Chu Giai Tan c Theo TOB

Theo ban dch cua Linh Muc An Sn V

 

Prepared for internet by Vietnamese Missionaries in Taiwan


 

Tieu Dan Cong Vu Tong o

c Kito Linh Kh Tac Sinh

 

Cung nh Phuc Am th ba, Cong Vu Tong o la tac pham Thanh Lu-ca, ban ng cua Thanh Phao-lo. Ong ke lai trong sach nay nhng bien co ong biet ro rang. V tac pham "tong o" nay la mot thanh phan Thanh Kinh. Va, theo tc hieu ay, lai la tieu chuan cho chan ly va c tin: o la niem xac tn cua toan Giao Hoi vao khoang nam 200. ang khac, ngi ta a oc sach Cong Vu Tong o trong Phung T Sung An vao mua Phuc Sinh. S kien nay a xay ra rat sm, tre nhat la ngay t the ky th t. The la sach Cong Vu a soi sang c tin Hoi Thanh cac the ky au, a tac ong va hng dan i song ki-to hu, t khi thu tay cho ti khi t ao, ma "Thanh Te-phan, mot v trong nhom Bay", a la ngi au tien neu gng sang ngi. Hnh anh cong oan ki-to hu au tien se cam hng cho chu ngha an sinh khi va xuat hien. Va ve sau, khong co phong trao cai cach hay tha sai nao, ma lai khong luyen tiec "i song Tong o", theo nh thay gi lai trong Cong Vu, ong thi cung la ap ng tieng goi thiet tha cua Tin Mng va cua Thanh Phao-lo. T the ky 18, mot so trong nhng bao am lam nen cho viec "oc" sach Cong Vu trai qua bao the he nay, a b khoa phe bnh van ban at lai van e. Tuy co nhng ieu qua ang, nhng khoa ay cung co cong nghiep. Neu khoa phe bnh u chnh xac e khong bien cac gia thuyet ke tiep nhau thanh nhng giao ieu, va u sang suot e biet nhn nhan cac gii han cua mnh, th khoa ay ch co the giup ta hieu sach Cong Vu cho thau ao hn.

 

Ban van sach Cong Vu

Muon oc mot tac pham co thi, ta can thiet lap ban van sach ay, va trong trng hp sach Cong Vu, viec thiet lap noi ay la van e kha phien phc. a so thu ban cong hien cho ta hai hnh thc chnh: o la ban van "Sy-ri" hoac "An-tieu-kia", va ban van "Ai-cap" hoac "A-lec-xan-i. Nhng co the goi chung ca hai la "ban van thong dung", v no qua gan vi nhau, neu ta em so sanh vi mot hnh thc th ba goi la ban van "Tay phng". Xet chung, cac bien the trong ban "Tay phng" nay dng nh khong ai dien cho ban van nguyen thuy sach Cong Vu. Tuy nhien, ban van nay ang cho ta lu y, v no va co knh va truyen ba rong ben ong cung nh ben Tay, va co gia tr lch s hay giao ly. V the, cac chu giai trong ban dch nay se a nhac ti, nhat la trong ch. 15.

 

Sach Cong Vu ve phng dien van chng

Tuy sach Cong Vu co s nhat tr khong ai choi cai c ve ngon ng va t tng, nhng van gom hai phan dang ve khac nhau kha nhieu. Phan th nhat (1-12 hoac 15) xem nh mot toan the, ma cac nguyen to ch at gan nhau, ch khong sap xep cho th t, cac ch dan thi gi that la hoa hiem. Ngon ng th a theo kieu ngi se-mt va nhieu kha canh t tng hnh nh ton co. Phan th hai (13 hoac 16-28) th trai lai, khien ta co cam tng la mot dong lien tuc, mot toan the co to chc mach lac hn. Cac d kien thi gi, gap thay nhieu hn.  Ngon ng th thuan tuy hi-lap hn. ieu ky la, la trong li tng thuat, bon lan thay bo ngoi th ba, e dung ngoi th nhat so nhieu: "chung toi" (16,10).

Nhng oan van kha dai trong sach, thc te eu la nhng tch truyen tha sai (2,1-41; 8,4-40; 9,32-11,18; 13,1-21,26) hay tch truyen phien toa (3,1-4;31; 5,17-42; 6,8-8,12; 12,1-7; 21,27-26,32), ma tch cuoi cung lai keo theo mot tch truyen hanh trnh na (26-28). Con nhng oan van ngan hn eu thuoc hai loai chnh: tch truyen va dien t.

Cac tch truyen, du co oi thoai hay khong, cung khac nhau rat nhieu. Tnh la lung chiem a v ln lao. Ca may "ban toat lc" danh mo ta Giao oan Gie-ru-sa-lem phan au sach (2,42), cung thuoc pham vi truyen ky. Roi nhng cau qua quyet van tat chung chung, rai rac trong ca sach, cung vay (6,7; 9,31; v.v.; 16,5; 19,10-20; v.v.). Cac dien t cung khac nhau khong kem g tch truyen. Phan nhieu la do ki-to hu oc; nao dien giang tha sai nhieu kieu khac nhau (2,14; 10,36; 14,15); nao dien t bien ho trc toa an Do-thai hoac Ro-ma (4,8-12; 5,29-32; 7,2; 22,1); nao dien giang cho ki-to hu khac (1,16-22; 11,4-17; 15,7; 15,13; 20,18). Co the them vao cac dien t ki-to hu nay, nhng kinh nguyen (4,24) va mot bc th (15,23-29). ang khac, con may dien t van tat (5,35-39; 19,25-27.35-40; 24,2-8; 25,14-21) cung nh mot bc th (23,25) c gan cho ngi Do-thai hay la dan ngoai.

Chac chan tac gia Cong vu a dung cac nguon tai lieu. Co nhieu dau ch theo chieu hng ay. Cac nguon tai lieu o la th thanh van hay la truyen khau? Co le la ca hai. Du sao, cac nguon ay phai co s vng vang va uy tn kha ln. V rat co le chnh no la ly do giai thch s khac nhau cua hai phan sach, mac dau s nhat tr van chng trong toan the lam chng tam quan trong cua cong trnh bien soan. Nhng rui mot ieu la rat kho co lap trng hp "lo trnh" hay "nhat ky hanh trnh". V nhng oan van dung ch "chung toi", tuy gia thiet la co nhat ky nay, nhng lai khong the giup ta xac nh gii han ung t au ti au.

Trai lai, ta thay ro hn cac nguon tai lieu ay xuat phat ni nao trong i song Giao Hoi s khai. Moi Giao oan phai gi lai may ky niem ve sang lap va ve lch s cua mnh (x. 1Th 1,6; 2,1; 1C 2,1-5; 3,5-6; v.v.) va biet t nhieu giai thoai trong i song v sang lap mnh (1Th 2,2; 3,1-2; 2C 11,22-12,10; Ga 1,15-3,14; v.v.; Hi 13,7). Nhng tai lieu co tnh cach xay dng, la lung hay gi cam ay, co the chuyen t Giao oan no sang Giao oan kia (1Th 1,8; 2,14; 1C 16,1; 2C 8,5; Ga 1,13-23; v.v. X. Cv 24,27; 15,3-4; v.v.). Va may trung tam quan trong nh Gie-ru-sa-lem hay An-tieu-kia (11,19) chac la c may man ve phng dien nay, va phai gi lai, nh but tch hay la truyen khau nhieu tai lieu loai ay.

Sau het, phai them rang: neu tac gia "nhat ky hanh trnh" cung chnh la tac gia Cong vu, th nhan vat ban ng cua T. Phao-lo ay con co nhng ky niem rieng t cua mnh.

 

Sach Cong vu va lch s

Du cac nguon tai lieu co the nao i na, van con co the va can phe phan ve gia tr sach Cong vu, va trc tien la ve khung canh may tch truyen va dien t xay ra trong o. Cac s kien do lch s the gii va do khao co hoc, cung nh do cac phan khac trong Tan c va cach rieng do cac th T. Phao-lo cung cap cho ta, co the giup ta, nh oi chieu, lng gia ve s chnh xac cua khung canh nay va ve t nhieu chi tiet. Nhng ket qua do viec tra xet nay thng thuan li hn la bat li cho tnh that tha cua sach Cong vu. Chnh nh the, ma ta co the thiet lap nhng yeu to kha vng chac ve nien bieu cho nguon goc Ki-to giao, cung nh cho i song va cac th cua T. Phao-lo. Tnh trang ay keu mi s gia nen tn nhiem tien thien vao nhieu d kien do sach nay cung cap, ma v thieu phng tien kiem soat ben ngoai, nen ho anh phai han che vao nhng kha nang cua khoa phe bnh thuan tuy noi dung.

Khoa phe bnh nay co the ghi nhan, o ay, nhng net bat hoa hay cang thang trong cac tch truyen, rat co the hoac do tai lieu tac gia khong c chac chan hay con thieu sot, hoac do chu y tac gia muon sa oi hay giai thch cac d kien do may nguon tai lieu cung cap cho. Tnh co the ung s that cua tch truyen la mot tieu chuan khac, nhng kho s dung, v cac nhan xet no neu len khong thuoc pham vi lch s tat ca au. Trng hp kho nhat ay la cai la lung va cach rieng may tch truyen ve phep la. Co nhien la co the, va tuy dp lai co le ung, la tac gia hay chnh may nguon tai lieu a nhan manh ti kha canh nay cua mot so tch truyen. Nhng khoa phe bnh khong c phep quen rang: cac phep la a ong vai tro chac chan trong Ki-to giao s khai (Rm 15,18tt; 2C 12,12; Hi 2,4; x. Mc 16,17tt). Trong may trng hp nay, khong noi ti trng hp T. Phao-lo an nan tr lai, sach Cong vu ch neu ro chan dung cua may thc tai a c chng minh ni khac roi.

S tnh cac dien t Cong vu con at ra nhng van e phien phc hn la cac phan truyen ky. V ta biet cac s gia co thi von coi la bnh thng viec t do soan lay dien van, roi at vao mieng cac nhan vat lch s. S van tat cua phan nhieu dien van trong Cong vu khong cho ta coi o la nhng ban ghi toc ky hay nhng ky niem duy tr y nguyen. Mot t net khong the co that (15,15; v.v.) hay mot t iem tng ong ve ngon ng hay t tng, gia cac dien van va tch truyen, cho thay la tac gia a can thiep nhieu hay t vao viec bien soan cac dien t, Nhng may nhan xet nay khong cho phep ta phu nhan tat ca gia tr tai lieu cua chung. Co nhieu ly do chnh ang e ngh rang: cac dien t tha sai hay dien t cua T. Phao-lo noi vi hang ky lao E-phe-so (20,18-38) la phan anh trung thanh nhng kieu mau khac nhau trong li giang Ki-to giao. Con may dien t khac, xet chung chung, th co the ung s that, nhng muon lng ung gia tr lch s moi bai, th phai tuy thuoc rat nhieu vao uy tn ta danh cho cac tai lieu tac gia va cach rieng cho "nhat ky hanh trnh".

Mot iem sau cung trong Cong vu, xet la tai lieu lch s, can phai neu len: o la nhng im lang. V du sach nay khong noi chi ti viec thanh lap nhieu Giao oan co nhac en ten (28,13) va cung khong e cap chi ti nhng bat hoa gia T. Phao-lo vi Giao oan Co-rin-to (19,1). Nhng im lang nay va nhieu iem khac, bat luan v ly do nao, eu cho ta thay: Cong vu khong phai la cuon s chung ve Ki-to giao s khai, cung khong phai la cuon truyen ay u ve i song T. Phao-lo Tong o.

 

Than hoc sach Cong vu

Neu ch coi Cong vu la tai lieu lch s ma thoi, th se i lac ng, v sach ay theo anh sang c tin, e giai thch lch s ghi lai trong o. Trc tien cac dien t theo cach the rieng, e "oc" lch s a qua ma nay co dp gi lai hay la oc tch truyen hien thi nao o (2,16-21.33; 4,10-12; 11,17tt; v.v.). Nhng viec giai thch nh c tin nay cung to ra vng chac ni cac phan ke truyen, trong o Chua CHA can thiep vao e ong mot trong cac vai tro cau truyen: Ngai hanh ong nh thien s (23,8), nh Thanh Linh (1,8), nh cac tha sai Ki-to giao (15,4-12; 19,11; v.v.); v.v. The la muc tieu lch s trong sach nay lien ket vi muc tieu c tin cach minh nhien hn la trong cac sach Tin Mng. Cung giong nh may s gia tn o. V the, muon "bat gap" ong, can phai xet en c tin cua ong va noi dung cua niem tin ay. Noi kieu khac, can phai xet en than hoc cua ong. Than hoc nay hien dien khap ni trong sach, nhng phan cot yeu c neu len trong cac dien t va cach rieng trong cac dien t tha sai.

 

Lch s cu o

Li giang Ki-to giao la cong bo lch s cu o, ma vai chnh la Chua CHA. Chua CHA a tao thanh vu tru (17,24; v.v.) va a chon dan I-ra-en (3,25; 13,17; v.v.). The la trung tam lch s the gii, Cu c la thanh phan cua Tin Mng, la giai oan au tien (13,17-22; 7,2-50), la thi ky nhng hnh bong don ng (7,25; v.v.) va nhat la thi ky cua Li Ha va li cac ngon s loan bao chng trnh c Chua CHA (2,23).

Thi ky hoan tat (3,18) bat au, khi c Chua CHA cho c Gie-su "xuat hien" (3,22.26; 13,23) va bao lanh cho i song, li giang va cac phep la cua Ngi (1,22; 2,22; 10,36-38). Ngi Do-thai tuy khong co ng (3,13), nhng s Thng kho va cai Chet cua c Chua Gie-su, tiep tuc the hien Thanh y Chua CHA. Sau het, khi Chua CHA phuc sinh Chua Gie-su at Ngi lam "Chua Te" va "Ki-to" (2,36) va ban cho Ngi Thanh Linh a ha (2,33), th bay gi "li ha cung to phu" theo mot y ngha, a nen hoan tat tron ven (13,22tt). Nhng li ha ay danh cho I-ra-en va het moi ngi (2,39) "cho ti tan cung trai at" (1,8), nen viec hoan tat m ra mot khong gian va mot thi gian, e tiep dien lch s cu o. Sach Cong vu lu tam vao hien tai (x. Lc 4,21) ti mc hng trc tng lai (x. 1,7.10tt), nhng trong tng lai van la nhan gii cuoi cung cho cuon sach: o la ngay Chua CHA se hoan thanh y nh cua Ngai, la sai c Ki-to xuong "phan xet ke song va ke chet" (10,42; x. 3,20).

 

Ngay hom nay cua Chua CHA

Vay, oi vi sach Cong vu, nhng ieu mat thay tai nghe (2,33) t ngay c ki-to Phuc sinh hien ang tiep tuc hoan tat cac li ngon s (2,16-21; 13,40tt; 15,15-18; 28,25-27). Chua CHA luon luon van ong vai tro chnh yeu va mac dau chung ta khong xem thay, nhng Chua Gie-su van cung vi Chua CHA la trung tam cho moi bien co: s mang Ngi tiep tuc (3,26), Ngi tran o Thanh Linh (2,33), e lam linh hon cho i song Hoi Thanh (1,8), va dung T. Phao-lo e ch than "loan truyen anh sang cho Dan u tuyen va ch dan" (26,23). nen nhan manh rang: cai nhn vao "hien tai" cua lch s cu o ay, khong phai do tac gia sach Cong vu bay ra, v no a xuat hien T. Phao-lo roi.

Chnh v tam quan trong cua T. Phao-lo nhn nhan cho Thanh gia va s Phuc sinh cua Chua Gie-su, la ang "cac li Chua CHA phan ha a nen hien thc ni Ngi" (2C 1,20), khien cho T. Phao-lo suy tng va hanh ong theo vien anh "ngay hom nay" (x. 2C 6,2), trong o li Kinh Thanh tiep tuc nen hoan tat, v du nh trong n cu o nh c tin (Ga 3,6-9; Rm 1,17; 4; v.v.). oi vi T. Phao-lo cung nh oi vi sach Cong vu, li giang tha sai la chnh li Chua CHA tac ong va loan truyen (1Th 2,13tt; 2Th 3,1; Co 1,5-6), c cac dau la nhan la chnh thc (Rm 15,19; 2C 12,12). Viec ngai an nan tr lai la thanh phan y nh Chua CHA (Ga 1,11tt.15tt; v.v.). Ngai coi i song cac Giao oan nh la tiep noi thi ky Chua Gie-su (1Th 2,14tt; x. Hi 2,3-4). Vay tac gia sach Cong vu khong phai la ngi au tien nhan thay tam quan trong cua cai hien tai trong chng trnh Chua CHA, nhng ong a lam cho cai "ngay hom nay" ay noi bat len, khi ong nh viet sach Cong vu nh la phan tiep theo sach Phuc am cua mnh (1,1).

 

Li Chua CHA va "khong gian" li ay: lc o Cong vu

Cai "ngay hom nay" ay, oi vi sach Cong vu, trc tien la thi gian cua Li Chua CHA, cua Tin Mng, cua chng t cong bo c Gie-su Phuc sinh that la "Chua Te va ang Ki-to". Cac chng ta au tien cho niem tin ay chnh la nhom Mi hai Tong o, theo tc hieu oc nhat vo song (1,2; 1,22). Nhng cac ong Te-phan, Phi-lp, Ba-na-be va nhng ngi khac na, ma T. Phao-lo ng hang au (13,31), cung thong phan vao viec loan bao nay, e cho Li vang doi mai cho ti cuoi sach (28,30tt).

Ro rang la Cong vu lu tam ti khong gian va ngoai a ly va trong con ngi, la ni loan truyen li ay. Trong Phuc am T. Lu-ca, Chua Gie-su t to mnh, bat au t Na-da-ret va ket thuc tai Gie-ru-sa-lem. Con trong Cong vu, th Tin Mng khi s t Gie-ru-sa-lem (2-5), e i ti mien Sa-ma-ri va t x Giu-e (8,1), roi at ti x Phe-ni-ki, Ky-po va Sy-ri (11,19-22), oan t ay sang Tieu A va Hi-lap (13-18) trc khi thau tan Ro-ma (28,30). The la Li Chua hoan thanh cuoc chay ua "ti tan cung trai at", nh Chua Phuc sinh a muon vay (1,8) va nh a c tng trng trong ngay Linh Giang (2,10). S d Tin Mng c loan bao khap ni nh the, chnh la v a c danh san cho "het moi ngi" (17,31): trc het la cho I-ra-en (2,39; 3,25-26), roi cho cac dan ngoai. Viec chuyen Tin Mng va n Cu o sang cho dan ngoai (13,46) do Chua CHA (2,39; 15,7-11.14) va c Gie-su (22,21) muon the, chnh la e tai cot yeu sach nay. Viec ong Co-ne-li tr lai (10,1), viec giang Tin Mng cho ngi Hi-lap thanh An-tieu-kia (11,19) va viec sai cac ong Ba-na-be va Phao-lo i truyen giao (13,1), la nhng giai oan au tien cua viec chuyen sang nay. Tuy An-tieu-kia, roi tai Gie-ru-sa-lem, a at lai van e chuyen sang ay, nhng cuoi cung viec ay a c duy tr (15,1). The la T. Phao-lo co the bat au s vu truyen giao qui mo (15,36). Viec ay se giup ngai, nh b tu (21,33-28,14), ma co the em Tin Mng, theo n goi rieng cua ngai, en tan Ro-ma la thu o the gii dan ngoai (28,31). Du co nhng chi tiet khong chac chan, nhng may net ai cng trong lc o sach Cong vu, xuat hien ro rang trong cac giai oan tren ay, va lien he ti a ly, va lien quan ti con ngi, anh dau cho viec loan truyen Li Chua CHA.

 

Tr lai, c tin, thanh tay va ban Thanh Linh

Li giang Ki-to giao thng ket thuc bang li keu goi ngi nghe an nan tr lai (1,19). o la ra khoi s khong biet mnh (3,17), la tin theo bang cach nhn nhan c Gie-su la "Chua Te va ang Ki-to" (2,36). c tin oi vi sach Cong vu, tuy hien nhien la mot hanh vi t do cua con ngi, nhng van la mot hong an c Chua CHA (5,31; 11,18; 15,9; 16,14; v.v.). V ch co mot mnh Chua CHA mi "m ca long tin" (14,27) va giai cu c nh Chua Gie-su (4,12; 15,11). oi vi hai hong an Chua CHA ban xuong la tha toi (3,26; 5,31; 10,43; v.v.) va cho d phan Thanh Linh do c Gie-su tuon o (2,38; 10,45; 11,17), ve pha Hoi Thanh, co hai le nghi tng ng cach mau nhiem o la phep thanh tay "nhan danh c Gie-su Ki-to" e tha toi (2,38; x. 1,5; 19,5); va phep at tay e ban Thanh Linh (6,6; x. 10,44). The la cac tn o mi eu c thanh tay "trong Thanh Linh" (1,5; 11,16) va c d phan cac li Chua ha.

 

Cac Giao oan, Giao Hoi, dan Chua CHA

Nh vay la cac ngi an nan tr lai c gia nhap nhng nhom ma sach Cong vu a sm goi la cac Giao oan (5,11; 7,38; 11,26). Trong sach, ta thay rat ro la co nhieu Giao oan, nhng ieu ay khong ngan tr ho y thc la mnh tien bc tren cung mot "con ng", cung mot "ao Chua CHA" (9,2), ma cac phan t, bat luan au, cung goi nhau bang cung may danh hieu va se co ngay c goi la Ki-to hu, ki-to thuoc (11,26; 26,28). V the, khong la g ma tieng Giao Hoi, sau a dung e goi chung cac Giao oan, la "Giao Hoi c Chua CHA a sam bang gia mau" (20,28; x. 9,31). Du sao, ro rang la oi vi tac gia, toan the cac tn o lap thanh dan duy nhat cua Chua CHA, trong o c tin qui tu cac ngi a chu va khong chu cat b (15,14; x. 18,10). Con nhng ngi Do-thai "khong chu nghe" c Gie-su, th b loai ra ngoai (3,23; x. 13,46).

Dan va cac Giao oan nay thuoc rieng ve Chua CHA, nen ac biet gan gui vi Ngai va vi ban than Chua Gie-su. ung ti ki-to hu la pham en ban than c Gie-su (9,5). Gia nhap mot cong oan nao, chnh la lien ket cung Chua (x. 2,47 va 5,14; 11,24), v Thanh Linh Ngi tac ong va hng dan toan the i song cac Giao oan (1,8; 5,3-4.9; 15,28; 20,28; v.v.).

 

i song cac Giao oan

May ban toat lc trong sach Cong vu, va cho ta phong oan cac Giao oan tien khi a song lam sao va muon song nh the nao, va mac khai cho ta biet ro quan niem tac gia ve ly tng, ma cac cong oan ki-to hu phai lo vn ti.

Ban toat lc au tien ghi nhan nhat la s cham ch nghe "cac Tong o giang day" (2,42) va tiep theo la li giang day do cac ngi lanh ao cac Giao oan phu trach (14,22; 20,7.18-35; v.v.). Li giang nay danh cho cac ngi a an nan tr lai va keo dai s iep ho a tin theo. Co le la "luan ly" chiem phan quan trong hn, ma han la nhan manh ti tnh huynh e (x. 20,35). Du sao, s hiep thong huynh e la kha canh i song ki-to hu i lien sau li giang day. Can ban s hiep thong ay tai co "mot long va mot linh hon vi nhau" (4,32; 2,44). Chnh tch truyen trung tam sach Cong vu that ra noi cho ta hay phng thc Giao Hoi a dung e cu van s hiep thong cac Giao oan, trong o co nhng ngi chu va khong chu cat b (15,1-25). ang khac, s hiep thong tam hon nay nay n thanh s e cua chung (2,44), hay t ra s chia se gia anh em vi nhau (9,36; 10,48; 20,34; 21,24) hay gia cac Giao oan (11,29).

Hai thanh phan chot trong i song Giao oan, do sach Cong vu a ghi, la "be banh va cau nguyen" (2,42). Be banh, chac chan la ch phep Sung An (2,42; 13,1; 20,70). Con cau nguyen, th o khong phai nguyen la mot yeu to trong ba Sung An, trong phep thanh tay (x. 22,16) va phep at tay (8,15.17), tc la trong phung t ma thoi, nhng con i theo tat ca i song hang ngay cua cac Giao oan va ki-to hu (1,14; 4,24; 9,40; 10,9; 12,5-12; v.v.).

 

Tong o, Ta vien, T. Phao-lo, Ngon s, Ky lao

Trong long cac Giao oan, thay noi bat len nhng nhom tn o phu trach may viec lam rieng. Trc tien la trng hp mi hai Tong o (1,2) chung quanh T. Phe-ro (1,13; 2,14; 5,3.29; 9,32; v.v.; 15,17). Tai Gie-ru-sa-lem va ben ngoai, cac tong o chiem a v oc nhat vo song. Vai tro cac v ay con vt qua (4,33-37; 5,12.18.40; 9,27; v.v.) s mang can ban lam chng nhan (1,8) va phuc vu Li Chua (6,2). S hien dien cua cac ngai, t na trong thi gian au, tai Gie-ru-sa-lem, han la ly do giai thch, v sao Giao oan tien khi nay, theo mc rong rai, a ong vai tro trung tam va ieu chnh (8,14; 9,32; 11,1.27-30; 15,2.36). Chnh cac Tong o, v mang qua nhieu trach nhiem va lo cu van lay phan cot yeu, nen mi thiet lap nhom Bay ta vien (6,1). Trai lai, chnh c Gie-su trao phu cho T. Phao-lo mot s mang, tuy khong tren cung bnh dien vi cac Tong o (13,31) va se khien ngai tr nen v sang lap va phu trach cac Giao oan. Cac ngon s th ng tren bnh dien khac han; khong bao gi cac v ay xuat hien nh ke c ngi ta "thiet lap"; nhng cac ngai c Thanh Linh cam hng va ong vai tro quan trong trong i song cac Giao oan (11,27). Khi sach Cong vu noi ti ky lao, oi vi cac Giao oan T. Phao-lo, th o la nhng ke do ngai "thiet lap" (14,23), e lanh trach nhiem cac Giao oan ay, khi ngai i khoi (20,18.28); v thieu tai lieu khac, nen ta co the gia thiet nguon goc va vai tro tng t, oi vi cac ky lao Gie-ru-sa-lem (11,30) xung quanh T. Gia-co-be (21,18; x. 12, 17; 15,13).

V the, mac dau tac gia khong nhan manh ti iem nay, nhng Giao Hoi va cac Giao oan do ong gii thieu, t ra a co phan nao c cau. Nhng khong v the, ma cac "anh em" thng khong con vai tro g na. Du la ngon s hay khong, nhieu lan ta thay cac anh em o d phan vao nhng cuoc la chon quan trong (1,15tt; 6,3; 13,1-3; 14,23) va chnh mot quyet nh cua Thanh Linh "ong y vi toan Giao Hoi", ket thuc hoi ngh Gie-ru-sa-lem (15,22.23.28): oi vi tac gia, o la ng loi ly tng e cai tr Giao Hoi ung theo nh hng "hiep thong".

 

Le luat Moi-sen va niem tin vao c Gie-su

o la iem chot trong nen than hoc sach Cong vu. V quan trong, nen phai ban en cach rieng. Vay tac gia quan niem the nao viec chuyen t Do-thai giao sang Ki-to giao, t n cu o nh luat Moi-sen (15,1.5) sang n cu o nh c tin va an sung (15,9.11).

Thc ra li qua quyet cua T. Phao-lo, khi ng trc tong tran Phe-lch, khong phai la khong co co phan nghch thuyet. Ngai noi: Khi theo "ao", vi t cach la ki-to hu, ngai van toan dien trung thanh vi niem tin cay I-ra-en (26,22). Ngi Do-thai a tr nen ki-to hu, khong v the ma bo cac thc hanh Do-thai giao (2,46), la le luat va phep cat b (15,5; 21,20tt). Ca T. Phe-ro cung vay (10,9.14). Co le T. Te-phan a t nghch vi Le luat hn li cac oi phng ngai noi (6,13). Va chnh T. Phao-lo a t cho mnh (21,24; 25,8) va t to mnh la ke trung thanh tuan gi Le luat Moi-sen (16,3; 21,26; 22,17). Giao oan Do-thai, tuy van la Giao Hoi, nhng con chm sau vao Do-thai giao. V khong phe phan ve chnh tnh trang ay, nen sach Cong vu hnh nh to cho ta thay tac gia coi o la tnh trang bnh thng.

Nhng I-ra-en nay, gi ay a c hng thu cac li ha trong c Gie-su "la Chua Te va ang Ki-to", nen ho can m rong ra oi vi ch dan. Nhng m rong theo nhng phng thc cu the nao, th ca c Gie-su, ca Chua CHA cung cha mac khai cho tn o Do-thai. Vay chnh Chua CHA a can thiep, e lam cho nhng ngi dan au tien khong chu cat b, la ong Co-ne-li va gia nhan tai Xe-sa-re c an nan tr lai (10,1). Ngai lieu cho T. Phe-ro hieu la viec giao tiep vi nhng ngi a nh c tin tinh luyen o va an ong ban vi ho, khong the la nguon gay "o ue" cho ngi Do-thai c (10,28.35). Giao oan ki-to hu goc do-thai tai Gie-ru-sa-lem a chap nhan va chao mng bien co ay (11,18). Tuy nhien, mot t phan t lai giai thch ieu o nh mot no tr. V se co ngay ho muon bat ngi Hi-lap thanh An-tieu-kia a an nan tr lai (11,20-21) phai chu phep cat b va gi luat Moi-sen, coi o la nhng ieu can thiet e c n cu o (15,1.5). a han o la phng triet e giup giai quyet cac van e at ra, do s ngi Do-thai va ngoai-do-thai song chung va an ong ban trong cac Giao oan. Nhng oi vi tac gia sach Cong vu, viec giai quyet cac van e nay a c neu len dt khoat mot lan tai Xe-sa-re. Ong mo ta mot cach thoa man ro rang, cuoc chien thang Gie-ru-sa-lem (15,4-29). Thc ra, cuoc chien thang nay a at ti, nh mot s dan xep (15,19.20) va cu van c s "hiep thong" Giao Hoi, va bao am c nhng g thiet yeu, tc la: du co chu hay khong chu cat b, cung phai nh c tin va an sung Chua Gie-su, th ki-to hu mi c n cu o (15,9.11).

Mot ki-to hu goc Do-thai, bay gi a co ly do nao e c trung thanh vi phep cat b va Luat Moi-sen? Tac gia khong noi chi ve ieu ay het. Co le ong a khong t at cau hoi ay bao gi. Du sao, ong cung khong coi o la ieu quan trong hang au, v ong suy ngh to tng la: trc canh a so ngi Do-thai t choi Tin Mng (13,46), t ay n cu o c e ngh cho nhat la, neu khong phai ch nguyen cho mot mnh dan ngoai (28,28).

 

Sach Cong vu cho ai va e lam g?

Van e oc gia, ngi viet co y nham vao nhng chu y a thuc ay ong viet, co mot tam quan trong cach rieng giup hieu ve lch s hay giao ly tac pham cua ong.

Co le tac gia khong loai tr ngi Do-thai khoi hang oc gia cua mnh: mot so ngi trong ho co the nhay cam oi vi s ki-to hu a chu cat b trung thanh gi Do-thai giao hay oi vi e tai hoan tat cac li Thanh kinh. Nhng sach Cong vu khong the danh cho nhat la oc gia do-thai: v tac gia qua nhan manh ti s I-ra-en t choi Tin Mng, cung nh trach nhiem ngi Do-thai trong cai chet cua c Gie-su (2,23; 3,13-15; 13,27-29) va ti nhng kho khan ma viec ruyen ba Ki-to giao a gap.

Thoat nhn, ta thay gia thuyet nham vao oc gia dan ngoai la ieu thch hp hn. V chnh dan ngoai la ke n cu chuoc cuoi cung c e ngh cho (28,28); v Thanh Phao-lo, v tha sai chnh yeu cua Ki-to giao, bam sinh la cong dan Ro-ma (16,37); v cac toa an Ro-ma a luon luon nhn nhan la ngai vo toi (18,15), va nh the la phai lam, v "ao" ngai rao giang, khong phai la mot phong trao chnh tr phien loan (17,17), cung khong phai la mot tong giao mi nao phi phap (18,13). Tuy khong the ung la sach Cong vu co y viet ra e bien ho cho Thanh Phao-lo, trc toa an hoang e, nhng rat co the ngh la tac gia khi viet cung mong rang: cuon sach co the ri vao tay nhng oc gia con la dan ngoai, e cho ho c nh n ch.

Nhng rot cuoc, chnh noi dung sach nay, niem tin dien ra trong o cach ro rang va lien tuc, cac van e ban giai trong o: tat ca eu chng minh la tac gia viet trc tien cho oc gia ki-to giao. The th chu y au tien, phai chang la bien ho cho cac lap trng tha sai cua T. Phao-lo chong vi ngi ki-to hu goc Do-thai? Neu chu tam nh the han la tac gia can che ay viec the he ki-to hu au tien a trung thanh vi Do-thai giao, v ieu ay ch co the cung cap them ly chng cho nhng oi phng. Thc ra, nhng muc tieu can ban tac gia co y nham vao, cot yeu la nhng ieu tch cc: ong viet sach Cong vu cung nh sach Phuc Am, trc tien la e giao huan va xay dng cho ki-to hu. Chnh v muc tieu ay ma ong ke lai viec loan truyen Li Chua, mai ti ngay Li ay vang doi "cach hoan toan hien ngang dan d va van khong gap tr ngai nao", tai chnh o thanh Ro-ma, Khi nhan manh ti vai tro c tin, ong chong lai nhng khuynh hng theo Do-thai giao co the xay ra; khi ton trong viec ki-to hu chu cat b trung thanh vi Do-thai giao, han la ong anh tan moi li ch trch, co the xuat hien t pha cac anh em khong chu cat b. Thc ra, tac gia la con ngi nham vao s nhat tr va hiep thong, keu mi Giao Hoi song theo Thanh Linh hng dan, giong nh Giao oan Gie-ru-sa-lem a ch co mot long va mot linh hon vi nhau.

 

Tac gia va ngay thang bien soan sach Cong vu

Co the noi dai ve sach Cong vu, nh tieu dan nay chng minh ieu ay, ma khong e cap ti tac gia va ngay thang bien soan. Nhng cung nh van e oc gia va cac chu y ngi viet nham vao, cac van e co ien nay cung at ra cho ai muon lng gia va hieu biet sach Cong vu cho hoan toan ay u.

Tac gia sach Cong vu cung chnh la tac gia Phuc Am th ba. Tap truyen a xac tn nh vay trong nhieu the ky. Neu so sanh t ngon trong hai cuon sach, th cung oi cung mot ngi viet ca hai: v ca hai t ngon eu cong hien cho ong The-ophi-le (Lc 1,3; CV 1,1) va t ngon sach Cong vu con am ch sach Phuc Am (Cv 1,1). Sau het, nghien cu ve ngon ng va t tng trong hai cuon cang het sc ro rang bien minh cho cung mot tac gia. Nhng tac gia ay la ai? V co nhng oan dung kieu noi "chung toi", nen gi y la tac gia vao so nhng ban ng cua T. Phao-lo. Tnh de dat trong loi gi y nay, a v sach danh cho s mang truyen giao cua T. Phao-lo va nhng am hoa quan trong vi giao ly T. Tong o, cung mi goi ta tm tac gia theo chieu hng ay. Va nh vay th ong "Lu-ca thay thuoc than yeu" (Co 4,14; Plm 24) gan nh la ngi duy nhat hoi u cac ieu kien tren ay.

Nhng con phai xet ti nhieu d kien khac na. S am hoa t tng gia Cong vu va T. Phao-lo trong cac Th ngai, t na con gay thac mac ve mot so iem that la quan trong, v du nh y niem ve chc vu Tong o (13,31) hay vai tro cua Luat Moi-sen. Cung vay, mot t ieu qua quyet hay la im lang trong sach Cong vu xem ra that ang phai ngac nhien, v du lam sao ma mot ban ng cua T. Phao-lo, quan tam mot cach ro rang nh the oi vi van e dan ngoai an nan tr lai, the ma lai khong noi g ti cuoc khung hoang Ga-lat? Nhng van e nay co thc. Nhng phai chang v the ma ket luan c rang: Phuc Am th ba va Cong vu tong o khong the do tac gia la ban c cua T. Phao-lo va bi ay nhat thiet khong the nao chap nhan T. Lu-ca la tac gia hai sach nay? Ly luan nh the t ra la khong chac ung.

Ve ngay thang bien soan, th co mot iem ro rang: chieu theo t ngon trong sach, th a viet Cong vu sau Phuc Am T. Lu-ca. Trong lau i, ngi ta a coi viec ch ngay thang xac nh la van e n gian: neu tac gia khong noi g ve ket cuoc tai Ro-ma cua vu an chnh ong a ke rat dai dong giai oan Pa-le-tin, th chnh la tai ong khong biet, v ong a viet tac pham mnh t "hai nam trc" (28,30), sau khi T. Phao-lo ti Ro-ma, tc la vao khoang nam 62-63, trc khi xong vu an. Nhng bay gi Phuc am T. Lu-ca va hn na Phuc Am T. Mac-co a co trc sach Cong vu, se phai at vao mot ngay thang rat sm, ma khoa phe bnh hien ai, xet chung, khong the nao chap nhan c. ang khac, ta khong hieu lam sao tac gia a khong ch cho xong vu an (28,30) roi mi viet hay t ra hoan tat sach mnh: cac oc gia ong se khoi ngac nhien ve viec ket an (x. 20,22-24; 21,11-14) hay ve viec tha ve (26,32; x. Plm 22). Thc s, ngay t khi T. Phao-lo en Ro-ma, tac gia a khong con chu y vao vu an, e quay ve vi e tai chnh yeu trong tac pham nay: o la viec loan bao Tin Mng tai Ro-ma, "cho ti tan cung trai at" (28,30), do chnh T. Phao-lo, ngi a tng nhan lanh s mang lam chng tai Ro-ma, cung nh tai Gie-ru-sa-lem (23,11). Loi giai thch ve phan cuoi sach Cong vu tren ay, khong cho phep an nh ngay thang bien soan chnh xac. V khoa phe bnh hien ai thng at ngay thang bien soan Phuc am th ba vao sau nam 70, nen cung ch nh cho sach Cong vu tong o mot ngay thang chung quanh nam 80, ch xe xch mi nam.

 

Tnh hien thi cua sach Cong vu

Sach Cong vu tong o, xet theo mot ngha, la cuon hien thi hn het trong moi sach Tan c, v thi gian va khong gian Li Chua, do sach ay bieu dng, con m rong ra trc mat moi ki-to hu va se con nh vay cho ti ngay Chua Gie-su tai lam (1,11). Cac "anh em" ngay nay phai biet oc sach nay, cung vi nhau va cho nhan nai. Co nh the mi hoc biet hay nh lai rang: ho luon luon phai cung nhau lam chng ve Chua Phuc Sinh "cho ti tan cung trai at". Tuy viec lam chng nay, trong moi Giao oan mot khac, nhng het moi Giao oan van lam thanh ch mot Dan Thien Chua ma thoi. Va Thanh Linh do Chua Gie-su thong truyen, ngay hom nay cung nh ngay hom qua, co khi se cam hng cho ho "nhng quyet nh ong tam" (15,25), giup ho cung vi nhau i theo "ao Chua". 

 


Back to Home Page