Chu Giai Tan c Theo TOB

Theo ban dch cua Linh Muc An Sn V

 

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Qui ien Tan c

 

Nguon goc danh t Cu c va Tan c

Tan c xuat hien di hnh thc mot bo sach gom 27 cuon, viet bang tieng Hi Lap va moi cuon dai van khac nhau rat nhieu. Mai cuoi the ky th hai ngi ta mi quen goi bo sach ay la "Tan c". V cac sach trong bo nay, dan dan a c uy tn rat cao, nen trong thc hanh, ngi ta coi ngang hang vi cac ban van Cu c, ma t lau, Kito hu von coi la bo Thanh Kinh duy nhat cua ho va at  ten cho la "Le Luat va Ngon S" theo thoi quen Do Thai ng thi. S d goi chung bo sach nay la Tan c, cot yeu la v cac nha than hoc Kito Giao au tien, theo chan Thanh Phaolo (2C3, 14), a nhan xet rang: cac ban van ay bao ham nhng qui nh cua mot Giao c Mi, phai ch huy moi tng quan gia Thien Chua va dan cua Ngai, trong giai oan cuoi cung cua lch s Cu o. V ch "Giao c" ch la dch ch dung trong tieng Hi Ba, e ch Giao c a ky ket gia Thien Chua va dan Israen. V noi ti mot, Giao c Mi, nen phai goi la Cu c, bo sach trc ay a at ten cho la "Le Luat va Ngon S". Goi nh the, la muon nhan nh rang: Giao c cu, ky ket vi ong Moi Sen, bay gi Chua Giesu a va oi mi, va vt qua i roi.

 

Ba van e can xet trong tieu dan vao Tan c

Viec soan thao va thu thap 27 cuon nay thanh mot bo duy nhat, la ca mot qua trnh lau dai va phien phc. ang khac, viec lu truyen nhng cuon ay t thi co cho en ngay nay, trai qua nhieu may rui, khien cho ban van khong con nguyen ven. Sau het khoang cach ve lch s, a ly, cung nh van hoa, gia chung ta va the gii cua Tan c, la mot ieu cot yeu lam cho ta kho hieu ung loai van chng nay. Bi o, ngay nay ta can at Tan c vao lai trong moi trng a thay Tan c phat sinh va truyen ba luc au.

V the, tieu dan vao Tan c, du s lc en au, cung phai xet trc tien cac ieu kien nao a khien Kito hu au tien soan thao mot bo sach mi ve Thanh Kinh. Roi can nghien cu xem, nh au cac ban van hang sao i chep lai luon luon ay, a co the vt qua 14 the ky cua mot lch s ay bien ong, t khi soan thao cho ti khi co nh, hau nh bat di bat dch, vao thi ky phat minh ra nha in. ong thi lai cho biet ngi ta co the dung cach nao, e sa cha cac bien thien a em vao ban van qua suot thi ky sao chep. Sau cung, tieu dan con phai trnh bay cho chnh xac toi a, moi trng lch s, ton giao, va van hoa trong o Tan c phat sinh va c lu truyen.

Ba kha canh chnh yeu cua Tieu Dan ay, ngi ta quen goi la van e Qui ien, van e Ban Van va van e Moi Trng xuat sinh cua Tan c.

 

Hai tham quyen ton giao oi vi Kito hu au tien

Ta co the t hoi lam sao Kito hu au tien ngh ti va thanh lap bo sach mi ve Thanh Kinh, bo tuc cho bo sach cu quen goi la "Le Luat va Ngon S". Cuoc tien hoa ay tom lai the nay:

oi vi Kito hu au tien, tham quyen toi cao trong pham vi ton giao, gom hai bac. Bac nhat la Cu c, c cac nha van Kito Giao au tien trch dan gan nh trong het moi phan. Con bac hai a phat trien rat mau, quen goi chung la "Chua". Tieng "Chua" ay bao ham ca giao huan c Giesu a loan truyen khi trc, ca uy quyen Chua Phuc Sinh do cac Tong o thong ban (2C 10,8.18). Trong hai tham quyen tieu chuan o, ch Cu c a ghi thanh ban van. Con li Chua day va li giang cac Tong o, th trai lai, a truyen khau nhieu nam, va mai ti khi cac Tong o sau het t tran, ngi ta mi thay can ghi lai thanh van nhng g cot yeu trong giao huan cac ngai, hoac bao tr chac chan nhng van th cac ngai a viet. Van e uy tn cua cac sach mi nay, tat nhien co ngay se phai at ra, du trong buoi au, truyen khau a co uy tn rong rai hn cac ban van.

 

Bo th Thanh Phaolo

Mai ti khoang nam 150, Kito hu mi s thao bo mi ve Thanh Kinh. Rat co the trc tien ho a thu nhap va dung trong i song Giao oan bo Th cua Thanh Phaolo. Khi lam nh vay, ho khong co y tao phan phu them cho Kinh Thanh, nhng ch mac cho cac hoan canh t nhien hng dan mnh. V phan ln cac Th cua Thanh Phaolo a viet xong, khi tap truyen Phuc Am ang con trong giai oan truyen khau. ang khac, chnh Thanh Phaolo a khuyen giao hu oc chung cac Th cua ngai, va chuyen cho cac Giao oan lan can (1Tb 5,27; Co 4,16).

Du sao, ngay t au the ky th hai, nhieu nha van Kito Giao a biet phan ln cac Th Thanh Phaolo. Nen ta co the ket luan la a co rat sm mot bo th nay, roi c truyen ba rong rai va mau chong, han la v rat nhieu ngi biet tieng Thanh Tong o. Tuy nhien, mac dau cac Th ay co nhieu uy tn, nhng trc au the ky th 2 (x. 2P3, 16), cha co bang chng nao khang nh la ngi ta a coi cac Th ay nh Kinh Thanh va co uy tn ngang vi bo Thanh Kinh Cu c.

 

Bon Phuc Am c coi la Kinh Thanh

Trong ca thi ky nay, v tr cac Phuc Am khong xuat hien ro rang nh cac Th Thanh Phaolo. Co nhien, tac pham cac nha van Kito Giao co thi, khong thieu cau trch dan hay am ch ti Phuc Am. Nhng gan nh bao gi cung kho xac nh cac nha van ay trch dan ban van hay ch nh thuoc long theo truyen khau. Du sao, trc nam 140, khong co bang chng nao cho biet la a co mot bo cac ban Phuc Am. Cung khong thay ban nao trong nhng sach ay c coi la tieu chuan. Mai ti na cuoi the ky th hai, mi gap nhng bang chng moi khi mot them ro rang la co mot bo Phuc Am va lan lan bo ay c cong nhan la co uy tn.

T khoang nam 150, m ra mot thi ky quyet nh cho viec hnh thanh "qui ien" Thanh Kinh Tan c. Thanh Giuttinh T ao la ngi au tien lam chng rang Kito hu oc bon Phuc Am trong cac phien hoi ngay Chua Nhat, coi o la tac pham do cac Tong o (hay t na do cac ngi trc tiep lien he vi cac ngai) va dung sach ay ma coi la co uy tn cung bang Thanh Kinh.

Cac sach nay c uy tn rat cao nh vay, trc tien khong phai v do cac Tong o, nhng ung hn, chnh v ve lai lch s ve "Chua", ung theo nh truyen khau. Tuy nhien, ngi ta a sm nhan manh vao ac tnh tong truyen sach ay, cach rieng t khi can bao ve Phuc Am cho khoi nhng sach loai ay a sinh soi nay n ra nhieu, ma noi dung thng ch bat chc cach tho kech, va co khi con ba at hoan toan na.

Tha ra, sau nam 150, khi trong Giao Hoi thay can mot tieu chuan moi ni eu cong nhan, ngi ta a quay ti bon Phuc Am. Cho en bay gi bon Phuc Am c moi ngi lu y ti, v co nhieu pham tnh ben trong va v lam chng trung thc ve "Chua". Bon Phuc Am co rat nhieu u iem vt xa, nen khong may choc ma at c ca th van chng ong loai. V the vao khoang nam 170, bon Phuc Am c ke la van chng "qui ien", mac dau cho ti bay gi, cha he nghe noi en danh t ay".

 

Tat ca bo Th Thanh Phaolo vao qui ien:

Con th Thanh Phaolo, hau chac la a c nhan vao qui ien khong phai rieng tng bc mot, nhng la toan bo, ngay khi Giao Hoi thay can co mot qui ien Thanh Kinh Tan c. Co le ac tnh tong truyen a benh vc cho uy tn bon Phuc Am, nay con co anh hng rong rai hn nhieu oi vi cac Th cua Thanh Phaolo. V cac Th nay ngau nhien a dan dan gom thanh mot bo ma uy tn c cong nhan cach rong rai trong cac Giao oan the ky th 2.

 

Tong truyen: nguyen tac cho qui ien Tan c

The la ta thay phat sinh nguyen tac mot bo Thanh Kinh. Nhng thc ra, khong bao gi ngi ta a tranh luan ve nguyen tac ay. S co qui ien, trc tien la mot s kien, a pho bien rat mau trong toan Giao Hoi. Ve sau, suy t than hoc mi can thiep vao, khi can xac nh chi tiet noi dung cua qui ien ay. Co le trao lu nay a c thuc ay mau, do s can thiep cua lac giao Macxion (+160). V ong nay phu nhan tat ca tham quyen cua Cu c, nen khan trng can lieu cho Giao oan co Kinh Thanh mi, va v the, can co qui ien mi. The la lac giao Macxion a phan nao giup pho bien nguyen tac cua qui ien mi, c ngi ta chap nhan, gom co hai phan, la Phuc Am va cac Tong o, cung nh qui ien cu gom co hai phan, la Le Luat va Cac Ngon S. Ngay cuoi the ky th hai, quan niem ve tieu chuan mi cho Thanh Kinh a ghi sau va chac trong Giao Hoi, nhng con can xac nh ro hn ve noi dung cua qui ien mi. So dt khoat nhng sach thuoc ve qui ien se thiet lap dan dan, tuy theo moi ngi ong tam hiep y vi nhau. Chnh s phat trien cac moi lien lac gia cac cong oan kito hu khac nhau a lam cho cac Giao oan ngay mot y thc manh liet hn ve s duy nhat cua Giao Hoi.

 

Sach Cong Vu vao qui ien

The la ta thay, cach rieng, vao khoang nam 150 ti 200, a dan dan xac nh sach Cong Vu Tong o la sach thuoc ve qui ien. Cuoi the ky th hai, Thanh Irene thanh Lyon coi cuon ay la Kinh Thanh va trch dan lam chng t cua Thanh Luca ve cac Tong o. Thc ra, sach Cong Vu a c keo vao qui ien, nhat la v co ho hang vi Phuc Am th ba, ma cuon ay la phan tiep tuc. S phat trien quan niem ve ac tnh tong truyen, suot the ky th 2, cung la yeu to quan trong, e em vao qui ien mot cuon sach, ngi ta a rat sm coi la phan dan nhap can thiet vao toan the cac Th.

 

Qui ien hnh thanh au the ky th ba

Neu muon tong ke a tien hoa nay, vao the ky th ba, ta co the xac nhan hai iem nay: khap moi ni, bon Phuc Am a chiem a v vng chac khong the nao tan cong, va ve sau khong ai choi cai bao gi. T thi ky ay, ta co the coi la qui ien cac Phuc Am a ket thuc roi. Con phan th hai trong qui ien (tc la cac Tong o), th khap ni eu thay trch dan mi ba Th Thanh Phaolo, sach Cong Vu Tong o, Th th nhat Thanh Phero. Co s ong thanh nhan Th th nhat Thanh Gioan. Vay la qui ien dt khoat a vut qua giai oan s thao va at ti cho hnh thanh. Tuy nhien co nhng vung con phan van. Thc the, ben canh nhng cuon ma khap ni trong Giao Hoi eu cong nhan ca, v co s hien nhien noi tai, ngi ta gap mot so quan trong nhng cuon "bat nh", v mot so Giao Phu th nhac en coi la "qui ien", mot so khac lai ch coi la sach hu ch nen oc ma thoi. o la trng hp Th Hi Ba, Th th hai Thanh Phero, Th Thanh Giacobe, va Th Thanh Giue. oi lai, mot so cuon thi bay gi a c nang trch dan la Kinh Thanh, tc la thuoc ve qui ien, th ve sau khong con ng vng lau trong v tr ay, nhng cuoi cung a b loai ra ngoai qui ien. o la cuon sach cua ong Hecmat, goi la Chu Chan, sach iake, Th th nhat cua Thanh Clemen, Th Thanh Banabe, va sach Khai Huyen Thanh Phero.

 

May cuon b tranh luan lau v khong chac la tong truyen

Ti giai oan nay cua tien trnh, tieu chuan ve ac tnh tong truyen hnh nh a ong vai tro mot cach kha tong quat va ta thay moi cuon sach khong the noi ket vi mot Tong o, eu b mat uy tn dan dan. Nhng sach con b phan oi trong vong the ky th ba, chnh la nhng cuon, ma ac tnh tong truyen khong c chac chan oi vi mot vung nao o trong Giao Hoi. May trng hp b tranh luan lau hn het, la Th Hi Ba va sach Khai Huyen, v ac tnh qui ien hai cuon nay b t choi manh liet lau nam, cuon trc th ben Tay Phng, cuon sau th ong Phng. ang khac, Th th hai, th ba Thanh Gioan, Th th hai Thanh Phero, va Th Thanh Giue, th phai ch mai lau ve sau mi c cong nhan. Khong can theo doi tng chi tiet cac giai oan cua cuoc tien hoa dan dan. Ti the ky th 4, th a thanh lap xong mot qui ien, xet theo toan bo, giong in nh qui ien chung ta bay gi, ch con co mot ieu khong chac chan, la th t xep at cac sach trong o ma thoi.

 

Vai tro thong nhat cua Giao oan Roma

S lo lang ve nhat tr trong mot Giao Hoi ma quyen chu tch cua Giao oan Roma ngay cang them vng chac, a ong gop mot phan khong nho vao viec lam giam bt i cac d biet a thay xuat hien giai oan no kia, trong tien trnh thanh lap qui ien.

 


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