Nhng v Giao Hoang Gia

(hay Nguy Giao Hoang, antipope)

trong Lch S Giao Hoi Cong Giao

 

Prepared for Internet by Vietnamese Missionaries in Asia

 

Trong lch s Giao hoi Cong giao, a tng co mot so ngi t nhan hay hanh x quyen Giao Hoang mot cach khong hp phap. Ngi Cong giao goi ho la Giao Hoang gia (antipope, hay nguy Giao Hoang). T Annuario Pontificio cua Toa Thanh ghi lai co 37 Giao Hoang gia:

Giao Hoang gia au tien: Giao Hoang gia au tien la linh muc Hippolito, Ngai qua nhiet thanh vi phung vu. Khi o phung vu eu oc cac bai sach thanh trong ngon ng Hy lap, nen giao dan Roma khong hieu g may. c Giao Hoang Callisto muon dan chung hieu Phung vu, nen ung ho viec oc bang tieng Latinh t la cho dan Roma. Hippolito phan oi viec o va tach khoi Giao hoi khoang nam 223. Nam 235, ca Giao hoang that (thanh Pontiano) va gia cung b vua Roma bat lu ay Sardina va a lam hoa, cung chu t ao va lam thanh.

Trong so cac v con lai, rai rac t the ky III cho en au the ky XV, co v rut lui trong mot ngay, co v mot thang, co v lau dai. a so v hieu lam, nhng anh hng chnh tr va hoan canh cua thi xa (e quoc va phong kien) cung ong mot vai tro quan trong.

Toa Thanh di ve Avignon: Xay ra bien co nhieu cac v Giao Hoang gia la vao thi ai ly giao Tay phng 1378-1417 (Great Western Schism). Cuoc ly giao xay ra sau nhng xao tron trong viec di giao o ve Avignon. Toa Thanh di ve Avignon t nam 1309 en 1376. Khi au la viec cac v Hong Y bau chon c Tong Giam Muc thanh Bordeaux la Bertrand Got lam Giao Hoang, hieu Clemente V (1305-1314). Tai Y va tai Roma a co nhieu cuoc chien tranh muon kiem soat quyen lc Giao Hoang, va a co mot vai v Giao Hoang phai ri khoi giao o. c Giao Hoang Clemente V v la ngi Phap, nen thay gan gui vi Phap quoc hn, a quyet nh di han giao o ve Avignon vao nam 1309. Cac v Giao Hoang trong thi nay la ngi Phap. Nhng khi au cho cac bien co au thng cua Giao hoi, la khi c Giao Hoang Clemente V qua i nam 1314, th Toa Thanh trong ngoi 2 nam v cac Hong Y a khong ong y vi nhau trong viec bau c v tan Giao Hoang. en nam 1316 tai mot tu vien dong a Minh Lyon, c Hong Y Jean d'Eusee Cadurco ac c va len ngoi Giao Hoang, hieu la Gioan XXII (1316-1334). Sau c Giao Hoang Gioan XXII la c Benedicto XII (1335-1342); sau c Benedicto XII la c Clemente VI (1342-1352); sau c Clemente VI la c Innocente VI (1352-1362). Sau c Innocente VI la chan phc Urbano V (1362-1370). Chan phc Urbano V co lan a ve lai Roma, nhng khi dan chung thay ngai ch nh nhieu tan Hong Y ngi Phap hn la Y nen noi loan chong oi, ngai lai ve Avignon. Sau chan phc Urbano V la c Gregori XI (1370-1378) va cung la v cuoi cung Avignon. Ngai muon tr ve Roma du cho cac Hong Y ngan can. Tuy nhien thanh n Catarina de Siena a ong vai tro quan trong trong viec thuyet phuc ngai tr ve giao o nam 1376. en nam 1378 th ngai qua i va sau o khi s cho thi tang toc.

Thi ai ly giao Tay phng 1378-1417 (Great Western Schism):

Roma: Sau khi c Gregori XI (la v Giao Hoang ngi Phap) qua i, dan Roma muon bau mot v ngi Roma hoac t nhat la ngi Y. Chung ta khong nen lam tng rang ngi Y va ngi Roma la mot. o la hai nc khac nhau, co nhng quyen li va bon phan khac nhau. Dan chung Roma mang kh gii tu hop quang trng bieu tnh gay ap lc vi cac Hong Y ang co mat. Ho ho hoan suot ngay em oi mot Giao Hoang ngi Roma hay t la ngi Y. Hong Y oan gom 23 v hop trong on Thien Than co binh lnh ngi Anh gi an ninh e bau Giao Hoang mi, nhng 7 v vang mat. So con lai th 11 v la ngi Phap. Sau nhieu be tac, cac v Hong Y a chon c Tong Giam Muc Bari, ngoai Hong Y oan, la Bartolomeo Prignano, ngi Y len ngoi Giao Hoang. Lch s ke lai rang, bau c xong, cac v Hong Y bo tron het v s dan chung khong hai long se lam loan. Ngai len ngoi lay tc hieu la Urban VI (1378-1389). Ke v Urban VI la Bonifacio IX (1389-1404). Ke v Bonifacio IX la Innocente VII (1404-1406). Ke v Innocente VII la Gregory XII (1406-1415).

Avignon: Tuy nhien v qua thang tnh, c Urban VI (1378-1406) Roma lam mat long rat nhieu cac Hong Y, nhat la cac Hong Y ngi Au Chau. Khi cac Hong Y cam thay bat man vi thai o cng coi cua c Urban VI, cac Hong Y nc Phap nh lai bien co bau Giao Hoang va nghi ng boi roi, roi cho la bat hp phap v bau c thieu t do di vo lc. Cac Hong Y nc Y cung ong y nh the. Do o, nhan tien Vua Phap e ngh bau v Giao Hoang khac, cac v Hong Y a hop tai Avignon va cac ngai chon mot ngi Phap lam Giao Hoang mi hieu la Clemente VII (1378-1394). Cuoc ly giao bat au. T o, Phap, Ke v Clemente VII la Benedicto XIII (1394-1423).

ai Cong ong Truat Phe Hai Giao Hoang: au n v Giao Hoi b chia re. Nam 1407, Vua nc Phap la Charles VI e ngh ca hai v Giao Hoang tren en hop tai Savona e tm giai phap. Benedicto XIII en, con Gregory XII th khong en. Cac vua Au Chau (Phap, Anh, Bo ao Nha, Bohemia, c, Y) va cac Hong Y ben hop ai Cong ong truat phe ca hai. Chu thuyet "ai Cong ong tren Giao Hoang" phat sinh t ay. Cac Hong Y bau tu s Pietro Philarghi dong Phanxico lam Giao Hoang mi hieu la Alexandro V (1409-1410). Ke v Alexandro V la Balthasar Cossa hieu la Gioan XXIII (1410-1415). Tnh trang cang te hn (v cung luc a co ba Giao Hoang). Khi c Gregory XII phai bo Roma v chien tranh th Roma thuoc ve quyen lanh ao cua c Alexandro V. Khi c Alexandro V t tran th c Gioan XXIII len ke v. Nam 1413 ngai cung phai bo Roma cho vua Ladislas ngi thanh Angers chiem ong. Vua Ladislas b vua Louis II cua Phap anh bai. Con c Gioan XXIII phai nh va en hoang e x La c la Sigismund bao ve.

Cong ong Constancia Ky La Truat Phe Ba Giao Hoang: Cuoc ly giao ket thuc nh Cong ong Constancia ky la (1413). Hoang e Sigismund e ngh c Gioan XXIII (1410-1415) trieu tap Cong ong Constancia (1413), roi mi luon hai v Gregory XII (1406-1415) va Benedito XIII (1394-1423) en, nhng hai v nay khong ti. Rieng c Gregory XII th cho biet se t chc neu hai v kia cung lam nh vay. Tuy c Gioan XXIII hy vong la mnh se c chon lam Giao Hoang nhng khi thay ca ba v eu c yeu cau t chc th bo tron. Tuy nhien Cong ong van tiep tuc. Cong ong thay vay truat chc c Gioan XXIII. Chu thuyet quyen toi thng thuoc ve Cong ong xuat hien t o. Sau o c Gregory XII c c Hong Y Giovanni Domenici ai dien, tuyen bo thoai v. c Benedicto XIII van khong chu t chc, nhng khong c vua nao ke ca vua Tay Ban Nha. Ngai b Cong ong cach chc. Nh vay 1 v t chc, va 2 v b cach chc. Ngay 11 thang 11 nam 1417 c tri oan gom ca Hong Y va 30 Giam Muc thuoc cac nc Phap, Anh, c, Y va Tay Ban Nha, moi nc 5 v, bau c Hong Y Otto Colonna, ngi Roma len ngoi Giao Hoang mi, tc hieu Martin V (1417-1431).

 

Lm. ao Quang Chnh, OP

 

(Trch dan Nguyet San Trai Tim c Me so 304, thang T nam 2003)

 


Back to Vietnamese Missionaries in Asia Home Page