Chu Giai Tan c Theo TOB

Theo ban dch cua Linh Muc An Sn V

 

Prepared for internet by Vietnamese Missionaries in Taiwan


 

Tieu Dan Th Gi Tn Hu Hi-ba

c Ki-to Thng Te Chua Cha

 

Th Hi-ba co the lam cho oc gia kim thi ngac nhien. oc Th ay khi th ta than phuc, khi th thay nh mnh lac long.

Than phuc nen giao ly that la suc tch va chieu sau nhan ban trong nhieu oan van. V tac gia co nhieu kieu noi tuyet vi e cao rao tnh sieu viet cua c Ki-to, va ong thi lai biet dien ta rat thc tnh sieu viet cua c Ki-to, va ong thi lai biet dien ta rat thc te tnh lien i tuyet cao lien ket c ki-to vi cac "em cua Ngi". Moi hang eu cho ta thay tac gia hieu biet sau xa Cu c va moi li khuyen eu xuat phat t ay long men yeu Giao Hoi.

Tuy nhien, co mot so net lai khien ta cam thay mnh lac long. V tac gia noi nhieu ve cac le nghi ao cu va cac hien te loai vat. ang khac, ong lai rat lanh tr e giai thch y ngha tng trng cua cac ban van va bien co, e gi nhng moi tng quan gia cac thc tai tran ai va cac kieu mau tren tri, gia cac s kien lch s va tnh vnh cu cua Thien Chua. Nhieu oc gia bay gi se thay mnh hut chan, va neu co xem ban van cho ky th cang gap kho khan hn na v dang ve me hon cua loi hanh van.

ang khac, chnh nguon goc tac pham nay at ra nhieu van e phien phc gay tranh luan va hoai nghi, ngay t cac the ky au, roi en thi ky Cai lng, lai lam cho song day: ai a viet Th nay? Co the gan cho T. Phao-lo tong o hay khong? V sao lai t giong cac Th ln cua T. Phao-lo en the? Th ay viet cho ai va trong dp nao? Co that la bc Th hay khong?

Can nghien cu can than may van e tren ay, trc khi phac hoa noi dung phong phu cua van th that say me nay.

 

Tranh luan ve nguon goc

Trong bon the ky au, v tr cua Th Hi-ba a trai qua nhieu canh thang tram. Nhng ve iem nay phai ghi nhan s khac nhau ang ke gia cac Giao oan ben ong va cac Giao oan ben Tay.

Cac Giao oan ben ong van coi Th Hi-ba la cua T. Phao-lo. Tuy nhien tap truyen rat vng nay khong ngan tr co nhan nhan ra nhng d biet gia Th Hi-ba vi nhng Th khac cua T. Phao-lo.

Muon neu nhng net rieng biet nay, ong C-le-men A-lec-xan-i coi o la ban thch nghi sang tieng hi-lap mot ban van do T. Phao-lo bien soan bang tieng hi-ba (x. Eu-xe-b Lch s Giao Hoi VI, 14,2). Ong tng la nhan ra trong o li van cua T. Lu-ca. Sau o t lau, ong O-ri-gien con phan biet ro rang hn na. Ong noi la t tng cua T. Tong o, nhng hien nhien khong phai do ngai bien soan. Th Hi-ba la tac pham cua mot mon o T. Phao-lo, dien ta trung thanh, nhng theo cach the rieng, giao huan cua thay mnh. Mon o ay la ai? Ong O-ri-gien thu nhan la khong biet (sd VI 25, 11-13). Tuy khong biet tac gia la ai, nhng long tin cua ong oi vi ban Kinh Thanh ay van con nguyen ven. Cac nha chu giai khac ben ong, t lu tam ti van e van chng, nen ch theo li qua quyet la cua T. Phao-lo, v co tap truyen cac Giao oan mnh bao am.

Ben Tay, th tnh canh khac. Ngi ta biet Th Hi-ba ngay t cuoi the ky au, v Th T. C-le-men Ro-ma gi Giao oan Co-rin-to co trch ro rang. Nhng ngi ta lai khong hoan toan chap nhan. V khong chac la cua T. Phao-lo, nen ngi ta nghi ng ve gia tr linh hng. V co mot so be phai s dung, nen s nghi ng cang tang them na. Ngi ta dung ch. 7 e benh nhng thuyet ky d ve ong Men-ki-xe-ec. Phai nghiem ngat th can c tren Hi-ba 6,4-6 va 10,26, e t choi khong tha toi cho cac ngi a choi ao trong cn bat b. Be A-ri-o lay luan chng 3,2 e chu trng ao Ngon la tao vat. Theo li ong Phi-lat-tr B-re-si-a lam chng (Migne PL 12, cot 1199), th bay nhieu s ay lam cho mai ti cuoi the ky th 4, ngi ta khong oc Th Hi-ba trong cac Giao oan. Rieng T. Gie-rom ky nhan la ngi Ro-ma khong gan Th Hi-ba cho T. Phao-lo (De viris ill. 59). Chnh ngai coi van e tac gia ch co tam quan trong tuy tong. (Ep 129 ad Dard. PL 22, cot 1103). Tap truyen cac Giao oan hi-lap xa nay von lam chng Th nay thuoc bo Thanh Kinh linh hng; T. Gie-rom coi ieu ay la bao am quyet nh. o cung la y kien T. Au-gut-tinh (Depecc. mer. 1,50). Nhng bang "qui ien Thanh Kinh" thiet lap vao cuoi the ky th 4 a cham dt tnh trang nghi ng, v co nhac ro rang en Th Hi-ba. Nhng v xep Th nay vao so cac Th cua T. Phao-lo, nen ket qua hien nhien la ung ho khuynh hng qua quyet Th nay chnh tong la cua T. Tong o. en thi Trung co, sach Gloss ordinaria theo lap trng gan giong nh ong C-le-men A-lec-xan-i: Th Hi-ba la cua T. Phaolo, do Lu-ca trung thanh phien dch sau khi T. Tong o a qua i.

 

Thi ky Cai lng

en thi ky Cai lng th lai bat au tranh luan. Ta gap thay tieng vang trong cuon ong Lu-te-ro chu giai Th nay nam 1517-1518, chnh nam ong ra truyen cao Vt-ten-bec. Ong giai thch ban van nh la cua T. Tong o, tham ch ong con gap thay trong o luan e can ban cua giao ly T. Phao-lo: "Trong Th nay T. Phao-lo tan dng an sung chong lai long kieu cang cua s cong chnh loai ngi chieu theo Le Luat." Dau the ong cung neu mot cau nh Hi 2,3, trong o tac gia coi mnh vao so cac ngi a tiep thu Tin Mng nh qua cac mon o, cho cau ay la mot "luan chng rat manh" e chng minh Th nay khong phai cua T. Phao-lo. V trong Th Ga-lat, T. Phao-lo noi khac han. cau 13,19 th trai lai, ong Lu-te-ro cho la mot luan chng e benh Th nay chnh tong la cua T. Phao-lo, v cau ay gi nh canh tu ay.

May nam sau, khi gii thieu ban dch Tan c cua mnh, ong Lu-te-ro a xac nh lap trng cua ong: Th nay khong phai la tac pham cua T. Phao-lo hay cua tong o nao het. Dau the ong cung than phuc tai tac gia vo danh kheo s dung Thanh Kinh. Nhng theo y kien ong, co may oan gay nen kho de. o la may cau chu trng cac ngi a chu thanh tay ma con sa pham toi, th khong the nao an nan tr lai c na (6,4-6; 10,26; 12,17). Bay gi ong neu y kien Th Hi-ba la mot tac pham hon hp.

Ong Can-vanh th khong giau giem g. Ong tuyen bo Th Hi-ba chac chan thuoc bo Thanh Kinh va ong cho la tai mu o cua Sa-tan ma ngi ta a tan cong uy tn cua Th nay. Nhng khong v the ma ong coi la tac pham cua T. Phao-lo.

Sau o cac nha chu giai trong giao phai The phan co nhieu y kien khac nhau. Ti the ky 17 th gan nh moi ngi ong thanh cong nhan Th nay chnh tong la cua T. Phao-lo. Roi y kien ngc lai lai thang the.

Quyen Giao huan Cong giao bam vao bang chng cua tap truyen, nen lo benh vc y kien cho Th nay la cua T. Phao-lo. Tuy nhien phai ky nhan la Cong ong Tri-en-ti-no khong chu tuyen bo ro rang ve van e chnh tong, nen co nha chu giai cong giao (nh Et-ti-o) chu trng tac gia la mot mon o cua T. Phao-lo viet mot tac pham ban sac. Trong nhng cuoc tranh luan au the ky 20, Uy ban Kinh Thanh Ro-ma cam ngi Cong giao phu nhan Th nay la cua T. Phao-lo, nhng chap nhan cho noi la khong do chnh T. Phaolo bien soan. Cac nha chu giai cong giao gan ay hieu nguon goc bi T. Phao-lo theo ngha rong; mot trong nhng nha thong minh bac nhat a cho la Th a do ong A-po-lo viet sau khi T. Phao-lo t ao (C. Spicq, Th Hi-ba q. I, tr. 260-261).

 

Van e chnh tong

Thc ra co nhieu luan chng chong lai chu trng nhan Th nay chnh tong la cua T. Phao-lo. Dang ve chung cua Th Hi-ba khong tng ng chut nao vi ban chat T. Tong o. Li van qua em em, cach bien soan qua eu an, ca tnh tac gia qua b xoa nhoa (x. 2,3). Ta co the ghi nhieu d biet ve ng vng, kieu noi va ca loi quan niem ve Huyen nhiem c Ki-to.

Ngi ta khong sao tm thay trong Th Hi-ba Danh hieu "Ki-to Gie-su" hay kieu noi "trong c Ki-to" ma T. Phao-lo rat nang dung. Khong bao gi trch Cu c nh li Thanh Kinh ("co chep rang", "Kinh Thanh noi"). Nhng luon luon nh la "li" ("Ngai noi"). tac gia nang nhac ti viec ang quang cua c Ki-to tren tri, nhng ch co mot lan e cap ti viec Ngai phuc sinh t trong ke chet (13,20) va ca lan ay cung khong dung kieu noi thong thng. Cach trnh bay chc Thng te cua c Ki-to that la oc nhat vo song trong toan bo Tan c. Tat la ta ng trc mot ca tnh khac xa vi T. Phao-lo.

Mot ngi con i ti cho phu nhan moi moi tng quan gia noi dung Th nay va t tng T. Phao-lo na. Nh vay ro rang la i qua trn. V ta co the ghi nhan s tng ong rat ro ret gia Th Hi-ba va giao ly T. Phao-lo ve nhieu iem toi quan trong: (1) trnh bay s Thng kho c Ki-to theo kha canh t y vang li Hi 5,8 va 10,9, cung nh Ph 2,8 va Rm 5,19; (2) qua quyet tnh vo hieu lc va viec bai bo Le luat cu Hi 7,11-19 va 10,1-10 cach manh me khong kem g cac ban van Ga 3,21-25 hoac Rm 4,15; 5,20; trong Tan c khong thay ni nao dung kieu noi ro rang en the e dien ta e tai nay cua T. Phao-lo; (3) ngc lai, chnh trong cac Th T. Phao-lo (1C 5,7; Rm 3,25 va nhat la Ep 5,2) la ni e tai can ban cua Th Hi-ba co c can c vng vang hn het. C so sanh Ga 2,20 vi Ep 5,2.25, la thay ro kha canh hien te va t te cua Cong trnh Cu Chuoc a dan dan sang to them trong cac moi trng T. Phao-lo; (4) sau het co the neu nhieu iem tng ong trong giao ly ve c Ki-to gia Th Hi-ba va cac Th viet khi b tu, nh Chua Con la hnh anh Thien Chua c sieu ton vt tren cac thien than. Danh hieu Ngai tiep thu sau khi dang mnh hien te. Bay nhieu ghi nhan cot yeu khong cho phep ta t khc moi gia tr cua tap truyen ben ong coi Th nay la cua T. Phao-lo. Ta co can c e tin la Th Hi-ba a do mot ban ong nghiep cua T. Phao-lo bien soan.

Con viec xac nh ro hn tac gia la g, th ta khong the hi vong c. V ngay tap truyen thi co a phan van gia nhieu gia thuyet nh T. Lu-ca, T. C-le-men Ro-ma hoac T. Ba-na-be. Nhng khong gia thuyet nao co u bang chng. V the cac ngi thi nay i tm gia thuyet mi. Gia thuyet co the tan thanh hn het han la nh ong Lu-te-ro gii thieu va gan Th Hi-ba cho ong A-po-lo. Goc Do-thai, c giao duc theo Hi-lap tai A-lec-xan-i, thong thao Thanh Kinh va noi tieng co tai li khau (Cv 18,24-28; 1C 3,6): o la nhng net hoan toan thch hp vi tac gia Th Hi-ba, v ngon ng Th nay co nhieu lien he vi ngon ng ong Phi-long A-lec-xan-i. Nhng v khong co bang chng co ve van e nay va khong the so sanh vi tac pham nao khac ta biet chac la cua ong A-po-lo, nen viec gan Th Hi-ba cho ong ng vao hang gia thuyet khong the nao kiem chng c. Chung qui ta anh chu khong biet ten tac gia la ai.

 

Loai van: Th hay bai giang

Chnh loai van cua tac pham nay cung gay tranh luan. Ngi ta qua quen goi la Th, nhng khong thay bat au theo kieu bc th, va khong the noi la phan m Th nay b mat. Thc ra cau th nhat (1,1-4) ung la cau m au rat kheo, nhng khong phai cho mot bc th, ma cho mot bai giang. Toan ban van cung co ac tnh hung bien nh the. Tac gia khong bao gi noi la ong viet, nhng luon luon nhac la ong noi (2,5; 5,11; 6,9; 8,1; 9,5; 11,32). Phan than khong bao ham yeu to ac biet nao cua loi viet th. Phai i ti may cau sau cung mi thay oi giong: 13,22-25 la mot oan ket th. Ta gap may ch a tin gi cho cac ngi ni khac, roi ti may li chao thng quen va mot li cau chuc. Nhng trc phan ket ma giong ieu khong tng ng chut nao vi phan m o, ta nhan thay mot cau long trong (13,20-21), lam thanh cau ket that. vay ta can phan biet trong ban van hien thi, mot bai giang danh e oc (1,1-13,21) va mot cai ve a them vao ve sau (13,22-25). Co the ngh la thc s ngi ta a oc bai giang nay trc mat cac tn o hoi hop mot hay nhieu ni khac. Roi lai viet gi cho ki-to hu va nhan dp kem them may ch a tin va chao hoi. Rat co the la bai giang va tam ve khong phai do cung mot ngi viet. Tuy li van bai giang khong the gan cho T. Phao-lo, nhng oi vi tam ve, th khong the noi nh vay c.

 

Ngi nhan th

Ban van khong ghi ro chi tiet ve cac ngi nhan Th. Nhan e "gi ngi Hi-ba" khong thuoc chnh van. Tuy co t thi co, nhng rat co the la a chon nhan e ay luc xen ban van vao tuyen tap gom nhieu bc Th. Y ngha nhan e ay khong ro rang. Nhieu nha chu giai co thi nhan o ket luan ngi nhan Th goc Do-thai, tai x Pa-le-tin va noi tieng Hi-ba. Loi nhn o, bay gi khong ai theo na, v ai nay eu cong nhan van hi-lap trong Th khong phai la van dch.

Co nhng tac gia gan ay chu trng Th nay viet cho ngi Do-thai ngoai Ki-to giao va chnh xac hn la cho cac phan t thuoc phai Qum-ran: gia thuyet nay khong ung, v Th khong keu mi an nan tr lai, nhng khuyen nhu kien tr va tien ti trong c tin (3,6; 5,12; 6,9-12; v.v.). ang khac, tuy co nhng moi lien quan khong choi cai c vi cac van th a tm thay gan Bien Chet tai Qum-ran, nhng cung co nhieu lien he rat ro rang vi Do-thai giao trong gii hi-lap va ngi ta con tng la gap thay trong o anh hng giao ly cua phai ngo ao na. Cac iem so sanh khac biet tren ay cho ta thay Th nay a c nuoi dng trong manh at rat la ph nhieu. Moi trng bien soan ban van von nhay cam oi vi nhieu anh hng. Th viet cho nhng cong oan ki-to hu khong phai la mi lap (5,12; 13,7), nhng khong v vay ma a co mai t buoi s khai Giao Hoi, tai x Pa-le-tin (x. 2,3). Long quang ai luc au (6,10; 12,32-34) a nhng cho phan nao cho met moi (5,11; 10,25; 12,3). Vien anh nhng kho khan mi khien cho b cam do nan long (10,35-36; 12,4.7). Han la con them moi nguy sai lac ve giao ly va hng i do-thai hoa t nhieu (13,9). Du sao, anh hng ki-to hu goc do-thai dng nh in dau sau xa vao cac cong oan ay.

 

Hoan canh va ngay thang bien soan

Phan cuoi Th gi nhng hoan canh, tuy cu the, nhng mot cach b an, khien ta khong biet at chung vao khi nao, cho nao. Ong Ti-mo-theu c giai thoat au, khi nao? Ong c giai thoat khoi cai chi? Ta khong biet. S nhac ti "anh em Y" cung khong em lai tia sang nao, v ta khong biet cac ngi ay au, khi bien soan Th nay, va s kien cac ngi nhan Th co quen biet mot t tn o goc Y hien nhien la khong u cho ta biet c ho la ai.

Ngay thang bien soan cung co the c lng rat khac nhau. Co nha chu giai quan tam ti mot so cau dang ve co knh, chu trng la a viet Th nay rat sm, trc cac Th ln cua T. Phao-lo. Ngi khac lui ngay thang bien soan lai cho ti cuoi the ky au, tham ch con xa hn na. Viec T. C-le-men Ro-ma s dung Th Hi-ba, khoang nam 95, loai tr viec nh ngay thang tre hn. ang khac nhng tng ong trong giao ly ve c Ki-to cua Th nay vi cac Th viet khi b tu gi cho ta mot ngay thang gan vi luc T. phao-lo t ao. Ta co the ngh ti nhng nam trc khi pha huy en th Gie-ru-sa-lem, xay ra vao nam 70. V tac gia qui chieu vao phung t en th, nh mot thc tai con ang hien hu (10,1-3).

 

C cau

Viec ta khong biet ve cac hoan canh bien soan Th Hi-ba khong gay bat li g to tat, v loai van cua tac pham nay bao am cho no biet lap kha nhieu oi vi nhng bien co rieng. ieu quan trong hn nhieu la phan biet nhng net chnh trong Th.

Loi co thi chia ra hai phan, mot phan giao ly (1,1-10,18), mot phan luan ly (10,19-13,25) khong tng ng vi chu tam tac gia, v ngay t au ong a xen giao ly vi li khuyen nhu (x. 2,1-4; 3,7-4,16; 5,11-6,12), bi ong chu y lieu cho c tin lien hiep mat thiet vi i song ki-to hu.

Loi chia ra ba phan: (1) Li Thien Chua (1,1-4,13); (2) chc Thng te c Ki-to (4,14-10,18); (3) i song ki-to hu (10,19 cuoi), tuy co the can c vao mot so ghi nhan chnh xac, nhng khong trung thanh neu len toan the cac s kien.

Nghien cu chnh xac hn th se thay noi bat len ky thuat bien soan rat la vung chac vi nhng phng thc ("ong khung", "ch moc", at cau oi xng) lien ket vi tap truyen van chng Kinh Thanh. Nh vay, ngoai phan m va phan ket, ta co the nhan ra cau truc nam phan ma tac gia se lan lt loan bao trc (x. cac chu giai 1,4; 2,17; 5,10; 10,36.39; 12,12-13).

I. Trong phan mot (1,5-2,18) tac gia lo nh ngha Danh hieu c Ki-to, tc la xac nh v tr oi vi Thien Chua (1,5-14) va oi vi loai ngi (2,5-18). Muon c the, ong so sanh vi v tr cac thien than. Phan quang dien nay a ti li qua quyet ve chc Thng te cua c Ki-to (2,17).

II. Roi phan hai (3,1-5,10) chng to viec the hien ni c Ki-to, hai net chnh cua bat luan chc t te nao: c Ki-to c uy nhiem oi vi Thien Chua (3,1-6) va Ngi lien i vi loai ngi (4,15-5,10). V tr Ngi v c vi v tr ong Moi-sen (3,2) va ong A-a-ron (5,4). Gia hai cau sanh v nay, tac gia xen vao mot oan dai khuyen nhu trung thanh vi Ki-to giao (3,7-4,14).

III. Phan ba (5,11-10,39) trnh bay giao ly cho hoan toan vien man, v neu ro may ac biet cua chc Thng te c Ki-to: c Ki-to la Thng te thuoc loai hoan toan mi (7,1-28); hien te ban than Ngi khac xa nhng nghi thc ao cu va a m loi i vao cung thanh that (8,1-9,28); Ngi a thc s xin c n tha th toi ta (10,1-18). Vay hien te nay cham dt chc t te cu, le luat cu, Giao c cu. V quan trong hn nhng phan kia, phan nay co them oan dan vao (5,11-6,20) va oan ket (10,19-39).

IV. Muon keo loi ki-to hu tren ng do Hien te c Ki-to a m ra, phan bon (11,1-12,13) nhan manh vao hai kha canh nen tang trong i song linh thieng: la long tin theo gng mau ngi xa (11,1-40) va s kien tr can thiet (12,1-13).

V. Sau het phan cuoi cung (12,14-13,18) phac hoa bc tranh i song ki-to hu, keu mi tn hu quyet ch dan than tren ng ngay a ti thanh thien va bnh an.

 

Chc Thng te c Ki-to

Ta de nhan ra phan ong gop ve giao ly cua Th Hi-ba trc het la trnh bay chc Thng te trong Huyen nhiem c Ki-to. V trong Tan c, ch co Th Hi-ba ap dung cho c Ki-to tc hieu T te va Thng te. ay la s kien co tam quan trong ln. Nh the la a dien ta moi tng quan gia niem tin ki-to hu va mot trong cac trao lu chnh cua tap truyen Thanh Kinh, lien he vi phung t: le nghi va hien te, chc t te, cung thanh Thien Chua I-ra-en.

Thoat nhn, khong thay ban than va s nghiep c Gie-su lien quan g ti phng thc dien ta tong giao o. c Gie-su khong thuoc ve hang t te va khong bao gi muon thi hanh chc vu t te. Con bien co Nui au lau th ben ngoai khong co chi la le nghi. Cai chet cua c Gie-su tren o xuat hien la hnh phat, tc hanh vi phap ly o nhuc tach ri khoi dan Thien Chua, trong khi hien te la hanh vi nghi le e ton vinh va ket hiep cung Thien Chua.

Muon thay mac khai hoan toan ve tnh hien te cua cuoc T nan Phuc sinh c Ki-to, can vt qua hai ieu: mot la phai lam no tung tnh hep hoi cua nhng quan niem co truyen rang buoc vi viec c hanh cac le nghi. Hai la phai vt qua dang ve ben ngoai e nhan ra y ngha sau xa cua bien co. Cam hng theo cac ban van ngon s (Is 53, 10) va cac li c Gie-su (1C 11,25), lai nh mot so hoan canh nh ngay gi T nan trung vi le Vt qua, ki-to hu suy t, roi m tam hon on nhan tia sang o (x. 1C 5,7; Rm 3,25; Ep 5,2; 1P 1,19). Cung vi Th Hi-ba, li qua quyet at ti o het sc ro rang. Khong the i ti thanh tu ay, neu khong can than so sanh vi cac le nghi ao cu va cac hien te loai vat. Chung toi a noi la viec gi nh nay co the lam cho oc gia kim thi ngac nhien. Nhng can thay ro la tac gia khong ngng lai giai oan ay, nhng ch e cap ti e loi keo tn o vt xa hn.

Chnh trong c Ki-to Vinh hien sau khi T nan la ni tac gia nhan ra chc t te a hoan tat vien toan: la Con Thien Chua, la Anh loai ngi, c Ki-to Vinh hien bao am cho loai ngi c ti cung Chua Cha, v the Ngi that la Thng te. Chc t te cua Ngi tha ke chc t te cua ong A-a-ron (5,4-5), nhng bang cach vt xa hn: li Tv 110 lam chng la Thien Chua muon cho xuat hien mot t te loai mi "theo kieu Men-ki-xe-ec" (7,1-28). Cai chet va s ton vinh c Ki-to lam thanh mot hien te that. Hn na phai noi rang: o la hien te that duy nhat, en thay the cho moi hien te ao cu. V cac hien te nay gii han vao bnh dien tran ai; la c ch c le, nen khong co sc tinh luyen tam hon (9,9; 10,1-4) hay la em con ngi len cung Thien Chua. Cai chet cua c Ki-to th trai lai, la viec dang hien ban than, hoan toan (9,14), chiem lay toan the con ngi va bat no hoan toan vang theo y Thien Chua (5,8; 10,9-10). ong thi lai oi mi con ngi toan dien va cho song than mat cung Thien Chua. Nh chu chet, c Ki-to a thanh v t te thien cung (9,24), a hoan thanh viec thanh tay toi loi va thiet lap Giao c mi muon i (9,15; 13,20). Mau Ngai bao am cho ta c t do en cung Thien Chua (10,19). Tat ca bay nhieu eu la cong trnh Thien Chua, la hong an Thien Chua ban cho loai ngi, v chnh Thien Chua a the hien ni Con cua Ngai s bien hoa triet e con ngi nh the (2,10).

 

a v ki-to hu

Cai xac nh a v ki-to hu trc tien la viec at vao tng quan t te nay oi vi Thien Chua. ieu ma nghi le en toi trong ao cu (Lv 16) ch tien trng bang nhng co gang bat lc (Hi 9,9; 10,1), th nay a tr nen thc tai vien toan trong Hien te duy nhat cua c Ki-to. "Chung ta co V Thng Te" (8,1; x. 4,14-15; 10,21), V Thng Te hoan toan a dt khoat mot lan thau vao trong Cung thanh that (9,12) va t nay ai dien ra trc toa Thien Chua (7,25; 9,24). Ngi a m ng cho ta; ta c keu mi em het long tn nhiem theo chan Ngi en gan Thien Chua (4,16; 7,19; 10,22). Toi loi b diet (9,26; 10,12); ke thu a b thua (2,14): ta a c giai phong hoan toan, dt khoat (2,15; 9,12). Ngay bay gi, ki-to hu c d phan cac cua lanh i sau (6,4-5); c chiem hu Nc khong he lay chuyen (12,28). oi vi ho, ky nguyen mi a bat au (1,2; 9,26).

Khong co y noi la ho a at muc tieu. n keu goi tren tri cua ho (3,1) cha the hien vien toan. i song ho con tiep dien tran gian, ni ho khong co thanh tr ben vng, va i song ay con hng ve thanh tng lai (13,14). Ho i ch ang Cu o mnh xuat hien lan th hai (9,28). Ho cam thay Ngay ay a gan (10,25.37), nhng cha c hng hoan toan anh sang ngay ay.

Moi tng quan gia ho va Thien Chua nh c Ki-to la cai co that, va chat che, nhng the hien trong c tin. Ch nh c tin ho mi c vao, ngay t bay gi, trong s ngh yen Thien Chua (4,3). Neu ho e cho s khong tin thau vao long, ho lien b tach ri xa c Ki-to (3,14) va xa Thien Chua (3,12; 10,38) ma b h i (10,39). Trong cach noi ve c tin, tac gia lien ket hai quan iem kha d biet, mot co tnh thuan tr hn, xac nh noi dung c tin (11,1.3.6), mot co tnh hien sinh hn, to ra tnh ong ch cua c tin va lam cho c tin gan vi c cay (11,1.8-10; v.v.). The la nao trang hi-lap va nao trang do-thai xuat hien ben canh nhau.

ang khac o cung la ieu ta co the ky nhan ni cac phan quang dien khac. V du viec phung th trong ao cu c xac nh bang hai moi tng quan: tac gia coi o va la phan anh thc tai bat di bat dch tren tri (8,5; 9,24), va la hnh bong cho mot bien co "ve sau" tc la Hien te cua c Ki-to, la cai co gia tr canh chung (9,7-12). Nh vay tnh tng trng cua Th nay phien phc, nhng that la phong phu. Ta cung nhan thay cach tac gia kheo dung hoa moi ban tam lien l muon at ti cac gia tr vnh cu vi s cng quyet nhan manh vao hieu nang quyet liet cua s kien lch s, a xay ra ch mot lan (9,26.28), "dt khoat mot lan ma thoi" (7,27; 9,12; 10,10). S lien ket mot cach nghch thung ca hai vien anh ta co the ngh la khong the dung hoa nay, quyet nhien la cach to ra tr khon sau sac, ma nhat la c tin tham tram ni tac gia.

Bo qua tnh oi lap T. Phao-lo neu len gia c tin va cac viec lam, ma Th Hi-ba khong ni nao e cap en, ieu tac gia a thch hn la chng to c tin phong phu ni cac viec lam va tat ca nhng g co gia tr a the hien trong Cu c, eu co c tin lam can ban. ang khac, ong con nhan manh la trong tnh trang th thach ta con phai song, c tin chung ta phai kem them s kien tam tr ch (6,12; 10,36; 12,1-13). S d c Ki-to a ganh lay au kho va cai chet nhan loai ma bien no nen con ng vinh quang cho Ngi (2,9) va cu o cho ta (5,8-9), khong phai la e chuan cho chnh mnh ta khoi ng au vi chung, nhng la e giup ta ng au mot cach ay tran hi vong (12,2-3).

Tuy tac gia nhan manh nhieu en hieu nang hoan toan cua hien te duy nhat la Hien te cua c Ki-to, nhng ong khong ngan ngai trnh bay i song ki-to hu nh viec tien dang cac hien te ( so nhieu: 13,16). Ong khuyen tn hu, nh c Ki-to, e dang len Chua Cha "mot hien te lien l tan dng" (13,15) va ang khac lai qua quyet gia tr hien te cua i song phuc vu anh em va bac ai (13,16). Theo gng hien te cua c Ki-to va ket hiep vi Ngi, ki-to hu khong at phung t ben canh i song, nhng ket hiep cung Thien Chua bang i song thc te cua mnh. ieu ay khong co ngha la chm han vao the gii tran ai (x. 13,12-14) hay la anh tan het moi cong oan ki-to hu. Trai lai, tac gia nhac cho ta nh oan ket gia ki-to hu: lo lang cho nhau (3,12; 4,1.11; 10,24; 12,15), cham ch d cac phien hop ki-to hu (10,25), vang li cac v hng dan (13,17). Nhieu lan tac gia lam cho hieu tat ca tam quan trong cua li giang thuyet (2,1.3; 4,2; 5,11; 13,7) va cua phung t ki-to giao (6,4; 10,19-22.29; 13,10). V muon i en cung Thien Chua ma khong ket hiep vi c Ki-to va cac anh em mnh, th o chnh la ao tng. Ta thay Th Hi-ba trnh bay mot hnh anh rat ro rang va tuyet vi quan bnh ve i song ki-to hu.

 

Bien chng hai Giao c

Mot kha canh sau cung cua giao ly trong Th Hi-ba ang ta lu y cach rieng. Co le khong mot cuon nao trong Tan c chng minh ro ret bang Th Hi-ba ve cach the Cu c nen hoan tat trong c Ki-to va to cho ta thay toan bo moi tng quan xac nh viec hoan tat trong c Ki-to nh vay. ay la toan bo phien phc va co tnh nghch thng na kia, v lien ket khang nh va phu nh vi nhau e i ti s vt qua khong ng. V du tieu bieu hn het la hien te cua c Ki-to. Xet mot ang, cai chet cua c Ki-to tren Thap gia chnh la choi bo phung t ao cu, xem ra khong co lien quan g vi phung t ay, lai con oi lap theo nhieu iem na. Tuy nhien, neu nhn can than, th se kham pha ra tnh lien tuc sau xa: ca hai ang eu la dang le vat len Thien Chua, i ti o mau ra va co y xin n tha toi. Nhng trng hp c Ki-to troi vt muon trung! Thay v sat te nhng loai vat theo nghi thc, th ay la viec dang hien ban than i ti cung tan, trong s hoan toan vang phuc Chua Cha va lien i toan dien vi loai ngi. V the muc tieu ma phung t ao cu theo uoi, nay a at ti dt khoat mot lan, va ong thi moi le nghi ao cu lai tr nen loi thi va het gia tr.

Khong phai la ch co v du ay ma thoi. T au en cuoi tac pham nay, tac gia luon luon oi chieu cac li ha vi viec the hien chung, cac hnh bong trong Cu c vi viec chung nen ng nghiem va luon luon neu bat cac moi tng quan trong viec khai trien chng trnh Thien Chua. Ong hieu sau sac ve tnh lien tuc cua chng trnh ay, tc la cai lam cho hai Giao c la mot, nhng cung to ra khong kem phan y thc ve tnh mi me va canh chung cua Mac Khai do c Ki-to em lai cho ta.

 

Ket luan

Tuy can phai co gang phan nao e oc Th Hi-ba, nhng co gang nay se mau c thng cong doi dao. Ta cam thay trong ban van Tan c nay mot niem khat khao manh liet muon vao hiep thong cung Thien Chua, ta kham pha ra trong o mot giao ly tuyet vi thc te ve nhng kho khan trong i song ki-to hu. V the, ta se oc i oc lai nhng trang suc tch nay ma khong he thay met. Han la phan ong gop cua nhng trang nay, oi vi thi ta, that qu bau hn bao gi het. V Th Hi-ba noi vi nhng ki-to hu ang b mat hng va b cam do nga long. Th ay ch cho ta phng thuoc that ieu tr chng benh nay: khong phai nhng li khuyen luan ly bong long, nhng mot co gang nghiem chnh ao sau niem tin vao c Ki-to.

 


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