Chu Giai Tan c Theo TOB

Theo ban dch cua Linh Muc An Sn V

 

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Tieu Dan Th 1 Gi Tn Hu Co-rin-to

c Kito Cao Minh Thien Chua

 

Cong oan Co-rin-to

T. Phao-lo a song mi tam thang Co-rin-to e loan bao Tin Mng tai o (Cv 18,1-8), t nam 50 en 52. Theo mot so ngi c lng, tuy khong chac lam, th dan so Co-rin-to thi ay co hn na trieu ngi, ma hai phan ba la no le. B pha huy nam 146 trc Cong nguyen, roi mot tram nam sau c ong Xe-sa-re tai thiet, o la mot thanh th mi, se thnh vng phi thng nh v tr a ly va hai ca bien, mot la Ken-c-re tren bien E-gie (vnh Sa-ro-nch), hai la Le-che, tren bien A-di-a-tch (vnh Co-rin-to).

Co-rin-to co hai ac tnh trong i song nhng ca bien ln thuoc bat c thi ai nao. Mot la dan c gom moi noi giong, moi tong giao pha tron vi nhau, hai la i song xa hoa buong tuong cua nhng ngi thuy thu ham me tm lac thu, sau nhng thang vt bien lau dai. Viec ton th chnh yeu tai Co-rin-to la th than A-pho-i-to. Co mot en th knh dang cho than ay, ma nhan vien trong en chuyen nghe mai dam than thanh. Ngay thi A-rt-to-phan kieu noi "song theo loi Co-rin-to" a co ngha xau xa roi. Hau qua ngi ta co the thay trc c la thieu so th giau co tha ho phe phn, con a so th ngheo xac ngheo x. Sau het thanh th t chien nay la mot trung tam tinh than gom co ai dien cua moi gia nh tr thc. Vao the ky th hai, mot nha tu t da co the khen Co-rin-to v co nhieu trng hoc, nhieu triet gia va nhieu van s, ma bat luan goc pho nao ngi ta cung eu gap thay. Co-rin-to la mot trung tam tong giao, trong o cac loai ton th huyen b cua ong phng co sc loi cuon rat nhieu.

Cong oan ki-to hu do li T. Phao-lo rao giang qui tu Co-rin-to gom co nhng thanh phan phan anh ung tnh hnh th xa ay. Co nhng ngi giau va nhng ngi ngheo (11,21-22), nhng so ngi tren that la t (1,26), con toan the gom nhng ngi hen kem, nhng ten no le (7,21), noi tat la nhng ke b ngi ta khinh re (1,28).

Nhng ki-to hu ay lam thanh mot cong oan song ong va sot sang, nhng rat de b loi keo theo a h hong trong nep song xung quanh mnh: nao trai gai buong tuong (6,12-20), nao cai co theo triet ly dan ngoai len vao Hoi Thanh di hnh thc lp sn ki-to giao ben ngoai (1,19-2,10) va lam sai lac  nhng xac tn can ban trong niem tin mi (ch. 15), nao sc thu hut cua ca cac tong giao huyen b ma nhng bieu lo vo trat t chc tai dien trong cac buoi hoi ki-to giao (14,26-38). Mam cay ki-to giao lanh manh va cng trang, nhng re no bam vao manh at khong ong nhat vi mnh. o la tnh canh bat bnh thng, nen c Thanh Linh en phu tr, phan phat nhieu n hue phi thng (12-14) va trong cac Th ngai viet, T. Phao-lo tm cach thay oi i, nh cung cap cho mam cay non chat mau ki-to giao no con thieu thon.

o la ieu lam cho Th nay ang lu tam. oc Th, ta thay ro cac van e at ra do viec c tin ki-to giao an re vao mot nen van hoa dan ngoai va nhng phng the T. Phao-lo dung e giai quyet cac van e nay.

 

Cac hoan canh oi gi bc Th

Xin ghi lai van tat nhng bien co theo nhau t khi T. Phao-lo rao giang tai Co-rin-to lan th nhat ti khi ngai gi Th Co-rin-to nay. Khi tray i roi, T. Phao-lo van lien lac vi cong oan ngai a sang lap. Nh 5,9-13, ta biet la trc Th 1C a co mot Th khac (thng goi la Th tien qui ien) hien nay ta khong con gi c. Trong Th o, T. Phao-lo co ban ve nhng moi tng quan gia ki-to hu va nhng "ke buong tuong". Mot t phe bnh gia trng la co mot oan Th ay ghi lai 2C 6,14-7,1. Co le o la ap lai mot bc Th giao oan Co-rin-to a gi at ra mot so cau hoi va T. Phao-lo a tra li. ang khac, nh tng thuat trong sach Cong vu (18,24-28), ta biet rang cong oan Co-rin-to a tiep on mot nha giang thuyet ki-to giao rat co gia tr la ong A-po-lo, mot ngi Do-thai goc thanh A-lec-xan-di, a theo niem tin mi va tai E-phe-so a dt khoat tr lai vi c Ki-to nh ong A-qui-la va ba Phi-ca va c ong ba gi th gii thieu khi ong ay tray i thanh Co-rin-to. Sach Cong vu xac nh them rang ong A-po-lo la ngi li khau, thong thao Thanh Kinh va tai Co-rin-to ong giup Giao oan nhieu lam, cach rieng la trong nhng cuoc tranh luan vi ngi Do-thai. Co le ong tai gioi hn, nen T. Phao-lo b ngi ta che la thieu li khau (2C 10,10). Ta de hieu o la ly do lam cho xuat hien mot be nai ti ong A-po-lo va tranh gianh vi nhom tn o t xng la mon e T. Phao-lo (1,12). Han la ong A-po-lo khong ung ho viec hnh thanh nhom o, v ong lai Co-rin-to chang bao lau va khi T. Phao-lo viet Th 1C th ong ang lu tru E-phe-so vi ngai va t choi khong chu quay ve Co-rin-to, mac du T. Tong o khuyen nhu. Han la v ong khong muon ra ve nh ng thuan be phai nai en mnh (16,12). oi lap vi be ong A-po-lo, la be T. Phao-lo, be T. Phe-ro va be c ki-to (1,12). Nhom th nhat co le thanh bi nhng tn o than phuc T. Phao-lo va quyen luyen ngai cach rieng theo oc phe ang. Nhom th hai xuat hien sau khi nhng ki-to hu nai ti T. Phe-ro co dp ghe qua Co-rin-to (Ke-pha la ten A-ram cua ngai, dch sang tieng Hi-lap la Petros). Co le chnh T. Phe-ro cung en thanh Co-rin-to na. V theo 9,5, hnh nh giao hu Co-rin-to biet ro ngai. Con be c Ki-to, th ngi ta a neu ra nhieu gia thuyet rat khac nhau: nao nhom tn o Do-thai hoa ch muon nhn nhan c Gie-su la ang Me-xi-a Do-thai, nao nhom ngo ao duy linh, chu trng mnh ch le thuoc vao Than Linh cua c Ki-to, va phu nhan moi to chc, moi cong oan Hoi Thanh v.v. Co le nhom nay that s khong xuat hien bao gi, v kieu noi "toi thuoc ve c Ki-to" (1,12) co the ch la ieu nhan xet cua mot ngi sao chep, roi ve sau cau ay xen vao ban van hoac la cau T. Phao-lo tra li nhng t ac t cao cua cac ngi theo may be phai kia. Nhng chia re nay co lien quan ti sc thu hut tai Co-rin-to do th khon ngoan b truyen va co tnh triet hoc, va co ve than b gay nen. Chnh v the, ma trong th ngai, T. Phao-lo noi ket hai e tai chia re va khon ngoan lam lac ay vi nhau, va oi lap vi s khon ngoan ay la s khon ngoan cua c Ki-to, s khon ngoan cua Thanh gia (1,10-3,4).

Tnh the nguy ngap ay han la a en tai T. Phao-lo, khi ngai lu tru tai E-phe-so, trong cuoc hanh trnh truyen giao th ba cua ngai (Cv 19), trc la nh ong A-po-lo, sau la la nh cac ngi nha C-lo-e (x. 1,11). Ngai con biet nhieu tin ang lo ngai khac, han la do cung mot ng day. o la trng hp mot ngi loan luan song vi ba d ghe (5,1-13), cac vu ki-to hu kien nhau trc toa an ngi ngoai giao (6,1-11), nhng no buong tuong (6,12-20), nhng roi loan trong khi c hanh phep Sung An va trong cac phien hoi phung th (11,2-34), nhng giao ly sai lac ve viec ke chet song lai (15). ang khac chnh ngi Co-rin-to cung xin T. Phao-lo can thiep v ho a viet th cho ngai ve mot so van e. Ta co the noi chac ieu ay ve s ong trinh va hon nhan (x. 7,1); ta co ca ly do gia thiet nh vay ve viec an tht cung ngau tng: co c phep an hay khong (x. 8,1)? hoac ve cac n hue linh thieng: pham trat cac an hue o the nao, x dung lam sao (x. 12,1). Nhng nguyen to nay lam thanh nhng van e khac nhau T. Phao-lo e cap en trong Th ngai. T. Tong o muon sa cha cac ieu lam dung, tai thiet s bnh an hoa hp trong cong ong, tra li nhieu van e do i song ki-to hu at ra cho tn o Co-rin-to. Co the coi Th nay a viet vao mua xuan nam 56 (x. am ch le Vt qua 5,7-8).

 

Lc o Th va nhng phng thc bien soan

Khac vi Th Ro-ma chang han, ngi ta khong bao gi tranh luan ve viec phan chia Th 1 Co-rin-to thanh nhieu phan nho; v o la ieu qua hien nhien T. Phao-lo ch lan lt ban en cac e tai an c tren nay. Phai chang co the gom cac phan nho ay thanh nhng phan ln hn? Ngi ta thng e ngh lc o hai phan: mot la s chia re va s gay vap pham (1-6), hai la giai quyet nhng van e do i song cong oan at ra (7-15). Thc s khong chac viec i kien ni toa an ngoai giao (6,1-11) la ieu "gay vap pham" nhieu hn nhng chia re trong viec c hanh phep Sung An (11,17-34) hay thai o nhng ngi lam cho ke yeu c tin b vap pham (8,7-13). Tot hn nen nhan la T. Phao-lo a ban ti cac e tai khac nhau trong Th nay, tuy theo th t no xuat hien trong t tng ngai. Nh the ta co nhng phan kho sau ay, ma khong the noi la lc o theo ngha chat:

 

- Chao tham va ta n 1,1-9.

1. Cac be ang trong cong oan Co-rin-to (1,10-4,21).

2. Trng hp loan luan (5,1-13).

3. i kien ni toa an ngoai giao (6,1-11).

4. Viec ta dam (6,12-20).

5. Hon nhan va ong trinh (7).

6. An tht cung ngau tng (8,1-11,1).

7. Cach an mac trong phien hoi tong giao (11,2-14,40).

8. Viec ke chet song lai (15).

- Nhan nhu, chao tham, ket th (16).

 

Nen ky nhan la mot t phan gom nhng e tai tng t, nhng van khac nhau va co tam quan trong khong eu. V du nh ba phan t oan 7 (cach an mac trong phien hoi tong giao) a danh cho " cac an hue linh thieng" hoac "linh an" (12-14) va chnh nhan dp nay ma T. Phao-lo tan tung c Thng yeu trong bai ca noi tieng ch. 13, e chng minh tnh yeu vt tren moi n hue khac Thien Chua ban cho. Con trong mot phan t au oan 7, a ban ti cach an mac phu n va viec c hanh Tiec Chua, nhng van tat hn nhieu. Vay khong nen tm trong ban van nay mot y tng chung chi phoi viec gom cac oan vi nhau hay ca viec sap xep tng oan mot.

Cach the T. Phao-lo quang dien t tng ngai trong moi e tai oi khi lam cho oc tay phng phai ngac nhien b ng. Ngi ta thng ky nhan la T. Phao-lo theo lc o ng tron kieu A B A'. V du nh ch. 7, T. Phao-lo trc het trnh bay giao ly ngai ve hon nhan va ong trinh (A: 1-16). Roi ngai neu nguyen ly can ban: ai nay c lai trong tnh trang cua mnh khi c n Chua keu goi (B: 17-24). Sau het, nh anh sang cua nguyen ly ay, T. Phao-lo xac nh va ao sau giao huan ngai (A': 25-40). Ta gap thay lc o tng t trong cac phan quang dien ve tht cung ngau tng (8,1-11,1), va ve cac n hue linh thieng (ch. 12-14), ma nguyen ly ch huy B trc la a v u tien cua c yeu thng va viec phuc vu Tin Mng (8,7-13; 10,24), sau la tnh lien i gia cac chi the trong cung mot than (12,12-16).

Con c cau oan th nhat (1,10-4,21: cac be ang trong cong oan Co-rin-to, th kho phan biet hn. ay cung la lc o A B A', nhng soan thao can than hn. Khong co y trnh bay chi tiet ve lc o may chng gom co nhieu khuc re ngang nay, nhng ta co the de dang neu bat len ng hng chung. Trc het ta thay ro hai phan: mot la khuc 1,10-3,23 lam thanh nh ban trnh bay giao huan, hai la ch. 4 ap dung luan ly cua may nguyen ly a neu len. Chnh trong phan th nhat, ta lai gap thay lc o noi tren, nhng ay lai xuat hien theo hnh thc A A1 B A'1 A'. au het to cao hai ieu roi loan, la cac s chia re (A: 1,10-16) va s khon ngoan loai ngi (A1: 1,17-25). Nguyen ly can ban B, T. Phao-lo can c vao ay e to cao va len an nhng lac hng nay, ta gap thay neu len 1,30: i song ki-to hu la song trong c Ki-to nguon duy nhat cua s khon ngoan va n cu o. Nh the th T. Phao-lo co the ban ti cac ac tnh cua s khon ngoan that la viec ban phat Thanh Linh (A'1: 2,6-16) va to ra s vap pham do cac chia re gay nen: chia re la trai nghch vi ban chat that cua Cong ong, v Cong ong la ngoi nha xay tren a tang duy nhat la c Ki-to (A': 3,1-16). Ta lai thay mot c cau mi theo hnh thc chuyen hoan trong phan ket (3,18-23) nhac lai hai e tai phan au (chia re va khon ngoan gia mao), nhng theo th t ao ngc: ai t coi mnh khon ngoan theo cach the gian, th hay chap nhan n khon ngoan c Ki-to ban phat, mac dau co the b the gian coi la ien dai (3,18); sau het thay v cac chia re lam cho ki-to hu thanh no le ngi pham (1,12: "Toi thuoc ve ong Phao-lo, toi thuoc ve ong A-po-lo, toi thuoc ve ong Ke-pha"), chnh s thuoc ve mot mnh c Ki-to se lam cho ki-to hu khong nhng c t do va nhat tr trong c Ki-to, lai con c quyen thong tr tren tat ca: "Tat ca eu thuoc ve anh em... du the gian, du s song, du s chet, du hien tai, du tng lai, tat ca eu thuoc ve anh em"; va nhng ngi ho muon lam no le kia, thc ra chnh la nhng toi t ho: "Tat ca eu thuoc ve anh em du Phao-lo, du A-po-lo hay Ke-pha cung the...!" (3,22).

Ta con gap thay c cau A B A' trong cac oan khac na: v du nh trong khuc ban ve Tiec Chua (11,17-34): muc nhac ti viec lap phep Sung An (11,23-26) trnh bay thc tai can ban (B), co the theo anh sang ay e len an va ieu chnh (A': 11,28-34) cac chia re e cap en au Th (A: 11,17-22). Bai ca tan tung long yeu thng (ch. 13) co the ket cau theo cung mot kieu mau. Bat au quang dien s troi vt cua long yeu thng, neu thieu th moi oan sung phi thng ti may cung hoa ra vo dung (A: c. 1-3), roi ti khuc mo ta nhng cong viec phat xuat t long yeu thng (B: c. 4-7); trong phan ket, T. Phao-lo lai co the quang dien them lan na cach sau xa hn, e tai ve s troi vt cua long yeu thng la cai khong bao gi qua i, trong khi moi s khac eu se tan bien ca (A': c. 8-13).

 

Nhng van e chnh ban trong Th

Nhng van e rieng T. Phao-lo ban en trong Th nay eu xuat phat t van e can ban a at ra bat c thi ai nao trong lch s Hoi Thanh, cach rieng la trong hoat ong tha sai cua Hoi Thanh, va ngay nay con at ra cach khan trng hn bat luan khi nao. o la van e s iep ki-to giao an re vao mot nen van hoa khac vi nen van hoa no a song trc kia. ay la chuyen nen van hoa cua gii Do-thai Pa-le-tin sang nen van hoa cua gii Hi-lap. Nen van hoa nay do nhng ong lc khac xa chi phoi va cau tao nen va co nguy c khong nhng la bien tnh, ma lai sau xa hn na, con ong hoa s iep ay theo ngha ong hoa sinh vat hoc. V nen van hoa Hi-lap can ban la ngoai giao, ch gi lai trong s iep Tin Mng nhng g hoa hp vi no, con bao nhieu th khac th bo vat i. Hien tng nay a thng xay ra, nhat la trong nhieu trao lu ngo ao Ki-to giao the ky th 2, va trai qua cac the he, trong cac x a c Phuc am hoa voi vang, ma hau qua la tinh than ngoai giao trc kia van con song sot, ch mn nhng yeu to c tin Ki-to giao lam nc sn len ngoai mat ma thoi. Trc van e nay, thai o T. Phao-lo va cng quyet lai va te nh: ngai cng quyet nhan manh ti kha canh oan tuyet, ma len an khac nghiet nhng cach an net va giao ly khong the dung hoa vi s iep ngai rao giang. Nhng khi nao khong co s bat kha dung hoa, th ngai khoan dung on nhan.

Theo vien anh o, ta th xet qua nhng van e chnh e cap en trong Th.

Ve van e chia re trong cong ong va s khon ngoan that vi s khon ngoan gia, co mot ieu gan nh khong the nao tranh c. o la v song trong the gii tong giao Hi-lap, ki-to hu tat nhien b cam do suy t c tin mnh theo kieu nhieu trng phai khon ngoan qui tu cac mon o xung quanh mot ong thay noi tieng. V the ma ho say me nhng v giang thuyet nh ong A-po-lo, v ong nay han la co ve hao nhoang va tai hung bien cua cac bac thay ngoai giao kia, do o sinh ra chia re, v ai nay eu muon at mnh di quyen bao tr cua mot lanh tu trng phai. T. Phao-lo quyet tam phan ng that la manh liet. Ngai cng quyet chong lai tnh trang ay, v thay o la moi hiem nguy muon bien c tin ki-to giao thanh mot s khon ngoan triet ly loai ngi, va ngai nhan thay co nhng canh tranh trng phai do o gay nen. Ta ch coi la qua ang s ngai quyet tam oi lap s khon ngoan loai ngi vi s "ien ro" li giang (1,17-25), neu ta quen moi tranh danh cua cuoc chien au nay. V theo li chnh T. Phao-lo noi, ngai lam nh vay "e c tin anh em khong can c tren s khon ngoan loai ngi, nhng tren quyen nang Thien Chua" (2,5). Nhng ong thi ngai lai quyet tam lieu cho nhng ngi thien ch muon tm hieu s khon ngoan, nh ngai thay xuat hien Co-rin-to, khoi phai thoi ch nga long. V the ngai trnh bay vi oc gia chnh s khon ngoan that, khong phai la ket qua do viec tm kiem triet ly loai ngi, nhng la hong an Thien Chua do Thanh Linh Ngai thong cho (2,6-16).

Cac van e lien quan ti luan ly phu the, cung la nhng van e at ra do niem tin mi gap g nen van hoa xung quanh hoac qua phong tung trong pham vi nay (5,1-13; 6,12-19; x. 6,14), hoac khinh che xac tht nh thng thay trong may khuynh hng triet hoc ng thi (x. 7,1) va coi viec kieng c hon nhan la mot ly tng tuyet oi. ieu T. Phao-lo nham vao la lo trnh bay ng ngay neo chnh, chong lai cac ieu cc oan oi lap vi nhau. Ngai va len an quyet liet moi hnh thc trai gai buong tuong, va neu tnh hp phap va gia tr hon phoi, va tan dng s ong trinh (ch. 7). Nguyen ly can ban cho nhng phan biet ay, la ieu ngai neu len 6,12, roi nhac lai 10,23: "Tat ca eu c phep, nhng tat ca khong thch hp". Ki-to hu c giai phong khoi moi go bo ben ngoai, ca trong moi pham vi luan ly, nhng phai dung s t do ay e tm trong moi hoan canh nhng g thch hp hn vi i song mi do Thanh Linh tac ong.

Cung nguyen ly ay (x. 10,23) soi sang cho van e tiep theo, tc van e an tht cung ta than (ch. 8-10). ay cung vay, ta ng trc mot trng hp c tin ki-to hu phai nhat quyet theo hay chong mot kha canh cua nen van hoa ngoai giao xung quanh. ay, cac nguyen ly giup ta giai quyet cung giong nh tren: phai loai tr tat ca nhng g oi nghch vi c tin: o la trng hp d phan ba an tong giao ngi ngoai (x. 10,14-22). Trai lai, an tai nha mnh hay tai nha ngi khac nhng th tht ngi ngoai a cung te ta than, o la s hoan toan vo can ve phng dien ki-to giao (8,7-8). Nhng mon o c Ki-to con phai lu tam ti ieu khac na: o la tnh huynh e khong cho phep ngi ay lam c cho ke yeu c tin phai vap pham (8,9-13).

Nhng roi loan trong cac phien hoi tong giao (ch. 11-14) la mot trng hp mi, lam cho i song ki-to giao b nhiem oc do cach an net theo tinh than ngoai giao. Du la lam dung trong khi c hanh phep Sung An, la ni hnh nh bau kh kha nghi nhng tiec te dan ngoai a tham vao (say sa 11,21), du la bau kh cac phien hoi phung th, la ni lai gap thay nhng yeu to bong bot co phan me sang ni t nhieu cuoc hoi hop tong giao, ma ki-to hu trc khi tr lai, han la a nang tham d vao, bao gi T. Phao-lo cung nham ti cung mot muc tieu: bao toan tnh ac biet cua viec phung th ki-to giao. Viec phung th nay khong can theo cach an net cac tong giao xung quanh, nhng can phan anh chnh huyen nhiem do ki-to hu c hanh: tc la s nhat tr cua cong ong trong c Ki-to. Do o ngai neu len may tieu chuan can ban: o la ch chung (12,12-30), viec xay dng cong ong (14,1-19) va tren het moi s la long yeu thng (13,1-13).

Sau het, chng 13 trnh bay cho ta thay cach ro rang hn na cuoc cham tran gia s iep ki-to giao va nao trang xung quanh. Viec ke chet song lai la ieu phu hp vi ao Do-thai von quen hieu con ngi theo toan the duy nhat, nhng lai khong the an re vao mot nen van hoa chu anh hng sau xa nhng triet thuyet nh nguyen. T. Phao-lo a co the au hang trc ieu cac oc gia ngai "co the tin", nh tac gia sach khon ngoan va ong Phi-long a lam, trong nhng hoan canh tng t. V ho a lam het sc e t nhan manh en iem ngi ta kho chap nhan nay, va neu bat len nhat la i song bat t cac linh hon. Con T. Phao-lo th trai lai, ngai manh liet qua quyet ve iem ngi ta phan oi, tc la viec ke chet song lai. Ngai khong tm cach dung triet ly e chng minh la ieu ay co the c, nhng ngai chng to la "neu ke chet khong song lai, th c Ki-to cung khong song lai na" (15,13.16) va nh the th c tin ngi Co-rin-to that la rong khong (15,14).

Chnh v iem sau het lien quan ti mot van e ngay nay con at ra mot cach tng t, nen ta thay Th Co-rin-to th nhat co le la bc th hien thi hn het moi Th T. Phao-lo. Han la nhng giai phap ngai neu ra, oi khi tuy vao ieu kien van hoa khac vi nen van hoa chung ta bay gi (x. 11,2-16); nhng tnh trang T. Phao-lo phai ng au vi, cung chnh la tnh trang chung ta, va nhng nguyen ly chi phoi cac li ngai giai ap, cha he mat chut gia tr nao. 

 


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