Chu Giai Tan c Theo TOB

Theo ban dch cua Linh Muc An Sn V

 

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Tieu Dan Th Gi Tn Hu Co-lo-xe

c Ki-to Tat Ca Trong Tat Ca Moi Loai

 

Noi dung Th

Khuon kho (duy co bon chng) va ngay quang dien than hoc cua Th Co-lo-xe cung eu van tat. Theo co truyen, Th nay vao so cac Th "viet khi b tu".

Theo thoi le, Th bat au bang nghi le m th (1,1-20): o la li chao tham va ta n v Tin Mng tien bo (3,8), roi cau xin cho tn o (9-12), tiep theo o la bai ca tung c Ki-to la au vu tru va dao cung cho ca la Th (13-20). May c. 21-23 keu goi cac ngi nhan Th, roi t li keu goi chuyen sang gi nh s vu tong o co s mang the hien ieu a tan dng trong bai ca tung: T. Phao-lo phai lam cho li va cac au kho c Ki-to nen hoan tat, hau bay to vinh quang Thien Chua gia ch dan (1,24-2,5).

T 2,6 en 3,4 la li dan coi chng, tc la ly do khien T. Phao-lo gi Th nay. Ngai bao ong cho Giao oan thay nguy c do nhng giao ly cua may giao s "lac ao" va mi en Co-lo-xe va cac ieu ho chu trng la phai tuan hanh. trung tam phan but chien nay lai noi len bai ca tung cuoc toan thang ma cac tn o nh phep thanh tay a c tham d vao (2,6-15) va la nen tang cho s t do ki-to hu ng trc moi co gang no le hoa (2,16-3,4).

Roi li khuyen xoay ra tong quat hn (3,5-4,6) va lai can c vao phep thanh tay. Tn o a ci lot con ngi cu va mac lay con ngi mi. i song Con Ngi Mi nay the hien trong cong ong ki-to hu bang cach an net va bang viec phung th (3,5-17).

Sau o la li nhan nhu lien quan ti nhng moi giao tiep vi tha nhan. ay la may bc tranh co truyen ban ve cuoc song gia nh va xa hoi. Cuoc song ay nay thap nhap vao "trong Chua" va nh ay ma them y ngha mi (3,18-4,1). Ket Th la li keu goi tnh thc va cau nguyen (4,2-4), ch dan ve cach giao thiep vi ngi ngoai ki-to giao (4,5-6) va mot chuoi dai cac li chao tham va li dan ca nhan (4,7-14), roi cham dt bang li chao sau het cua T. Tong o (4,18).

 

Cuoc khung hoang Co-lo-xe

1. Cac s kien trong Th. T. Phao-lo tu nhan (4,3.10.18), gi Th nay cho ki-to hu Co-lo-xe (1,2). Ngai cha en ni ay bao gi (1,4; 2,1). Co-lo-xe thuoc x Phy-gia (Tieu A), cach E-phe-so 200 cay so ngan ve pha ong. Trong khi T. Phao-lo lu tru lau dai tai E-phe-so (Cv 19), mon e ngai la E-pa-pha, goc thanh Co-lo-xe (4,12), a thiet lap cong oan Co-lo-xe (1,7) ong thi vi hai cong oan Hia-ra-po-li va Lao-i-ke (4,13), la hai thanh lan can, cung trong thung lung Ly-cut. Lao-i-ke vao so "Bay giao oan" Tieu A co nhac en trong sach Khai huyen (1,11; 3,14) va ngi ta tng thanh ay a co the la ngi nhan "Th E-phe-so" (Co 4,16; x. Tieu dan vao Ep). Theo li le trong Th, th T. Phao-lo c ong E-pa-pha en tham trong tu va bao tin cho biet tnh hnh khung hoang Giao oan Co-lo-xe (4,7), lien sai ong Ty-kch co le mang theo la Th nay (4,7-8; x. Ep 6,21) va ong O-ne-sim (4,9). Ho se thong ngon thay ngai trong cn th thach, cac Giao oan khong phai do ngai sang lap ay ang phai chu va chnh ngai khong the trc tiep can thiep, v ang b cam tu.

2. Cuoc au tranh than hoc va tam linh. T. Phao-lo a gap nhieu noi kho khan. Nhng khac vi ieu a xay ra tai Co-rin-to hay la Ga-lat, hnh nh ay van e ca nhan (ua tranh hay chong oi viec tong o cua T. Phao-lo) khong ong vai tro quyet nh. Du a co nhieu bai nghien cu, nhng chung ta van cha biet ro noi dung cac t tng tuyen truyen tai Co-lo-xe. Tai lieu co c la do Th nay cung cap. Nhng cac li le trong Th thng lai am ch ma thoi va may danh t chuyen mon oi vi ta van con toi ngha. oi khi ta rat kho phan biet ch dan nao o can phai gan cho cac giao s mi me kia hay no dien ta phan oan cua T. Tong o (v.d. 2,18.21.23). Khuynh hng can ban cua trao lu nay la tm mot th vt qua Tin Mng do cac T. Tong o rao giang. Nhng suy t ve the gii cac thien than, nhng thc hanh tu than khac kho va viec tuan gi cac ieu luat Moi-sen la nhng cai can phai bo tuc cho niem tin vao c Ki-to va se thong ban cho tn o s hieu biet cao sieu ve cac huyen nhiem cung giup ho song tong giao cho thch hp hn vi cac tn ieu mnh khat vong. Ta lai gap ay t nhieu net trong th "tin mng do-thai hoa", ma T. Phao-lo a tan cong trong Th Ga-lat. Nhng o la mot th tin mng do-thai hoa a bien chuyen roi va in nhieu dau vet b truyen hn. Ta nhan ra ay nhng khuynh hng se a ti cac he thong suy t ve thuyet ngo ao trong the ky th 2. Mot ng vng mi nay ra, ma ta con gap lai dau vet ni nhng sach viet sau trong Tan c va ngoai Tan c na.

 

Cac ac tnh Th

V in vet cuoc cham tran nay, nen Th Co-lo-xe chac chan la oc ao hn cac Th trc cua T. Phao-lo.

a) Ta thay the van a oi thay, ma Th E-phe-so con tang cng them na.o la nhng danh t ong ngha chong chat len nhau, cac bo ng theo nhau don dap, nhng li quang dien phung t (1,3; 8,9-20), nhng cau oi khi toi ngha hoac khong xuoi (2,18-19. 20-23), nhieu cau xen ke, nhieu kieu noi phan t hay la dung quan he ai danh t...

b) Ve ng vng, cung thay chuyen hoa. Nhng danh t T. Phao-lo a dung, nay lai ket tinh t tng mot cach cha tng thay. o la nhng danh t au, than the, quyen bnh va nang quyen, nhng nguyen to the gian, huyen nhiem, che o, vien man; khon ngoan, phong phu, hieu biet, v.v. (co the ghi nhan anh hng manh me cac sach khon ngoan). Danh t thanh hu noi bat hn dung e goi ki-to hu.

c) Chnh t tng cung bien thien, oi khi gan nh khong con thay, nhng loan bao nhng vien anh mi. Ta se ghi nhan nhat la nhng net nhan manh va thay oi sau ay:

- viec ton vinh c Ki-to, m rong ti toan the vu tru bao la: ca tung c Ki-to la au cua vu tru va cua cac quyen nang va la au Giao Hoi;

- quan niem ve Giao Hoi oi thay: y tng than the ni 1C 12 a dien ta s nhat tr gia cac phan khac nhau trong long Cong ong, nay cung m rong ti kch thc toan the vu tru; Giao Hoi (Than the) phan biet vi c Ki-to (au) cach ro rang hn 1C;

- cac pham tru khong gian (tren cao di thap) lan at hn cac pham tru thi gian va canh chung. at Vng quoc ben tren chung ta nh mot thc tai troi vt tren ta (1,13; 3,1-4) hn la trc mat ta nh la mot thc tai ang en (x. Mc 1,15).

- Than hoc ve phep thanh tay do o cung oi thay kha nhieu. Rm 6,T. Phao-lo a dien ta s ta ket hiep vi cai chet cua c Ki-to th qua kh va s ta thong phan vao viec song lai cua c Ki-to th tng lai. Con Th Co-lo-xe th qua quyet rang ngi thu tay a chet va a song lai vi c Ki-to roi (x. 2,12; 3,1).

- Y niem vien man, cac e tai khon ngoan va soi sang thay the cho cac y niem phap ly la cai trc ay T. Phao-lo a cho lien hp vi tac ong cua Thanh Linh. Tin Mng hng ti cho tr nen "Huyen nhiem".

Moi net ay se tai hien trong Th E-phe-so: nhng tng ong ve the van va t tng gia hai Th lam thanh mot van e ac biet (x. Tieu dan vao Ep).

 

Tnh chnh tong

Nhng yeu to chnh can lu y ti la nhng iem sau ay:

1. Cac tieu chuan van chng va than hoc, chung toi va tom tat tren ay. Tuy theo tam quan trong ta gan cho chung va tuy theo ta nhan manh nhieu hn vao nhng net tng ong hay d biet oi vi nhng Th kia, ta se coi Th la tac pham cua T. Tong o a at ti cuoi i ngai, hoac nh tac pham cua mot th ky hay mot mon o trc tiep cua ngai, hay la nh tac pham ve sau cua nhom ma mot t ngi a goi la "trng phai T. Phao-lo".

2. Cac s kien giup ta xac nh moi tng quan gia Th Co-lo-xe va cac Th kia. Cac moi tng quan that la phien phc, v Th Co-lo-xe co ho hang vi nhng Th thuoc ngay thang khac nhau. V du nh e tai "nguyen to the gian" va may kieu noi lam cho Th Co-lo-xe gan vi Th Ga-lat (x. Ga 4,1-11 va Co 2,6-23). ang khac, Th Co-lo-xe cung vi Th Phi-le-mon va Th E-phe-so lam thanh mot nhom ma ac iem la co cung mot tnh hnh nh nhau: T. Phao-lo ang b tu (Plm 9.10.13.23; Ep 3,1; 4,1; 6,20), uy cho ong Ti-kch va O-ne-sim mot s mang tng t (Plm 12; Ep 6,21-22). Th Co-lo-xe lai khong phai la chang lien he g vi Th Phi-lp, la mot bc Th khac viet khi b tu. Nhng cac yeu to nay khong phai la quyet nh va ta co the xet ti viec cac Th vay mn lan nhau.

3. Ban chat xac nh cua cn khung hoang Co-lo-xe. Nhng ay na, that kho a ra mot ngay thang chac chan. Tnh ho o cua may cau am ch ve nhng giao ly va nhng thc hanh, thi gian cac hien tng o nhiem gia niem tin ki-to giao va cac trao lu tien ngo ao khong cho phep ta noi chac cuoc xung ot a xuat hien vao ung luc nao.

Bang vao toan the cac s kien tren ay, ngi ta a neu ba mau giai quyet sau ay:

a) Y kien thong thng at Th Co-lo-xe vi Th Phi-le-mon va Th E-phe-so cung nh Th Phi-lp vao phan cuoi s vu T. Phao-lo, tc vao thi gian ngai b tu lan th nhat tai Ro-ma (t nam 61 en 63). Th Co-lo-xe la ban phac hoa ve tong hp than khoa cua ngai va Th E-phe-so se khai trien them cho ung mc: t tng T. Tong o vn cao hn va nhn xa hn, e to ra y ngha bao la pho the cua Thanh gia va cua viec Ton vinh c Ki-to, e bay to ra nhng lien quan tot cung cua Huyen nhiem cu thoat trong Giao Hoi. o la ly do giai thch v sao tong hp mi nay cua giao ly T. Phao-lo a thay the van va vien anh. Gia thuyet bien soan Th Co-lo-xe trong khi b tu tai Xe-sa-re (t nam 58 en 60) cung vao khung canh lch s tng t nh the. ang khac cuoc khung hoang Ga-lat lai to cho ta thay viec chuyen hoa t tng a co the thc hien kha sm kia.

b) Trong so cac ngi chu trng chnh T. Phao-lo a viet Th nay, nhieu ngi at Th Co-lo-xe cung vi Th Phi-le-mon va Th Phi-lp, khong phai vao cuoi, nhng vao chnh trung tam hoat ong truyen giao va th tn cua T. Phao-lo, gia cac Th viet vao ky lu tru lau dai tai E-phe-so (t nam 54 en 57), v trong thi ky ay, ta co the gia thiet la ngai a co b tu (ve cac noi kho khan cua T. Phao-lo thanh nay, x. 1C 15,32; 2C 8-10). Nh the th giai thch c nhng moi lien lac gan gui va lien l gia T. Tong o vi cac Giao oan mien ay, nhng lai khong ton trong khoang thi gian can thiet e soan Th Co-lo-xe va bo buoc phai lui Th E-phe-so lai, v trong trng hp nay thng coi la Th E-phe-so khong phai do T. Phao-lo viet.

c) au mut kia, co nhng ngi chu trng la tnh hnh Giao Hoi, noi dung va hnh thc la Th oi ta phai coi Th Co-lo-xe la mot ban van ai dien cho the he sau cac T. Tong o. Nhng lo lang ve canh chung a m dan va ng trc nhng tan cong au tien cua thuyet ngo ao, Giao Hoi nai ti quyen bnh cac T. Tong o, bang cach hp thc hoa s vu va li giang ong E-pa-pha nhan danh T. Phao-lo. ong thi la Th se to cho ta tam thc cao trong cua ong oi vi ki-to hu vao thi cuoi the ky th nhat (x. 2P 3,15-16).

 

Gia tr Th

Tuy y kien co the khac nhau ve ngay thang va tac gia la Th, nhng lai gap nhau e nhn nhan la Th Co-lo-xe can ban noi tiep s iep T. Phao-lo a trnh bay trong nhng hoan canh khac: chung ta c ay tran vien man trong c Ki-to. Ngai la tat ca cho chung ta c nen cong chnh (Ga-lat va Ro-ma), la tat ca cho so menh chung ta, cho cai chet va s song chung ta (Co-lo-xe). Coi chng, ch quay ve vi nhng chi tiet Le Luat Moi-sen, v nh the la tr lai vi ch no le khi trc (Ga)! Y t, ng co th phung quyen nang nao ben canh, ben tren hay ben di quyen toi thng cua c Ki-to: v nh the la quay ve lam no le (Co)! Cung mot bai ca tung s t do cua ki-to hu c xng len. Cung bat buoc phai nai en phep thanh tay nh la bien co khong the phan hoi, a rt chung ta khoi moi hnh thc cong chnh (Ga, Rm) va khoi moi quyen hanh khac vi quyen hanh cua c Ki-to (Co). Va xem ra t ngon ng trc kia in dau vet thi gian va s trong ch Chua en, nay a chuyen sang ngon ng b chi phoi bi khong gian va viec ton vinh c Ki-to la au vu tru, nhng trc sau cung eu co y cong bo cung mot ieu: o la c Ki-to a chet va a phuc sinh dt khoat han mot lan; va cung dt khoat han mot lan chung ta a c ket hiep vi c Ki-to. i song chung ta a lien ket vi i song cua Ngi, nen c ong on mot cach oanh liet ngay tan "chon thien cung", ni cac quyen nang co the e doa n giai phong chung ta. Khong phai noi the e xui giuc chung ta thoat ly, tron lanh trach nhiem, nhng chnh la e dan chung ta vao cuoc song chnh tong trung thc, nh phan cuoi Th chng minh ieu ay.

Thoat nhn, khong co chi xa vi chung ta cho bang may li am ch ve quyen nang thien gii, la cac thien than va nang lc ieu khien s xoay van cac tinh tu va cac dien tien cua so kiep ngi tran. Khong co chi ky cuc cho bang nhng truyen day ve o an thc uong hay nhng thc hanh le nghi ma ki-to hu Co-lo-xe a b cam do tuan theo. Nhng neu ta biet lang nghe phan nao nhng cau hoi o va hieu cho tham sau li giai ap cua T. Tong o, ta mi hieu c anh hng cua la Th nay. Cac quyen nang hien gi a thay hnh oi ten, nhng cach ta co gang e lay long hay e thoat ly nhng quyen nang ay, khong con y het nh xa na, the nhng ngi Co-lo-xe la anh em vi chung ta. Con ngi thuoc the ky 20, ca con ngi ki-to hu, hien nay cam thay noi kho khan tng t. ay la kho t biet mnh co trach nhiem. Ho cam thay mnh nh cai tro chi b chi phoi do cac nang lc ang loi keo a cau theo a tien hoa khong the phan hoi. n cu o khong con the do nguyen ca nhan tuan hanh mot le luat hay mot luan ly ma ngi ta thng t khc, nhng tai viec thoat ly khoi con tran tha hoa toi nguy ang siet chat lay chung ta hien gi! Ca oi vi chung ta cung at van e quyet nh ve moi tng quan gia c Ki-to va vu tru: co the co lien lac gia cac ieu ta thoang nhn thay ve vu tru va Tin Mng a c rao giang va on nhan hay chang?   

 


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