Chu Giai Tan c Theo TOB

Theo ban dch cua Linh Muc An Sn V

 

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Tieu Dan Phuc Am Thanh Luca

c Kito Cu Nhan o The

 

T ngon sach th nhat Thanh Luca

Trong bon cuon Phuc Am, ch co cuon Thanh Luca la bat au bang mot t ngon, theo kieu nhieu sach hi lap ng thi. T ngon nay cong hien cho ong Theophile, hnh nh la nhan vat quan trong. Sach Cong Vu cung bat au bang mot t ngon, cong hien cho cung mot nhan vat va nhac lai cuon th nhat, trong o tac gia tng thuat ve "moi ieu c Giesu a lam va giang day" (Cv 1,1-2). Do o, ngay t Hoi Thanh co thi, ngi ta a ket luan la Phuc Am va Cong Vu eu do cung mot tac gia. Khoa phe bnh hien ai a kien chng cho ieu nhan xet ay, can c tren s ong nhat ve ngon ng va t tng, cung nh s can oi ve y nh cua hai cuon sach nay. Phuc Am th neu ro viec c Giesu len thanh Gierusalem, la ni hoan tat huyen nhiem Vt Qua, tc la cuoc T Nan Phuc Sinh cua c Kito, con Cong Vu th tng thuat viec rao giang huyen nhiem nay, khi s t Gierusalem mai cho ti tan cung trai at (Cv 1,8).

Trong t ngon Phuc Am, Thanh Luca loan bao e tai, phng phap va muc tieu tac pham mnh. Ong sap trnh bay "nhng bien co" se la khi iem cho li giang Hoi Thanh. Ong a tm tai lieu ky lng ve tap truyen cac chng nhan tien khi va sap trnh bay cho "th t lp lang". Nh vay, ong Theophile se gap thay mot tng thuat vng chac ve cac s kien ngi ta a noi vi ong.

The la Thanh Luca t gii thieu theo cach mot s gia. Ong theo thoi quen cua cac nha viet s ng thi (x. nien bieu 3,1-2). Nhng lch s ong muon trnh bay la lch s thanh. Y nh cot yeu cua ong la to bay y ngha cac bien co xay ra oi vi c tin: mot niem tin a c sang to nh Huyen Nhiem Phuc Sinh va i song Hoi Thanh. Sach nay la mot Phuc Am, mot cuon Tin Mng.

 

Lch s cu o trong viec cau tao Phuc Am

Phuc Am Thanh Mattheu va Thanh Macco: tieu dan, viec c Giesu rao giang tai x Galile, s Ngi len thanh Gierusalem, viec Ngi hoan tat s mang mnh trong thanh ay, bang cuoc T Nan Phuc Sinh. Nhng ket cau cua Thanh Luca a lam ky lng, nham vao muc tieu lam noi bat len trong thien lch s nay, cac thi ky va ni chon cua lch s cu o.

1. Tieu dan (1,5-4,13) gom hai muc rat khac nhau.

May tch truyen hai nhi (1,5-2,52) la rieng cho Thanh Luca. Chung triet e oi chieu ong Gioan Tay Gia vi c Giesu, ma neu ro ong Gioan tuy thuoc vao c Giesu. Nhat la chung trnh bay huyen nhiem c Giesu thanh mot chuoi s iep sieu nhien, cong bo Ngi c chu thai bi phep Thanh Linh, Ngi la ang Thanh va la Con cua c Chua Cha (1,35), la V Cu The va la Chua Kito (2,11), la n Cu o Chua Cha ban xuong va la Anh Sang cho dan ngoai (2,30-32). The ma Ngi van b khoi dan mnh t choi (2,34). Ngay tai ngng ca Phuc Am, trc khi cham cham bay to huyen nhiem nh phan tiep theo trong sach se tng thuat, may ieu mac khai o lam thanh mot t ngon ve c Kito,sanh c vi t ngon cua Phuc Am Thanh Gioan (G 1,1-18).

Muc giao au s mang (3,1-4,13) th, cung nh trong Phuc Am Thanh Mattheu va Thanh Macco, gom co s mang Thanh Gioan Tay Gia, viec thanh tay c Giesu va viec Ngi bat au chien thang ten cam do. Nhng Thanh Luca phan biet ro rang thi ky Thanh Gioan thuoc ve Cu c, va thi ky c Giesu (3,20); ong nhan manh ti viec Chua Cha tan phong Con cua Ngai lam ang Thu Han, sau khi thu tay (3,22); ong sap ay gia pha c Giesu va cho lan len mai tan to tong Aam, e anh dau s c Giesu lien he vi toan the nhan loai (3,23-38); sau het, may tieng cuoi cung trong tch truyen cam do, a loan bao cuoc chien tranh quyet liet trong hoi T Nan (4,13).

2. Phan th nhat s mang c Giesu (4,14-9,50) hoan toan xay ra tai x Galile (x. 23,5; Cv 10,37), khac vi Mt 15,21; 16,13 va Mc 7,24-31; 8,27, Thanh Luca m au bang canh c Giesu rao giang trong Hoi ng Nadaret (4,16-30), la cai ien hnh trc cho tat ca phan tiep theo cua Phuc Am. o la viec loan bao n cu o can c tren Kinh Thanh va do Thanh Linh cam hng, viec am ch n cu dan ngoai giao va s cac ngi ong hng t choi c Giesu va toan tnh giet Ngi. Roi tng thuat tiep s mang cua Ngi, ghi cac hanh vi (nhat la cac phep la) va li noi cua Ngi, dan cac mon o ti gap g ban than Ngi t nhat.

Muc au tien (4,31-6,11) theo gan sat th t Thanh Macco 1,16-3,6, trnh bay c Giesu oi dien vi am ong, vi cac mon o tien khi, vi cac oi phng, trong nhng phep la va nhng cuoc tranh luan.

Muc th hai (6,12-7,52) khong co trong Thanh Macco, nhng Thanh Mattheu th co nhng khuc song song rai rac: m au la keu goi nhom Mi Hai, roi trnh bay nhat la li c Giesu giang day cac mon o, trong bai giang Chan Phuc.

Muc th ba (8,1-9,50) lai gap tng thuat Thanh Macco 4,1-9,40 (nhng khong co khuc song song vi Mc 6,45-8,26), lien ket chat che nhom Mi Hai vao s mang c Giesu. Ngay t 8,1 a nhac en ten cac ong. Roi bai giang du ngon phan biet cac ngi nghe c Giesu thanh hai nhom: mot la nhng ke ch co du ngon, hai la nhng ke c "cho biet cac ieu huyen nhiem Nc Chua" (8,10). Nhng phep la mi danh cho cac mon o, khien cac ong at cau hoi: "Vay Ngi la ai?" (8,25). Bay gi nhom Mi Hai c sai i cong bo Trieu ai Nc Chua (9,1-6) va tch cc thong phan vao viec lam cho banh nen nhieu (9,12). Sau het, c Giesu co the bat cac ong tuyen xng ve Ngi, va Thanh Phero nhn nhan Ngi "la c Kito Chua Tri sai phai" (9,20). Li au tien dien ta huyen nhiem c Giesu nay, a c bo tuc them lien: do chnh Thay Ch Thanh t xng Ngi la ang Thu Han danh cho T Nan (9,22), roi do chnh Chua Cha, trong canh vinh quang Hien Bien, cong bo c Giesu la Con u Ai (9,35).

3. Cuoc len thanh Gierusalem (9,51-19,28), la phan oc ao nhat trong cau tao cua Thanh Luca. Nhieu tai lieu cua ong, ta gap thay rai rac o ay trong Thanh Mattheu va mot so t trong Thanh Macco, nhng ch co Thanh Luca trnh bay chung trong khuon kho mot cuoc hanh trnh.

Cuoc hanh trnh ay m au bang mot cau long trong nh hng cho bc tien cua c Giesu theo bien co vt qua. Ngi sap sa hoan thanh (9,51). Thay Ch Thanh len ng i Gierusalem, la Thanh Thanh ni can the hien n cu o loai ngi. Hai lan na Thanh Luca nhac ti Thanh Thanh 13,22 va 17,11, co the phan chia phan nay ra ba muc. Nhng s phan chia nay co ve hnh thc ma thoi, v ba muc nay oi vi nhau khong co tuan theo trac o (10,13-15 va 13,31-33 hnh nh nh v tr Galile; con 13,34-35 gia thiet la c Giesu a rao giang tai Gierusalem roi). o ch la mot khuon kho hanh van gia tao, giup Thanh Luca gom gop cac tai lieu va at chung vao trong anh sang cua viec hoan tat huyen nhiem Vt Qua.

Suot ca phan nay, li c Giesu giang day va khuyen nhu, noi bat hn cac phep la va s trnh bay ve huyen nhiem c Kito (nhng phai tr 10,21-24; 12,49-50; 18,31-33 va 19,12-15). Thay Ch Thanh luon luon noi vi Iraen; cuoc cham tran gia Ngi vi Biet Phai va thong giao that la nghiem khac (11,37-52); Ngi keu goi dan chung an nan tr lai (12,51-13,9) va suy xet ve viec ho khc t 13,23-35; 14,16-24). Nhat la Ngi quay ve pha cac mon o Ngi, e xac nh s mang cac ong (9,52-10,20), e keu mi cac ong cau nguyen (11,1-13) va t bo (12,22-34. 51-53; 14,26-33; 16,1-13; 18,28-30). Mot phan ln nhng giao huan danh cho mon o, eu xet ti hoan canh c Giesu khong con hien dien gia cac ong na. o la ieu tng ng vi vien anh cuoc hanh trnh, tc la viec c Giesu "c cat len") (9,51). Khi c Giesu i roi, se ti thi ky cac mon o phai cau xin Thanh Linh (11,13), phai tuyen xng Thay mnh trc mat ngi ta (12,1-12), phai ch i Ngi tr lai (12,35-40; 17,22-18,8; 19,11-27), phai cham soc anh em mnh trong cac cong oan (12,41-48).

18,15, tng thuat Thanh Luca lai i song song vi tng thuat cua Thanh Mattheu (19,15) va Thanh Macco (10,13). Nhng cuoi cung Thanh Luca lai them tch truyen cu thoat ong Giakeu va nhat la du ngon yen bac (19,1-10.11-27). Trong bien soan Thanh Luca, du ngon nay chuan b cho cuoc cham tran bi ai gia dan thanh Gierusalem va c Vua ho sap t khc khong muon nhn nhan (x. 19,11).

4. Phan th ba s mang c Giesu (19,29-24,53) ke lai viec hoan tat n cu o tai Gierusalem va khien cho o thanh thay mat Iraen, e oi dien vi c Giesu trong bi kch Thanh Gia. Thanh Luca anh dau manh me iem nay, trong canh au het c Giesu vao thanh Gierusalem. (19,29-48): Thay Ch Thanh t gii thieu la Vua (c. 35-38); Ngi than khoc o thanh sap t choi khong nhan Ngi ng en lam Vua (c. 41-44); Ngi to quyen bnh Ngi trong en Th, ma uoi cac ngi buon ban ra ngoai va giang day moi ngay trong o (c. 45-48).

Viec mac khai c Giesu tai Gierusalem gom ba muc giong nh Thanh Mattheu va Thanh Macco, nhng Thanh Luca em vao o nhng sac thai rieng cua mnh.

Li giang day trong en Th (20-21) ket thuc bang li loan bao viec phan xet thanh Gierusalem va viec Con Ngi ng en. Thanh Luca hng may li loan bao nay ti toan the dan Iraen (x.21,5.20).

Tch truyen T Nan (22-23) theo cung mot lc o nh may Phuc Am kia; nhng tng thuat ve Tiec Thanh keo dai them bang nhng li giang day nhom Mi Hai, ve vai tro lam toi ta va s cao trong cua cac ong trong Nc Chua sau nay, va ve hoan canh mi se xay en cho cac ong, khi Thay cac ong i roi (22,24-38). Cac au kho c Giesu lam noi bat len s Ngi la ang cong chnh va la gng mau hi sinh tuyet vi e lam chng cho s that. Trong canh hen ha cua ang Thu Han, Vng Quyen Ngi a hien dien cach vng vang (x. 22,69; 23,37).

Cac tch truyen Phuc Sinh (24), tat ca eu xay ra tai Gierusalem. Khong thay nhac en co truyen ve nhng cuoc hien ra Galile (Mt 26,32; 28,7.10.16-20; Mc 14,28; 16,7; G 21), han la v muon duy tr s can oi vi sach Cong Vu. Cac tch truyen nay giai thch T Nan la huyen nhiem Chua Cha a muon, e dan c Kito vao s vinh quang cua Ngi (c. 26) va chng minh rang thanh y Chua Cha ay, chnh c Giesu a loan bao trc (c. 7) va a c ghi vao Thanh Kinh (c. 25-27. 44-46). Sau het, c Giesu hien ra vi nhom Mi Mot, e anh tan s cac ong con nghi nan (c. 36-43) va giao cho cac ong s mang lam chng ta (c. 47-49). Sach ket lieu bang tch truyen th nhat ve viec Thang Thien (c. 51) to ra ang Phuc Sinh co quyen Chua Te (x. Cv 2,36).

The la toan the Phuc Am eu chng minh s mac khai tiem tien ve Huyen Nhiem Chua Giesu va nhng ngi se phu trach viec rao truyen s iep ay a cham cham i vao Huyen Nhiem cua Ngi.

 

Thi ky c Giesu vi thi ky Hoi Thanh

1. V Thanh Luca muon danh cuon sach th hai cho viec cac tong o rao giang, nen ngai co the anh dau ro ret hn Thanh Mattheu va Thanh Macco, nhng d biet gia thi ky c Giesu vi thi ky Hoi Thanh.

Phuc Am ngai chng minh hanh ong cua c Giesu a danh rieng cho mot mnh Iraen. Han that ngai co neu muc tieu pho the cua s iep cu o, nhng van luon luon dung cac li loan bao ve tng lai (2,32; 3,6; 13,29; 14,16-24), hoac dung cac hnh anh tng trng (3,23-38; 4,25-27; 7,9; 8,39; 10,1; 17,11-19). Chnh v ch co mot mnh Chua Phuc Sinh mi ra lenh sai i truyen ba Tin Mng cho dan ngoai (24,47-48).

Viec sai i nay, nhng ngi mang s iep se hoan tat nh hong an cua Thanh Linh (24,49; x. 12.12). Nhng trong Phuc Am, th c Giesu a chu thai bi phep Thanh Linh (1,35), chnh la ang duy nhat hanh ong nh quyen lc cua Thanh Linh nay (3,22; 4,1.14.18; 10,21).

Trong may tch truyen hai nhi, ong Simeon loan bao viec "nhieu ngi trong Iraen se khc t c Giesu (2, 34-35). Viec khc t nay the hien lan lan trong suot ca Phuc Am, nhng cha hoan tat tron ven bang Thanh Gia (x. 23,34), bi v sau ngay Linh Giang, cac Tong o se con keu goi ngi Do Thai tai Gierusalem an nan tr lai va lanh n cu o.

2. Khi anh dau ro ret en the s phan biet gia thi ky c Giesu vi thi ky Hoi Thanh, Thanh Luca muon lam sang to cac giai oan cua cong trnh Chua Cha trong lch s. Nhng cach trnh bay cac bien co nh vay khong bao gi lam cho Thanh Luca quen rang: n cu o, Chua Cha a ban dt khoat mot lan ni c Giesu Kito. Ngay t au Phuc Am, ngai a nhan manh ti ngay hom nay cua n cu o (2,11; 3,22; 4,21; x. 5,26; 19,9; 23,43). V ngay t giay phut au tien, c Giesu a la Con cua c Chua Cha (1,35), la ang Cu The (2,11; x. 1,69.71.77; 2,30; 3,6), la Chua Te (2,11; x. 7,13 chu giai ve s Thanh Luca nhan manh ti viec xng ho c Giesu la Chua); va li Ngi rao giang bat au bang s iep cu o gi en cho ngi ngheo kho va be mon, la nhng ngi c n ay ac biet danh rieng cho (4,18; x.7,22; 10,21).

Khi mo ta thi ky c Giesu, Thanh Luca a ngh ti Hoi Thanh. Ngai goi nhom Mi Hai la Tong o, cach thng xuyen hn Thanh Mattheu va Thanh Macco (x. 6,13). Ngai ngh ti trach nhiem cac v ay trong cac cong oan (9, 12; 12,41-46; 22,14-38) va ti nhng ngi phu ta trong s mang cac tong o (10,1; x. 8,2-3,39).

Hn na, trong giao huan c Giesu, ngai lo lang chng minh ve luat song "moi ngay" cho cac mon o (9, 23; 11,3; 17,4). Ngai nhan manh ti s an nan tr lai luc au (5,32; 13,1-5; 15,4-32, va nhat la trong may canh 7,36-50; 19,1-10; 23,39-43), ti c tin (1,20.45; 7,50; 8,12-13; 17,5-6; 18,8, 22,32; 24,25) se can bieu lo ra trong viec tuyen xng Chua (12,2-12; 21,12-19), ti kinh nguyen (11,1-13; 18,1-8; 21,36; 22,40-46) theo gng nhac i nhac lai cua c Giesu (x. 3,21), ti c thng yeu ma ngai cho la bai hoc cot yeu trong bai giang day cac mon o (6,27-42; x. 10,25-37; 17,3-4). Ngai nang e ngh dien ta long yeu thng bang viec chia se cho ngi ngheo (x. 11,41), la cai ong thi con the hien ly tng ngai muon t bo tien bac na (x. 5.11; 14,33). Cac oi hoi nay that khat khe, the ma niem vui lai no vang trong Phuc Am nay hn moi cuon khac: trc may li bao tin cu o (1,14.28.41.44; 6,23; 8,13), trc nhng to bay n ay trong viec c Giesu xuat hien (1,47; 2,10), khi thay cac phep la c Giesu lam (10,17; 13,17; 19,37), khi on rc s iep (10,21) va khi toi nhan an nan tr lai (15; 19,6), khi Chua Phuc Sinh (24,52): that n cu o Chua Cha chnh la tieng keu goi phai vui mng.

3. c Giesu a loan bao s Ngi en trong ngay tan the va Thanh Luca duy tr vien anh nay cho cuoi thi ky Hoi Thanh (12,35-48; 17,22-37; 18,8; 19,11,27; 21,5-36): nhng s ngai nhan manh ti n cu o hien thi, ti quyen Chu Te c Giesu Phuc Sinh vinh hien, ti tac ong Thanh Linh trong Hoi Thanh co lam giam bt ni ngai, cai a cang thang vn ti ngay Quang Lam sap en (x. 17,23). Niem cay trong cua ngai hoan toan tham tha niem vui ve ngay hom nay cua n cu o. Viec pha huy thanh Gierusalem, ngai loan bao nhieu lan trong Phuc Am th ba (x. 19,27) a mat i ni ngai ac tnh chung cua no; viec ay ch con la mot bien co lch s, la hnh phat nhng ngi lanh trach nhiem giet c Giesu.

 

Cong trnh van chng cua Thanh Luca

Thanh Luca li dung trong Phuc Am ngai, nhieu tai lieu chung vi Thanh Mattheu va Thanh Macco, nhng cung co nhieu yeu to rieng cua ngai (x. tieu dan vao Phuc Am Nhat lam tr. 70). Cac tai lieu nay gom nhieu th rat khac nhau. o la nhng tch truyen, nh may tch hai nhi (1-2), may phep la (7,1-17; 13,10-17; 14,1-6; 17,12-19), nhng canh an nan tr lai (7,36-50; 19,1-10; 23,40-43), nhng lan vua Heroe can thiep (13,31-33; 23,8-12; x. 8,3), may cuoc hien hnh sau Phuc Sinh (24,13-35.36-53)..., nhng li giao huan, va nhat la mot chuoi du ngon: ngi Samari nhan lanh (10,30-37), ngi ban can anh thc (11,5-8), ngi giau ma dai (12,16-21), cay va khong trai (13,6-9), ke xay nha va ong vua i anh giac (14,28-33), ong bac tm lai c (15,8-10), tnh hien phu bao la cua c Chua Cha (15,11-32), ngi quan ly tinh khon (16,1-8) ngi giau co va ong Ladaro (16,19-31), toi t ch lam phan s cua mnh (17,7-10), quan xet khien ngi ta phai xin mnh (18,1-8), ngi Biet Phai va ngi thu thue (18,9-14).

Ngi ta thng ghi chu nhng net tng ong gia Phuc Am Thanh Luca va Thanh Gioan. ay khong phai la nhng ban van lien tiep cho bang toan bo nhng net chung nhau (co neu ro phan chu giai Thanh Luca): nhng nhan vat nh tong o Giua, ch em ba Matta va Maria, Thng Te Anna, moi lien lac gia phep la anh ca c nhieu va viec tan phong Thanh Phero, gan cho Satan viec ong Giua nop Thay, c Giesu tam s vi nhom Mi Hai sau ba Tiec Ly, li c Giesu tuyen bo vi cac nha cam quyen Do Thai Ngi la ang Kito, viec quan Philato nhn nhan c Giesu khong co toi g, viec c Giesu song lai a hien ra vi mon o Ngi tai Gierusalem, viec Phuc Sinh xet la ton vinh c Giesu va la nguon ban Chua Thanh Linh... Nhng tng ong nay kho co the giai thch, nguyen bang nhng lien lac ve van chng gia hai Phuc Am nay, nhng phai lan len ti nhng lien lac tren pham vi cac nguon tai lieu mi ung.

Tren tat ca tai lieu nay, Thanh Luca a thc hien mot cong trnh to ln. Ta a nhan ra ieu ay trong "th t lp lang" ngai bat chung ta phai theo, khi cau tao sach ngai. Ta cung nhan ra ieu ay, khi so sanh nhng nguyen to co phan song song trong Thanh Mattheu va Thanh Macco: ng vng Thanh Luca ro rang la hay thay oi hn va phong phu hn het moi sach trong Tan c; ngon t ngai mem deo thch nghi vi nhng e tai khac nhau; tieng hi lap cua ngai, xet chung, xuoi hn Thanh Macco, trong may tch truyen hai ang gap nhau, cung nh trong nhieu oan trau chuot ac biet (1,1-4; 24,13-35); nhng lai co nhieu thanh ng semt ni nhieu ban van cua ngai, nhat la trong cac li c Giesu; ngai thch mn kieu noi trong Cu c hi lap, cach rieng la trong may tch truyen hai nhi, khien nhieu ngi coi o la oan van "phong tac".

S ngai a sang sua, ta thay ro trong viec ngai lo nh v tr cho may tch truyen bang nhng cau dan vao (3,15; 4,1; 5,1.5,15-16; 9,36.43). Ngai nang gom gop thanh tng cap nhng du ngon (13,18-21; 14,28-32; 15,4-10), hoac cham ngon (4,25-27; 11,31-32; 13,1-5; 17,26-30.34-35); nhng viec gom gop nay, nhieu khi co the gap san ngay trong cac nguon tai lieu.

Nghe thuat Thanh Luca to ra nhat la bang loi ghi chu de dat, ch mot tieng u neu len net cam ong trong mot hoan canh (2,7; 7,12; 8,42; 9,39...), bang s cang thang bi at trong cac tch truyen nh nhng tch ba goa thanh Nain (7,11-17), ngi n toi nhan (7,36-50), ke "trom lanh" (23,40-43) hay cuoc gap g lang Emmau (24,13-35), trong cac du ngon, nh nhng du ngon ngi Samari nhan lanh (10, 30-37) hay tnh t phu bao la cua c Chua Cha (15,11-32: "a con hoang ang"). Ngai luon luon to ra te nh, nhat la khi ti gan ban than c Giesu: ngai tranh may kieu noi oi khi nghiem khac cua Thanh Macco (Lc 4,1; 8,24.28.45...) va danh cho cac mon o mot nh thc rieng e than tha vi Thay Ch Thanh (x. 5,5).

Cong trnh Thanh Luca the hien tren cac s kien cua tap truyen, thng at ra cho oc gia van e gia tr lch s trong tch truyen ngai. Van e nay phien phc, va ch co the ban cho ay u khi nghien cu ca phng phap Thanh Luca dung trong sach Cong Vu (x. Tieu dan vao Cong Vu). Neu xet rieng ve Phuc Am, ta co the nhan nh trc tien rang: Thanh Luca tuyen bo ngai muon trnh bay cac bien co that ky lng, can c vao nhng tai lieu chac chan (1,1-4); ta cung co the nhn nhan pham tnh mot so ln cac s kien cua ngai. Nhng mot ang, Thanh Luca nhn xem s kien c Giesu vi tat ca niem tin cua mnh, va mot s gia coi niem tin ay la mot giai thch ca nhan, la mot cai g vt xa hn lch s. ang khac, khi trnh bay li noi va viec lam cua c Giesu, Thanh Luca lu y trc tien vao y ngha cua chung; oi khi ngai to ra het sc coi thng th t thi gian (4,16-30; 5,1-11; 24,51) hay v tr a o (10,13-15; 13,34-35; 24,36-49); ngai khong s t do ket cau nhng canh y v (1-2; 4,16-30; 5,1-11...). ieu ngai cham lo trc het, khong phai la mo ta cac s kien cho chnh xac ben ngoai, nhng chnh la cong bo lch s c Giesu, xet la lch s cu o. Ngai cam thay mnh c t do, tham ch con co ngha vu kham pha ra y ngha cua cac bien co. Va ngai lam viec ay theo anh sang tap truyen Hoi Thanh.

 

Cac s kien ve nguon goc Phuc Am th ba

Khong the nao quyet oan ve nguon goc Phuc Am nay, ma khong xet ti cac s kien cua sach Cong Vu co lien quan rat la mat thiet vi Phuc Am nay. ay, ch can thu thap nhng yeu to, do cuon sach th nhat cua Thanh Luca cung cap ma thoi.

Muon an nh ngay thang bien soan sach nay, cac phe bnh gia thng lam noi a v sach nay danh cho viec pha huy thanh Gierusalem (x. 19,27) va nhat la cach tac gia tach ri bien co nay ra khoi vien anh canh chung ma Thanh Mattheu va Thanh Macco a at vao trong o. Hnh nh Thanh Luca a biet cuoc bua vay va pha huy o thanh, ung nh cac s oan tng Tito a hoan tat vao nam 70 (x. 19,43-44; 21,20-24). vay th Phuc Am se co sau ngay thang ay. Cac phe bnh gia hien thi thng coi sach nay bien soan vao khoang nhng nam 80-90; nhng nhieu ngi gan cho mot ngay thang co hn.

Tuy sach cong hien cho ong Theophile, ma hnh nh vt qua nhan vat nay, co y gi en nhat la cac kito hu theo van hoa hi lap. Ta ghi nhan nhieu dau ch chng minh ieu ay: ngon ng sach nay, nhng li giai thch ve a ly x Paletin (1,26; 2,4; 4,31; 8,26; 23,51; 24,13) va ve cac phong tuc Do Thai (1,9; 2,23-24.41-42; 22,1.7), s t lu tam ti nhng tranh luan ve Luat Moisen (khong co g tng ng vi cac s kien Mt 5,20-38; 15,1-20; 23,15-22), s cham lo ti cac ngi dan ngoai, viec nhan manh ti thc tai the xac cua Chua Phuc Sinh (24,39-43), la ieu ngi hi lap rat kho chap nhan (Cv 17,32; 1C 15).

Chnh tac gia hnh nh thuoc gii hi lap do ngon ng, cung nh do nhieu net ta va ghi nhan tren ay. Ngi ta thng ky nhan la tac gia khong quen thuoc vi a ly x Paletin (x. 4,29), cung nh vi nhieu phong tuc khac nhau cua x nay (x. 1,59; 5,19; 6,48; 9,12; 14,5).

Mot tap truyen ma chng nhan xa hn het la Thanh Irene (Adv. Hoer. III,1,1 va 14,1), vao cuoi the ky th hai, coi tac gia chnh la thay thuoc Luca, Thanh Phaolo a nhac en ten Co 4,14; Plm 24; 2Tm 4,11. Nhieu ngi a tm c kien chng cho nghe thay thuoc cua tac gia Phuc Am, trong s chnh xac cua may li mo ta ve benh tat; nhng net nay khong co gia tr quyet nh, v ng vng tac gia dung, bat c ngi ng thi nao co van hoa, eu dung nh vay. Con nhng moi lien he gia tac gia vi Thanh Phaolo, th Phuc Am ch cung cap cho ta may danh t, e phan biet ma thoi (x. 8, 12; 8,15; 18,1; 8,14; 21,28; 22,19-20 va cac chu giai...). Muon quyet oan ve iem nay, can nghien cu cac s kien trong sach Cong Vu.

 

Tnh cach hien thi cua Thanh Luca

Thanh Luca bieu hien la v thong ngon cua Tin Mng, co le thch hp vi ngi Viet Nam trong hoan anh xa hoi hien thi hn het. S nhay cam cua ngai oi vi tnh thng hai ha Chua Cha de anh ong tam hon ong Phng va Viet Nam thng e cao ch Tam hn la ch Ly. S te nh cua ngai cung de lam rung cam mot si t long oc ao cua con ngi Viet Nam Cong Giao lu y hn ti viec dung cac phng phap khoa hoc trong viec huan luyen c tin. Nhat la Thanh Luca co the giup oc gia kim thi i vao huyen nhiem Chua Giesu, v ngai chng to cho ta thay Con c Chua Cha la v Cu Nhan o The cho het moi ngi, nhng ac biet lu tam ti cac ngi ngheo kho, be mon, toi loi, va lng dan, lai la bac Thay co moi oi hoi gat gao, nhng cung ay duyen dang de thng, san sang on tiep moi ngi, nhat la nhng ai gap gian nan khon kho ang can s nang cua Tnh Yeu Thng.

 


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