ki-to hu cung co chung vi ho: o la nhiet tam vi luat luan ly, ly tng kho ngheo, manh liet i trong ngay canh chung va niem tin vao Thien Chua duy nhat a c mac khai trong Cu c.

 

V tr bc Th

Hn moi nguyen to khac, chnh nen luan ly ho cung thc thi, la cai lam cho nhng ki-to hu va do-thai ay gan nhau. V the ma Th danh tam quan trong noi hn cho cac van e luan ly, cung nh cho viec ieu hoa chat che vi nhau cac ly do hi-lap va cac ly do do-thai, lam cho bai luan ly cua T. Gia-co-be giong vi nen luan ly cua Do-thai giao hi hoa. Nhng li tac gia day luan ly khong thu hep nguyen vao viec nhac lai may cau tam thng moi ngi eu cong nhan ca. Bai day con gom nhng kha canh oc ao, giup ta at cho ung hn v tr Th nay. trc tien o la ba khuc quang dien t ch. 2,1 en 3,13 lien quan ti viec c hanh phung t: ch cho ngoi (2,1-13), th t phuc vu (3,1-13), phai thc thi tnh huynh e a song trong gi phung t (2,14-26). Ba oan but chien nay nham kha manh vao nhng thoi xau, co khi a thanh quen trong mot so Giao oan T. Phao-lo, cung la cac Giao oan oan tuyet hoan toan vi Do-thai giao. Net oc ao th hai cua nen luan ly T. Gia-co-be la tan cong cc ky nghiem thang oi vi ngi giau (1,9-11; 2,5-7; 4,13-17; 5,1-6), tan cong qua chnh xac va qua manh liet, nen khong phai ch la thuan van chng. Hai ba net trong may oan nay khien ta ngh la cac li ch trch d doi nay t na mot phan nham vao cac ky hao Do-thai (2,6-7; 5,6).

Vay hnh nh tac gia Th T. Gia-co-be au tranh tren hai tran tuyen, mot la chong lai cac Giao oan men nh T. Phao-lo mot cach qua no le, hai la chong lai cac ngi Do-thai giau. Lam nh the, ong hi vong se lien ket c vi nhau nhng ki-to hu khac va nhng Do-thai a v bnh thng ma ong cho la ho cung nhau lam thanh "Mi hai chi toc Tan c". Mot cong trnh nh the co the quan niem c vao khoang cac nam 60-65, nhng ung hn co le can sap vao sau nam 80, trc khi cac hoi ng tan c dt khoat lien minh vi quan niem biet phai ve Do-thai giao. Th nham ti toan the cac ngi Tan c noi tieng hi-lap, nhng co the la a bien soan mot thanh hi-hoa tai Pa-le-tin nh Xe-sa-re hay la Ti-be-ri-at.

Mot oc gia the ky 20, a quen phan biet ro rang Do-thai giao, va Ki-to giao, se phan nao kho hieu nao trang cho la co the lam viec lien ket nay. Tuy nhien, vao thi buoi "oi thoai hiep tam" va thanh toan vu an gia Do-thai giao va Ki-to giao bay gi, vao thi ai kinh te d dat va cac quoc gia vo san, chac chan la Th T. Gia-co-be co bai hoc e giao huan ta. V the, that la may phuc v pha Tin Lanh, ngi ta khong con khinh b coi la bc "Th rac ren" (Lu-te-ro) va trach v Ki-to hoc va Cu the hoc trong Th co nhieu khiem khuyet, con ve pha Cong giao, ngi ta a hieu rang can phai lam g hn la ch dung Th nay e bien minh cho B Tch Benh nhan (x. 5,14-15), hoac te hn na, la e but chien vi quan niem tin lanh ve n cu o nh c tin (x. 2,14-16).

 

Cac phan Th

Khong the tm thay trong Th mot lc o chnh xac, ngoai lc o co the do viec thay oi li van gi y cho ta 2,1 va 3,13. Phan trung tam, gia hai iem ay, bao ham ba oan quang dien kha mach lac, co lien ket vi nhau v ch trch cung mot oi tng chung, la phung t c hanh trong mot so Giao oan theo tap truyen T. Phao-lo va v s dung cac phng thc tu t thng quen trong loi van "trao phung", nh hoi va goi oc gia, tranh luan vi ngi oi thoai gia tng, v.v. Nhng chng mot ch la mot chuoi dai nhng cham ngon van tat khong co th t ro rang, ngoai mot "ch moc" noi cuoi cau tren vi au cau di: nh "kien nhan" c. 3-4, "thieu" c. 4-5, "th thach" va "cam do" (cung mot goc trong tieng hi-lap) c. 12-13, "long ao" c. 26-27 v.v. Con phan th ba ke t 3,14 lai con ri rac hn na, va xen lan vao nhau oan quang dien hi  dai mot chut (4,1-10.13-17; 5,1-6.7-11) vi nhng cham ngon le te. Trong bai day luan ly thng hay lon xon nh the. Nhng tac gia von biet dung nhng phng thc hanh van het sc tai tnh nh iep van, cc van, cac phan cau nhp nhang v.v. ang khac, co the la s lon xon ay phan anh ac tnh cua tap truyen tac gia dung, t na la oi vi mot so phan trong Th. Du la li cua Chua Gie-su, v co rat nhieu oan song song gia Bai giang tren Nui, va Th T. Gia-co-be, hay tuyen tap cac li cua T. Gia-co-be, tuyen tap ay han la khong co cau truc van chng g, va tac gia chung ta khong cam thay can bat cac li ay phai theo mot cau truc. Ong a phai ngh rang oi vi ban van loai nay, ch can cam tng toan bo va pham tnh tng chi tiet ma thoi, nen lc o can than hn se la cai d tha. ang khac, s lon xon theo nh tac gia duy tr, khong phai la thieu sc manh me hay thieu man ma au. 

 


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