Chu Giai Tan c Theo TOB

Theo ban dch cua Linh Muc An Sn V

 

Prepared for internet by Vietnamese Missionaries in Taiwan


 

Tieu Dan Sach Khai Huyen

c Kito La Vua Toan Thang

 

Khai huyen ngha la to ra nhng g huyen nhiem b an. Vay khai huyen thuoc loai tap truyen ngon s, la hnh thc rieng cua tap truyen nay, a phat trien va gay anh hng nhat la trong van chng Kinh Thanh va gan Kinh Thanh t the ky 2 trc Cong Nguyen (x. n 7-12), nhng a thay chuan b t cac ngon s E-de-kien, Gio-en, Da-ca-ri va I-sai 24-27.

 

ac tnh chung loai van khai huyen

1. Hnh thc mac khai

ac tnh loai van ngon s, ca khi co dp qui chieu vao nhng th kien, chnh yeu la li Thien Chua do ngon s lu truyen lai, v ong a nghe thay trc hay la trc tiep cam nghiem.

Trong khai huyen, ngi cua Thien Chua la mot ngi c th kien: ong a thay "tri m ra" hay a nh c "cat len" va dan vao thien gii, e nhn ngam cac thc tai, ma bnh thng khong ai co the at ti. Roi ong thong truyen s iep di hnh thc bai ta canh hay li giai thch ieu ong a xem thay. ay hnh anh quan trong hn li noi. Li noi ch dung trong khuon kho dan canh va thng thng e nhan manh hay bo tuc them y ngha ma thoi.

2. Dung bieu tng

Cac thc tai tren tri ma nha th kien c nhn ngam ay von tnh la thuoc pham vi thien gii, khong the o lng theo kieu chung vi loai ngi. Vay co nhien la khong the nao mo ta y nguyen hoac nh ngha cho chnh xac c. Muon gi y ve pham vi cai Hoan toan khac va cai Thanh Thieng ni ong a c dan vao, tac gia khong con loi nao khac hn la c mon men ti gan them mai. Ong dien ta bang nhng net tng t oc ao, cam ong, oi khi co ve nghch thng na, nh ong a gap thay nhieu kieu mau trong Kinh Thanh cung nh trong cach dien ta tong giao cua the gii hi-lap ong phng hoac trong phung t.

Bieu tng con nham lam noi bat len tnh tam giao cua s iep va neu ro viec truyen thong s iep nay chnh la mot ac an. Van chng khai huyen muon dung cac ngu ngon, am ch bang con so hoac tuyen ngon b hiem, hau noi vi nhng ngi a c khai tam: ch nhng ai a nh n keu goi mi co the hieu c cac ieu b mat Thien Chua. Nh vay tac gia va cho thay s iep ong truyen thong la quan trong, va khien cho oc gia say me cang to mo muon biet.

3. oi tng cac th kien khai huyen

Long ao c hi-lap a biet cac chan ly cao sieu hay chiem ngng cac thc tai kieu mau. Con mac khai Thanh Kinh, th tuyen bo y nh cua Thien Chua va hien dien tac ong cua Ngai gia long lch s. Li tuyen bo ay ong thi cung la viec la chon, la tieng keu mi ap ng tac ong Thien Chua.

Trong loi ngon ng co ien, th khuyen ran trc tiep va thng xuyen ro rang. Khi nhac cho dan nh n keu goi va so kiep ac an cua mnh, cac ngon s cong bo nhng oi hoi hien thi cua Giao c. Viec tng nh cac ky cong thi xa la can c cho li khuyen phai trung thanh. Viec loan bao nhng phuc lanh mi hay nhng hnh phat nham muc tieu kch khi s quyet tam cai hoa ngay tc khac ve tam linh hay ve luan ly.

Trong van chng khai huyen, li khuyen trung thanh hay an nan tr lai cung la can ban, nhng khong thay hien nhien tc th. Cac th kien c coi la truyen thong cac b mat ve lch s, to ra dien tien tat nhien cua cac giai oan ln cuoi cung trong y nh Thien Chua, loan bao s xuat hien mot ky nguyen mi va nhng chuan b nhiem mau. Nh the la cac th kien soi sang cho tn o thay nhng muc tieu chan chnh cua nhng thang tram hien tai. Nhng mac khai nh the, t no a la li canh cao roi, a nuoi dng niem cay trong cho ngi chu bat b, phuc hoi long can am cho ngi kho khan nguoi lanh, keu mi nhng ke lac ng an nan tr ve.

Trong li giang s ngon, s an nan tr lai va trung thanh ch tin la ieu kien duy tr Giao c. Con trong th kien khai huyen, th mac khai ve cuoc toan thang cuoi cung cua Thien Chua bao ham li khuyen phai kien tam ben ch va keu mi phai luon luon san sang.

4. e tai khan trng, e ngay thang trc va biet hieu

Theo cung ng hng s ngon, nhng dung nhng phng tien khac, s iep khai huyen t qua quyet la khan trng, khien oc gia tien cam thay la "Ngay cua Chua" va ngay Phan xet sap en roi!

Tac gia gi y khan trng nay bang nhieu phng thc, ma thong thng nhat la e ngay thang trc va dung biet hieu cho cac ieu mac khai. Ke nh la nhng mac khai ngay xa a co mot nhan vat thi danh on nhan, roi t ay lu truyen qua mot chuoi ngi c thu giao hoac a tm lai c cach la lung (v du nh Khai huyen Ba-ruc, Mong trieu Moi-sen, B mat He-noc, Et-ra quyen 4). Nguon goc t xng la thi co va ky la ay kien chng cho tam quan trong cua nhng khai huyen, lai khien cho co the trnh bay mot tien trnh lch s nh la viec se xay ra, nhng thc s khi truyen ba s iep th tien trnh ay a xay ra roi. V nhng bien co mi ay, di nhng bieu tng trong suot mot cach tai tnh, lai vao so nhng dau ch cuoi cung cua ngay Quang lam tan the, nen cac oc gia nao biet tnh ngay thang eu co the on ch viec tham d nay mai vao cuoc toan thang ke lanh va gia hnh ke d.

Chu y viec loan bao ay a hien nhien: v ky nguyen canh chung a gan nen lam cho hien tai co tam quan trong cach rieng, nh the ma nang long sot sang va khuyen khch dan than tc th.

5. Giai thch vu tru va lch s

Trong khi li giang s ngon nhn dien tien y nh Thien Chua trong dong thi gian lien tuc va trong khuon kho so kiep lch s cua dan Chua chon, th van chng khai huyen lai gia thiet la co giai oan triet e gia ky nguyen hien tai in dau vet toi loi va s thong tr cua cac lc lng ac than vi the gii tng lai, ni Thien Chua va cac tuyen nhan Ngai toan thang tron ven. Ky nguyen hien tai la thi ky tranh chap va th thach se c thay the bang s to ra trat t Thien Chua cach nhat quyet va chung cuoc. Viec hoan tat nay khong phai la cai bap benh, khong tuy theo cach van dung cua nhng y muon loai ngi. Cac thi han thay eu an nh san trc, bnh thng ngi ta khong biet g, v Thien Chua la ang duy nhat lam Chu te va lam Tham phan lch s.

Viec Quang lam tan the cua Trieu ai Thien Chua la cai lien he ti toan vu tru: cai nhn ve ngay tan the cung co nhng chieu kch bao la nh cai nhn ve ngay sang tao.

Quan niem nh the va bi quan lai va lac quan: bi quan theo ngha la lam noi bat tnh phu van cua the gii hien thi va s xau xa cua no, nhng lac quan, v qua quyet s toan thang cuoi cung cua Thien Chua, mac du nhng chien thang be ngoai cua ac than. Quan niem ay ac biet an sau trong nhng thi ky khung hoang, v cac ban van khai huyen c bien soan trong chnh nhng thi ky bat b.

 

Vien anh rieng cua khai huyen T. Gio-an

Tuy mn phan ln nhng phng thc va cau truc cua loai van chng khai huyen, nhng sach Khai huyen cua T. Gio-an khong the toan dien ch co the ma thoi.

Mot phan quan trong trong sach khong that s thuoc loi khai huyen: cac Th cho bay Giao oan Tieu A (Kh 2-3) giong hn vi li giang s ngon thong thng. Cung nh trong li s ngon, tac gia t xng ten mnh va gi s iep cho nhng ke ng thi vi ong.

Nhng Khai huyen T. Gio-an phan biet vi phan ln nhng tac pham trong loai van chng khai huyen, nhat la bang cach giai thch tong giao ve lch s va bang nhng trong tam hng thu chan that cua sach nay.

1. Giai thch Ki-to giao ve lch s

Cai nhn cua T. Gio-an ve ngay tan the a ong hoa mot so xac tn chu yeu trong than khoa ki-to giao s khai. Ky nguyen mi do khai huyen do-thai bao tin va trong i, a khai mac ngay c Ki-to Phuc sinh. Thi ky chot a bat au va nhng n lanh cua ang Thu Han a c thong ban. V Thanh Linh a tran xuong moi xac pham (x. Cv2, 16-21) va ki-to hu a cung phuc sinh vi c Ki-to (x. Co 3,1). Nhng viec Nc Chua en nay hoan tat trong huyen nhiem. Viec ay luon luon la oi tng cho mac khai va ch c tin mi co the on nhan c. Viec ay luon luon hng ti cho the hien vien toan va hien hien Vinh quang.

Theo vien anh ki-to giao nay, "Ngay cua Chua" co hai: mot la ch bien co Phuc sinh cua c Ki-to va viec ton vinh Ngi lam Chua Te, hai la con trong i Ngay ay xet la Ngay Quang lam, tc la to ra cach huy hoang cho ai nay eu biet Trieu ai Thien Chua nh c Ki-to cua Ngai. Moi giay phut eu co s trung nhau gia "thi ky hien tai" va "ky nguyen mi". Giao Hoi trong thi ky hien tai, nhng ve ky nguyen tng lai: v Giao Hoi la thc tai canh chung, va hoan tat cac li s ngon, va la cua au mua tien bao ngay tan the.

2. oi tng cac th kien

V Canh chung a bat au, nen s gian oan co ien gia ky nguyen hien tai va ky nguyen mi khong con cung mot y ngha: khong con phai la hai giai oan ke tiep nhau cho bang la phan biet hai pham vi, hai trat t: pham vi lch s va pham vi canh chung.

Vay cac th kien khong con co vai tro duy nhat la kheu gi tien trnh tan the hau chuan b cho "Ngay Chua" en. Chung con lu y hn na ti cac thc tai huyen b a khai mac va thong ban roi. Than hoc ve c Ki-to va Giao Hoi co tam quan trong hn mo ta khai huyen ve lch s. Niem cay trong ki-to hu c dng nuoi khong nguyen bang vien anh ngay Quang lam sap en, nhng cung bang phan nhac nh viec thong phan hien tai vao cuoc chien thang cua c Ki-to.

Do o, e tai khan trng la cai thng xuyen cua loi van khai huyen, khong con ghi trong khuon kho viec tnh ngay thang cac thi han canh chung, nhng can c nhat la tren niem xac tn rang giai oan quyet liet cua y nh Thien Chua a c mac khai va khai mac trong bien co Phuc sinh cua c Ki-to. Thi ky chot hong en, v a bat au trong huyen nhiem. S mong ch cua ki-to hu cang trung kien va hoat ong, v lien quan ti cac n lanh ma ngay t bay gi a ban cho ta c hng cua au mua.

V danh cho viec chiem ngng cac bien co cu o va viec ao sau so phan cua Giao Hoi nh the, nen Khai huyen T. Gio-an gan vi cac vien anh cua li giang s ngon muon phat ong mot phong trao thc tnh thieng lieng nh viec nhac nh cac ky cong cua Giao c va nhn xem n goi cua I-ra-en. S lu y ti chnh huyen nhiem "Nc Chua ang en" hn la ti ngay thang Nc ay hien hien vinh quang, giai thch v sao Khai huyen T. Gio-an khong dung cac phng thc biet hieu va e ngay thang trc, la nhng cai trong loai khai huyen co truyen, chu yeu nham ti viec giup ngi ta tnh toan ve s gan "Ngay cua Chua".

 

Tac gia

Sach Khai huyen khong cho ta chi tiet nao chnh xac ve tac gia. Tac gia t xng ten la Gio-an va tc hieu la ngon s (1,1-4.9; 22,8-9). Khong ni nao ong t xng la mot trong nhom Mi hai. Mot tap truyen kha vng, ma ngay t the ky 2 a thay nhng dau vet roi, coi tac gia sach Khai huyen la chnh tong o Gio-an, cung la tac gia Tin Mng th t na. Nhng tap truyen nguyen s khong hoan toan ong y, va mot so cong oan ki-to hu a nghi ng khong nhan sach Khai huyen la cua T. Gio-an. Cac nha chu giai hien thi cung chia thanh hai nhom. Nhng ngi nay qua quyet la nhng khac nhau ve li van, bau kh va than hoc khien ta kho gan sach Khai huyen va Tin Mng th t cho cung mot tac gia. Nhng ngi khac, trai lai, neu ro cac tng t ve e tai giao ly cung nh cai nen se-mt cua hai cuon: ho ngh la sach Khai huyen vi Tin Mng th t eu lien quan ti giao huan cua Tong o Gio-an, han nh qua s trung gian cua nhng soan gia thuoc moi trng T. Gio-an tai E-phe-so.

Sach Khai huyen c gi cho "Bay Giao oan Tieu A" (1,3.11; 2-3): that s o la bay cong oan ki-to hu trong tnh Tieu A ma thu o la E-phe-so. V con so bay gi s vien toan, nen co the ngh rang tac gia khong nhng la nham may cong oan rieng ngai quen biet ma thoi, nhng con nham chung toan the Giao Hoi.

 

Hoan canh bien soan

Con hoan canh bien soan, th sach nay cho ta hai ch dan chac chan, nhng khong giup ta e ngay thang cho chnh xac c. Mot la Giao Hoi a kinh nghiem qua cn bat b va hnh nh b e quoc Ro-ma oi lap cong nhien. Hai la ngay Quang lam tn o hi vong c phai ch them mai va s keo dai thi han lam cho ke th dan xep hay tr nen nguoi lanh, ngi th chan nan, at van e hay sot ruot. Lu y ti bay nhieu yeu to, ta co the xet nhat la hai gia thuyet: mot la thi ky sau cn bat b cua vua Ne-ron va trc khi pha huy thanh Gie-ru-sa-lem (65-70), hai la cuoi i vua o-mi-xien (91-96). e benh vc gia thuyet trc, ngi ta neu nhat la li am ch en th Gie-ru-sa-lem (11,1-2) va s cac vua ke tiep nhau (17,10-11). Nhng gia thuyet sau c a so cac nha chu giai hien thi cho la co the ung hn; no thch hp vi li chng cua T. I-re-ne thanh Ly-ong va, v vua o-mi-xien muon co ong viec th hoang e, nen giai thch v sao sach Khai huyen lai nhan manh ti s tng phan khong sao dung hoa gia Vng trieu Chua Gie-su vi vng trieu pham thng cua hoang e. Mot so tac gia ngh rang cac hoan canh bien soan phien phc hn nhieu, v sach Khai huyen khong phai la mot tac pham ong nhat, nhng la s ieu hp vung ve nhieu ban van bien soan va sa cha vao cac thap nien cuoi the ky 1.

 

Cau truc sach Khai huyen

Mac dau a ra gia thuyet ve mot so oan trong sach Khai huyen au tien a co i song biet lap, ban van lu truyen ti chung ta bay gi to ra mot cau truc that khong tng ng vi thoi quen bien soan thi cua ta, nhng cung cho ta thay mot tien trnh chung kha ong nhat va nhng phng thc co phan khong thay oi.

Ta co the phan bien ngay hai phan ln: phan s ngon di hai hnh thc "Th gi cac Giao oan" (1,9-3,22), va phan khai huyen theo ung ngha (4,1-22,5). Trong phan sau nay ta gap lai tong quat lc o thng xuyen cua loi van mo ta khai huyen: giao dan ngay tan  the (6,1-22,9), nhng cn th thach lien ngay va cuoc ng au v ai (12,1-20,15), viec hoan tat va hien hien cuoi cung (21,1-22,5). trong Khai huyen T. Gio-an, lc o them phong phu va phien phc nh van dung nhng "bo bay" (bay an, bay ken, bay chen) va nhng th kien trung gian giup ngon s them nhieu am ch, tom nhieu ban van Cu c va trnh bay nhng ieu ong suy ngam ve huyen nhiem cua Giao Hoi va cua thi hien tai.

 

Loi giai thch

Viec thiet lap lc o chnh xac han la bap benh, nhng cai kho chnh yeu tai nen giai thch the nao chnh viec cac th kien ke tiep nhau. Phai chang nen coi s ke tiep nay la mot gi y t nhieu tng trng cho tien trnh lch s i ti Ngay Quang lam hong en? Hay s ke tiep nay ch la khung canh bay ra trong o tac gia muon lan lt neu len, khong phai nhng giai oan khac nhau cua dien tien canh chung, nhng nhieu kha canh cua viec c ki-to toan thang khai hoan, cua so phan Hoi Thanh va cua viec phan xet the gian? Viec la chon ay that la can ban, v no chi phoi cach giai thch toan bo sach nay. Loi giai thch theo thi gi, tuy theo ung cac thoi quen cua van chng khai huyen, nhng lai gia thiet la mnh chap nhan viec ri cho hay tnh cach ngau nhien cua nhieu th kien, th mi giai quyet c mot so iem kho khan. Mot trao lu chu giai quan trong hien thi, v lu tam ti tnh song oi cua nhieu phan sach Khai huyen va cach rieng cua nhng bo bay, nen coi s cac th kien ke tiep nhau ch la mot ky thuat hanh van: qua toan bo sach nay luon luon la cung nhng xac tn, va cung mot s iep qua quyet i qua quyet lai, nhng khong ngng mn nhng hnh anh khac va nham vao nhng ap dung hay nhng khai trien mi.

 

S iep sach Khai huyen

Cung nh moi li s ngon, Khai huyen loan bao cho ta tnh hien thi cua y nh Thien Chua va tng ng theo la tnh khan trng cua viec ta dan than tch cc. Loan bao bang cach cho ta hieu y ngha sieu nhien cua thi ky hien tai va s hoan tat thi ky ay.

1. Hai loai ngi

Cong trnh Thien Chua a ti muc tieu, ta ch con ch i ngay cong trnh ay hien hien (1,7; 22,20). c Ki-to a toan thang roi va Nc Ngi a khai mac, c Gie-su la V Cu Tinh duy nhat va v the c Thien Chua phong lam Chua Te duy nhat (5,5-14; 11,15-17; 12,10; 19,11-16). Chung ta vao thi ky chot va ang song trong tnh trang hng trc n cu o va giao au cho ngay phan xet. oi vi bien co nay, nhan loai chia ra hai be khong the dung hoa vi nhau:

- Nhng ke nhn nhan c Ki-to th c thong phan vao cuoc toan thang cua Ngi va lap thanh dan Thien Chua, the hien dan thu han (7,9-17; 14,1-5; 15,2-4; 17,14; 19,1-9; 20,4-6)

- Nhng ke, v khong nhn nhan Ngi, nen lai trong tnh trang chong oi Thien Chua; o la "dan c a cau", ong loa vi s tiem quyen cua ten vo ao, song di quyen thong tr cua Sa-tan va b danh cho an phat nh no (6,15-17; 9,20-21; 13,7-8.14-17; 14,9-11; 17,8-14; 18,9-19; 19,19-22; 20,7-9).

2. Giao Hoi song huyen nhiem c Ki-to

Giao Hoi trong thc tai sau xa cua mnh, von lien hiep chat che vi Ban Than va Cong trnh cua c Ki-to:

- Giao Hoi la cong oan u tuyen, oi tng tnh yeu cua c Ki-to (1,5; 3,9; 7,3-4; 12,6; 19,7-9).

- Giao Hoi a c chuoc bang mau c Ki-to (1,5; 5,9; 7,14; 14,3-4).

- Giao Hoi la vng dan t te khai mac Nc c Ki-to (1,6; 5,10; 7,15; 20,4-6).

Do s lien ket cau thanh Giao Hoi nay ma xuat phat s hiep thong "sinh ton"; tac gia nhn so menh cua Giao Hoi trong s lien ket vi s menh c Ki-to:

- c Ki-to la Ngon s "Nhan chng trung thanh" (1,5; 3,14; 19,11). Giao Hoi la cong oan thanh, thc thi viec lam chng; the gian, Giao Hoi c sai lam ngon s (11,3-6; 12,17; 19,10; 22,9).

- c Ki-to a lam chng ti mc t nan, v a gap s chong oi cua mot the gian nghch cung Thien Chua (1,5; 5,6). Giao Hoi cung hoan tat s mang mnh trong th thach; Giao Hoi trai qua chien au va t ao (6,9; 7,14; 11,7-10; 17,2.4.11; 16,6; 18,24; 20,4).

- c Ki-to a toan thang va phuc sinh (1,5.18; 5,5; 12,5; 17,14; 19,11-21). Giao Hoi a thong phan vao s toan thang o, khong phai Giao Hoi c u tuyen ma thoi, nhng a c cu thoat va ang song cua au mua cua n Phuc sinh (6,11; 7,16-17; 11,11-12; 12,11; 17,14; 20,4-6).

- c Ki-to a c ton vinh, c ton lam Chua (1,5.12-16; 19,16). Giao Hoi a la Nc t te; ngay t bay gi Giao Hoi thi hanh trong phung t cac chc nang thien quoc cua mnh va cuoc toan thang cua Giao Hoi sap c to ra (7,9-12.15; 14,3; 20,4.6).

3. Thai o Giao Hoi: trung thanh, tr ch, cay trong

Nh the, trong thi ky hien tai Giao Hoi song nhng kha canh khac nhau trong huyen nhiem c Ki-to: v Chien Non i au, Giao Hoi theo i ay (14,4). S nen giong nay bao ham nhng thai o luan ly va linh thieng:

- V phai lam chng trong mot the gian khong nhn nhan Thien Chua, nen Giao Hoi can phai trung thanh (1,3; 2,10.13.26; 3,8; 14,12; 22,7.9).

di at nay la ni lu ay, Giao Hoi chu bat b, nhng cung c Thien Chua gi gn va nuoi dng bang cua au mua n Phuc sinh. Thai o tng ng vi trang thai th thach nhng chac chan c Vinh quang nay la s kien tam ben ch, mot hnh thc rieng cua s trung thanh, cung nh t ao la mot hnh thc rieng cua viec lam chng (1,9; 2,2.3.10; 3,10-11; 13,10; 14,12).

- Giao Hoi cung ang xuat hanh, ang tien bc ti cho mac khai Gie-ru-sa-lem tren tri, la que that, va chuan b e song trong s hien linh vien toan cua Chua mnh. Vien anh Vinh quang sau nay gia cn th thach hien thi o, dng nuoi trong Giao Hoi mot s cang thang tran ay cay trong: "Lay Chua Gie-su, xin Chua en! (6,10; 10,7; 11,17-18; 12,10-12; 15,3-4; 19,7-9; 20,3-4; 22,17.20).

 

Tnh hien thi cua sach Khai huyen

S iep ay lien he en chung ta. Khong phai nguyen loan bao cuoc Quang lam sau nay, ma thi han va the thc con bap benh. Cung khong phai nham duy tr tn hu trong niem nh nhung ho o, hau yen ui ho, v nhng that vong tran gian va keu mi ho ng dan than lam g.

Vng trieu c Ki-to khong phai la mot bien co tng lai, nhng la mot thc tai hien thi. Canh Quang lam vinh hien va Phan xet chung chang qua ch la phong vao anh sang Thien Chua va vao s ong thi cua vnh cu, nhng g ang hoan tat hom nay trong huyen nhiem va trong thi gian lch s. Bat c luc nao, con ngi cung dien ta s mnh thuoc ve ai va xac nh so menh cua mnh. Bat c luc nao cung lam chng ve s trung thc cua niem tin ni ho va hoan tat viec phan xet ho. Chung quanh va ben trong ho luon luon the hien cai tng phan khong the dung hoa gia s th ngau tng di at va viec nhn nhan mot mnh c Ki-to. Li s ngon keu goi tn o lng gia tnh nghiem trong muon i cua tng giay phut, khong dung th cho ho chia long chia tr, nhe da hay la dan xep, nhng thuc ay ho dan than ngay lap tc va tron ven. Nh at i song hien tai vao trong vien anh ngay Quang lam, nen sach Khai huyen nhac lai cho ta nh Chua Gie-su va cuoi cung va au het lch s va ngoai dang ve ben ngoai, cac thc tai tran gian con lien he vi y nh Thien Chua. Nhng v co nhieu qui chieu vao tnh tng trng cua phung t, nen sach nay cung mi cong oan tn hu song phung t nh cuoc gap g hien thi vi c Ki-to, nh tieng keu goi ta nen giong cuoc Vt qua cua Chua, nh li cong bo va niem i trong ngay Hien hien cua Gie-ru-sa-lem tren tri ma sach nay va noi trc va lam dau hieu.

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Nhng trang sau ay chung toi trch trong cuon Khai huyen do giao s Vinh sn a bien soan chung vi l.m. Pham Quan ien nam 1958 nhng cha co dp xuat ban. Mot v Giao s Kinh Thanh c biet loi giai thch cua giao s Vinh sn Mo-ra a noi len cam ngh cua ong rang: "Vous avez trouve l'interpretation", y noi la tac gia a tm ra loi giai thch chan chnh cho sach Khai huyen.

Trong phan chu giai sach Khai huyen, chung toi se trch nhieu trong sach noi tren vi ghi chu (v).

 

Phu them

Loi giai thch cua Giao s Vinh sn Mo-ra

 

Ngay Thien Chua

e tai sach Khai huyen la viec "Chua en" (1,7; 2,5.16; 3,3; 11,17; 16,5; 22,7.12.20). Va trong Cu c cung nh ay, viec "Chua en" ong ngha vi viec "Nc Chua tr en" the gian. Cu the hn chnh la viec thiet lap Dan Chua trong Cu c va thiet lap Giao Hoi Ngai trong Tan c. Theo cac sach ngon s va Khai huyen, ngay "Nc Chua tr en" con goi la "Ngay Chua en" va cung la "Ngay ca the, Ngay Ngha no cua Ngai" (Kh 6,17; 16,14).

Trong Kinh Thanh, Ngay o co hai phng dien rat khac nhau. Mot ang ngay o e doa cac nc thu ch cua I-ra-en, Dan Chua, nh Ai-cap A-sy-ri, Ty-ro, Mo-ap, E-om, ac biet la Ba-by-lon (Gr 50-51; Is 47 v.v.) va Sy-ri i vua An-ti-o-co E-pi-phan (n 7-12), co khi lai e chung ca cac nc (Ed 38-39). Noi tat, ngay o la ngay I-ra-en phuc thu bon ngi ap bc.

Nhng ang khac, "Ngay Thien Chua" trong sach s ngon lai con mot ngha la ky hn va bat ng la e doa chnh I-ra-en bat trung, khong gi li Chua (x. Am 5,18; So 1,15; nhat la Ed 4,7; 9; 10 v.v.). Va chnh Chua Gie-su cung a tien bao viec en th sup o (x. Mt 24; Mc 13; Lc 21).

Tuy nhien ta can ky nhan: Ngay o oi vi I-ra-en khong phai la ngay tieu diet hoan toan, nhng ch la ngay gan loc, chon lay "phan trung thanh con lai".

 

Ap dung vao sach Khai huyen

Hai y ngha tren ay ve "Ngay Thien Chua", theo thien y chung toi, lai thay ro rang trong sach Khai huyen cua T. Gio-an.

Cac chng 4-11 ta "Ngay Thien Chua", tren I-ra-en (6,17), hay ung hn, ta cuoc tien trien cua Giao Hoi Chua Ki-to trong phoi canh I-ra-en, lay canh en th sup o lam trung tam iem. ay thay ro rang la nha tien kien phong theo ngon s E-de-kien va li Chua Gie-su tien bao.

Cac chng 12-20 ta "Ngay Thien Chua" tren cac nc (16, 14) hay ung hn, ta cuoc tien trien cua Giao Hoi Chua Ki-to trong phoi canh I-ra-en, lay canh en th sup o lam trung tam iem. ay thay ro rang la nha tien kien phong theo ngon s E-de-kien va li Chua Gie-su tien bao.

Cac chng 12-20 ta "Ngay Thien Chua" tren cac nc (16,14) hay ung hn ta cuoc khuech trng cua Giao Hoi trong phoi canh ch dan, lay viec tan hoang cua nhng e quoc bach hai lam trung tam iem. Phan nay cung hien nhien la tac gia da theo ngon s a-nien ch. 7-12 va nhng li tien bao chong Ba-by-lon.

Ca hai phoi canh cung chung ket trong canh huy hoang Gie-ru-sa-lem Thien quoc, Giao Hoi cua Chua Gie-su. Len o, cac ki-to hu trong I-ra-en va ngoai ch dan c chung hng Ngai vang Thien Chua lai c qui tu ni Ngai (4,11), nh c Ki-to toan thang a c "em trc len tan Ngai Ngai" (12,6).

 

Gia tr tong giao

Theo o ta co the cho rang sach Khai huyen, au tien la viet cho Giao oan non nt A chau, ang phai ng au vi hai bien co v ai: Gie-ru-sa-lem tan tanh va nhng cn bach hai am mau.

Trong thay en th sup o, nam 70 sau Cong Nguyen, cac ki-to hu sinh quan I-ra-en sao khoi nghi ng sc toan nang, c cong bnh va long trung tn cua Thien Chua oi vi nhng li Ngai ha.

Roi trc nhng cuoc e quoc Ro-ma bach hai, lung lac ca cai song con cua Giao Hoi, cac ki-to hu sao cho khoi nghi ng li Chua Gie-su: "Ta a thang the gian", "Ta se lai vi cac con het moi ngay ti khi tan the" (G 16,33; Mt 28,20).

Nhng ki-to hu lam canh nay, nhng ngi ang b loi cuon rut lui hoac bat tay vi the tuc, T. Gio-an phai cho thay chnh canh en th o nat lai la dp bieu dng Vng quyen Thien Chua va c Ki-to Phuc sinh (ch. 4-5) va cung la ieu kien cho Giao Hoi phat trien khap ni. V "Ngay Thien Chua" o xuong Gie-ru-sa-lem la ngay bao oan cho cac s gia Thien Chua sai en vi I-ra-en (7 an: 6,9) va oan phat nhng toi vi pham giao c (7 ken: 9,1-21) nh li Chua a ham e (Tl 28,60).

Nhng ke hoach Thien Chua khong le tan tanh: se co mot "phan sot lai" lam mam song n sinh Giao Hoi bao la (7,1-17). T ong tro tan en Th o nat, Tin Mng se phat trien tren khap cac dan, v a en "Thi ky" cua ho... (ch. 10).

Tuy nhien, van mot niem yeu thng bat diet, Thien Chua con gi chng nhan cho am I-ra-en b loai ra ngoai "Nc Chua" (11,2 va Lc 21,24)... Kp khi va het "Thi ai ch dan", Ngai se pha tan tran chot cua quan thu (11,7-12) va I-ra-en se tr lai nha CHA (11,13) m au cho cuoc tap trung vnh vien cua toan "Dan Thien Chua" (11,14-19).

Qua phan th hai (ch. 12-20), di khung canh e quoc Ro-ma bach hai, tac gia tuyen xng c Ki-to va cac v T ao chien thang Sa-tan. Ngay ch. 12, sau cuoc Thieu phu (I-ra-en) tranh chien vi con Ac Long (Sa-tan), ta a thay tiep dien cuoc au tranh cua cac Giao oan ch dan, "con cai khac cua Ba". Roi nha tien kien lai lat mat na Sa-tan nap sau nhng uy lc chnh tr, tong giao cua e quoc (ch. 13).

Bi the, cac tn o khong nen lo s: c Ki-to, vi cac oan thien s, cac thanh I-ra-en ang ng tren tri chng kien va chuyen cau cho ho (14,1-5), Thien Chua a nh nh the cho tat ca nhng ai c chon (14,6-15,4). Con nhng tn o Manh thu, ngoan co trong toi (7 chen), "Ngay Thien Chua" se en bat em i vi e quoc Ro-ma va cac nc phan giao vi nhng ki-to gia, ngon s gia cua ho (16 va 17-19). Luc o, cac v T ao tren tri se cung vi c Gie-su hien tr mot Giao Hoi thanh thi phat trien tren khap muon dan (20,1-6) cho ti Ngay Thien Chua dap tan tran chot Quan thu (20,7-10) va quang ra xa tat ca nhng ac lc Sa-tan vi bon tram luan, Than Chet vi tri cao at day a b d nhp v toi (20,11-15). Thanh o Gie-ru-sa-lem va ai o Ro-ma roi cung ieu tan: cac ki-to hu ch i ch Kinh Thanh chnh thong Gie-ru-sa-lem ch thc, a ha ban cho I-ra-en (21,1-8), ang ng xuong t ni Thien Chua tren tri, ve yeu kieu iem to long lay, nh the tan nng trang sc ch c Lang Quan, tc la Giao Hoi cua Chua Gie-su m ca on muon ngi tan muon phng.

Sau cung cuon sach ay nhng hnh long lay gap lai vi li dan do then chot: "Phai, ta sap en ngay ay" vi tieng van nai tha thiet t ay long Giao Hoi ang nhom hop; "Amen! Lay Chua Gie-su, xin Chua en!".

 


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