Tai lieu Lam viec cua

Thng Hoi ong Toan Vung Amazon

 

Tai lieu Lam viec cua Thng Hoi ong Toan Vung Amazon.

Vu Van An

Vatican (VietCatholic News 11-07-2019) - Tai lieu Lam viec cua Thng Hoi ong Toan Vung Amazon:

 

Tai Lieu Lam Viec Vung Amazon:

Cac Neo ng Mi Cho Giao Hoi Va Nen Sinh Thai Toan Dien

 

Thng Hoi ong Giam Muc

Phien ac Biet Danh Cho Toan Vung Amazon

 

Cac ch viet tat

AG : Sac lenh Ad Gentes, Vatican Council II, 1965.

AL : Tong huan Hau Thng Hoi ong Amoris Laetitia, Francis, 016.

CIMI : Hoi ong Truyen Giao Ban a, Hoi ong Giam Muc Ba Tay

CNBB : Hoi ong Giam Muc Ba Tay

CV : Thong iep Caritas in Veritate, Benedict XVI, 2009.

DAp. : Tai lieu cua Hoi Ngh Toan the Th V cua Hoi ong Giam Muc Chau My Latinh va Vung Caribbean (CELAM), Aparecida, Brazil, 2007.

DM : Tai lieu Hoi Ngh Toan The th II cua CELAM, Medelln, Colombia, 1968.

Doc. Bolivia : Tai lieu Bolivia: Informe pas: consulta pre-sinodal, Bolivia 2019.

Doc. Eje de Fronteras : Tai lieu Eje de Fronteras, Preparacao ao Sinodo para a Amazonia. Tabatinga, Brasil, 11 a 13 de fevereiro de 2019

Doc. Manaus : Documento da Assembleia dos Regionais Norte 1 e 2 da CNBB, "A Igreja e faz carne e arma sua tenda na Amazonia", Manaus, 1997, en: CONFERENCIA NACIONAL DOS BISPOS DO BRASIL, Desafio missionario, Documentos da Igreja na Amazonia, Coletanea, Ed. CNBB, Braslia, 2014, 67-84.

Doc. Preparatorio. : Tai lieu Chuan b cho Thng Hoi ong ve Vung Amazon: Nhng neo ng mi cho Giao Hoi va Nen Dinh thai Toan dien, Van phong Tong th ky Thng Hoi ong giam muc, 2018.

Doc. Venezuela : Tai lieu Venezuela. CEV. Respuestas asambleas (2019).

DP : Tai lieu cua Hoi Ngh Toan the Th III cua Hoi ong Giam Muc Chau My Latinh va Vung Caribbean (CELAM), Puebla, Mexico, 1979.

DSD : Tai lieu cua Hoi Ngh Toan the Th IV cua Hoi ong Giam Muc Chau My Latinh va Vung Caribbean (CELAM), Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 1992.

DV : Hien che Tn ly Dei Verbum, Vatican Council II, 1965.

EC : Tong hien Episcopalis Communio, Francis, 2018.

EG : Tong huan Evangelii Gaudium, Francis, 2013.

Fr.PM : c Phanxico, Dien van vi "Cuoc Gap g cua Ngi vung Amazon", Coliseo Regional Madre de Dios (Puerto Maldonado), 19 thang Gieng 2018.

IBGE : Vien a d va Thong ke Ba Tay

LS : Thong iep Laudato Si', Francis, 2015.

NMI : Tong th Novo Millennio Ineunte, John Paul II, 2001.

OA : Tong th Octogesima Adveniens, Paul VI, 1971.

PIAV : Cac Dan toc Ban a T nguyen Co lap

RM : Thong iep Redemptoris Missio, John Paul II, 1990.

RP : Tong huan Hau Thng Hoi ong Reconciliatio et Paenitentia, John Paul II, 1984.

SC : Hien che Sacrosanctum Concilium, Vatican Council II, 1963.

Sint. REPAM : AA.VV., "Sistematizacion de aportes esenciales desde las voces de los actores territoriales", en: REPAM, Amazona: Nuevos Caminos para la Iglesia y para la Ecologa Integral. Sntesis general de la Red Eclesial Panamazonica - REPAM - Asambleas Territoriales, Foros Tematicos, Contribuciones especiales y escuchas sobre el Snodo,Secretara Ejecutiva de la REPAM, Quito, 2019.

SRS : Thong iep Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, John Paul II, 1987.

VG : Tong hien Veritatis Gaudium, Francis, 2017.

 

Dan Nhap

Thng Hoi ong Giam muc ngay cang tr thanh mot dung cu u tuyen e lang nghe dan Chua: 'Cho cac Ngh phu Thng Hoi ong, trc het, chung ta xin Chua Thanh Than ban n biet lang nghe: lang nghe Thien Chua, e cung vi Ngi chung ta co the nghe thay tieng keu than cua ngi ta; lang nghe ngi ta cho en khi ht c long khao khat ma Thien Chua keu goi chung ta ti" (EC 6)

1.Ngay 15 thang 10 nam 2017, c Giao Hoang Phanxico cong bo viec trieu tap Thng Hoi ong ac biet cho vung Amazon, khi dien mot dien trnh lang nghe cua Thng Hoi ong bat au tai Vung Amazon vi cuoc vieng tham cua ngai tai Puerto Maldonado (19/01/2018). Tai lieu Lam viec nay la thanh qua cua mot dien trnh dai bao gom viec soan thao Tai lieu chuan b cho Thng Hoi ong vao thang 6 nam 2018; va mot cuoc tham do sau rong cac cong ong Amazon [1].

2. Ngay nay, Giao hoi lai co c hoi tr thanh ngi lang nghe, va ac biet tai khu vc nay, ni co rat nhieu ieu ang gap kho khan. Lang nghe ngu y nhn nhan s xuat hien ay cam kch cua Amazon nh mot chu the mi. V nhan c s xem xet cha ay u trong boi canh quoc gia hoac the gii hoac trong i song Giao hoi, chu the mi nay hien la mot ngi oi thoai u tuyen.

3. Nhng lang nghe khong phai la chuyen de. Mot mat, viec tong hp cac cau tra li cho ban cau hoi cua cac Hoi ong Giam muc va cong ong van luon co tnh tam thi va khong ay u. Mat khac, s cap thiet phai xac nhan cac noi dung va e ngh phai c dung hoa bi mot dien trnh hoan cai sinh thai va muc vu cho phep no c thach thc nghiem tuc bi cac khu ngoai vi ve a d va hien sinh (xem EG 20). Va dien trnh nay phai tiep tuc trong va sau Thng Hoi ong nh mot yeu to chnh cua i song tng lai cua Giao hoi. Amazon ang keu nai mot ap ng cu the va co tnh hoa giai.

4. Tai lieu Lam viec bao gom ba phan. Phan au tien lien quan en viec nhn - nghe va co ta e la "Tieng noi Amazon"; muc ch cua no la trnh bay thc tai lanh tho va cac dan toc cua no. Phan th hai, "Sinh thai toan dien": tieng keu than cua trai at va cua ngi ngheo", neu ra cac van e sinh thai va muc vu, trong khi phan th ba, "Mot Giao hoi Tien tri Amazon: cac thach thc va hy vong", c danh cho cac van e giao hoi hoc va muc vu.

5. Do o, mot Giao hoi c mi goi ngay mot co tnh ong ngh hn bat au bang cach lang nghe cac dan toc va trai at nh viec tiep xuc vi thc tai phong phu cua mot Amazon ay sc song va khon ngoan nhng cung ay tng phan. No tiep tuc vi tieng keu c kch thch bi cac hoat ong pha rng va khai khoang co tnh pha hoai va oi phai co mot s hoan cai sinh thai toan dien. Va no ket thuc bang cuoc gap g vi cac nen van hoa biet linh hng cho nhng neo ng, thach thc va hy vong mi cua mot Giao hoi, khi chu trng hoan cai muc vu, c muon tr thanh ngi Samaria nhan hau va co tnh tien tri. Theo e ngh cua Mang li Giao hoi Toan-Amazon (REPAM), tai lieu nay c cau truc tren c s ba hoan cai ma c Giao Hoang Phanxico mi goi chung ta thc hien: hoan cai muc vu ma ngai goi chung ta trong Tong huan Evangelii Gaudium (xem - nghe); hoan cai sinh thai ma Thong iep Laudato si' thuc giuc, thiet lap ra lo trnh (phan oan - hanh ong); va hoan cai sang tnh ong ngh Giao Hoi c chi tiet hoa trong Tong hien Episcopalis Communio, 1 tong hien hng dan viec cung nhau bc i (phan oan - hanh ong). Tat ca nhng ieu nay dien ra trong mot dien trnh nang ong lang nghe va bien phan nhng neo ng mi, theo o, Giao hoi tai Amazon se cong bo Tin mng cua Chua Giesu Kito trong nhng nam ti.

 

Phan I. Tieng Noi AMAZON

"That la tot ep khi, gi ay, chnh cac ban la nhng ngi t xac nh chnh mnh va cho chung toi thay ban sac cua cac ban. Chung toi can lang nghe cac ban" (Fr.PM)

6. Truyen giang Tin Mng tai Chau My Latinh la mot hong an Chua Quan Phong keu goi moi ngi ti vi s cu roi trong Chua Kito. Bat chap viec thuoc a hoa ve quan s, chnh tr va van hoa, va vut qua tham vong va long tham cua nhng ngi thc dan, co nhieu nha truyen giao a hy sinh mang song cua mnh e truyen ba Tin Mng. S nhay cam truyen giao nay khong ch linh hng cho viec hnh thanh ra cac cong ong Kito hu, ma ca viec ban hanh luat le nh cac ao Luat cua Vung Indies nham bao ve pham gia cac dan toc ban a chong lai s lam dung dan so va lanh tho cua ho. Nhng s lam dung nh vay a lam ton thng cong ong va lam lu m thong iep cua Tin mng; Chua Kito thng b cong bo ong loa vi cac the lc khai thac tai nguyen va an ap dan chung.

7. Ngay nay, e thc thi vai tro tien tri cua mnh mot cach trong sang, Giao hoi co c hoi lch s e t lam cho mnh khac biet ro rang vi cac the lc thc dan mi bang cach lang nghe cac dan toc Amazon. Cuoc khung hoang xa hoi moi trng hien nay m ra nhng c hoi mi e trnh bay Chua Kito trong moi quyen nang giai phong va nhan ban hoa cua Ngi. Chng au tien nay c cau truc quanh bon khai niem chu chot lien quan chat che vi nhau: s song, lanh tho, thi gian va oi thoai, trong o, Giao hoi nhap the vi mot khuon mat Amazon va truyen giao.

Chng I: S song

"Toi en e chung c song va song doi dao" (Ga 10:10)

Amazon, nguon s song

8. Thng Hoi ong nay xoay quanh s song: s song cua lanh tho Amazon va cua cac dan toc cua no, s song cua Giao hoi, s song cua hanh tinh. Nh c phan anh trong cac cuoc tham khao vi cac cong ong Amazon, s song Amazon c ong hoa, trong so nhng th khac, vi nc. Song Amazon giong nh mot ong mach cua luc a va the gii, no chay nh nhng mach mau cung cap cho he thc vat va ong vat cua lanh tho, giong nh mot dong suoi cho cac dan toc, cac nen van hoa va nhng bieu thc linh ao cua no. Nh trong Vn a ang (St 2: 6), nc la nguon s song, nhng cung la moi lien he gia cac bieu hien khac nhau cua s song, trong o moi th eu c noi ket (xem LS, 16, 91, 117, 138, 240). "Dong song khong phan cach chung ta, no hp nhat chung ta, no giup chung ta cung ton tai gia cac nen van hoa va ngon ng khac nhau" (2).

9. Lu vc song Amazon va cac khu rng nhiet i bao quanh nuoi dng at ai va ieu hoa cac chu trnh nc, nang lng va than kh cap o hanh tinh, nh viec tai che bien o am. Ch rieng song Amazon a chuyen 15% tong lng nc ngot cua hanh tinh moi nam vao ai Tay Dng [3]. Amazon rat can thiet cho viec phan phoi lng nc ma cac khu vc xa xoi khac cua Nam My va gop phan vao s chuyen ong ln cua khong kh quanh khap hanh tinh. Hn na, no nuoi dng thien nhien, s song va van hoa cua hang ngan cong ong ban a, nong dan, hau due da en (afro-descendant), song ho va o th. Nhng can lu y rang theo cac chuyen gia quoc te, Amazon la khu vc de b ton thng th hai cua hanh tinh, sau Bac Cc, neu noi en s thay oi kh hau do con ngi gay ra.

10. Lanh tho Amazon bao gom mot phan cua Ba Tay, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname va French Guiana. No co tong cong 7.8 trieu kilo met vuong trung tam Nam My. Cac khu rng Amazon co dien tch khoang 5.3 trieu kilo met vuong, chiem 40% dien tch rng nhiet i hoan cau. ay ch la 3.6% dien tch at cua trai at, chiem khoang 149 trieu kilo met vuong, tng ng khoang 30% be mat hanh tinh cua chung ta. Lanh tho Amazon cha mot trong nhng sinh quyen (biospheres) giau nhat va phc tap nhat ve a chat tren hanh tinh. S phong phu t nhien cua no ve nc, sc nong va o am co ngha la he sinh thai cua Amazon lam chu khoang 10% en 15% s a dang sinh hoc cua mact at va lu tr t 150 en 200 ty tan than kh moi nam.

S song doi dao

11. Chua Giesu ban s song vien man (x. Ga 10,10), mot s song tran ay Thien Chua, mot s song cu roi (zoe), bat au vi sang the va t bieu lo ngay t au trong chieu kch can ban nhat cua s song (bios). Amazon, no c phan anh trong s a dang sinh hoc va van hoa phong phu cua no. ieu nay co ngha, mot s song tron ven va toan dien, mot s song ca hat, mot bai hat nng s song, giong nh nhng bai ca ngi dong song. o la mot s song nhay mua va ai dien cho thien tnh va moi lien he cua chung ta vi than tnh nay. "Nh cac giam muc khang nh tai Aparecida, viec phuc vu muc vu cua chung ta la mot viec phuc vu "s song vien man cua cac dan toc ban a [1 ieu] oi phai cong bo Chua Giesu Kito va Tin mng cua Nc Thien Chua, to cao cac tnh huong toi loi, cac c cau cua chet choc, bao lc, va cac bat cong ben trong va ben ngoai, va co vu oi thoai lien van hoa, lien ton giao va ai ket (DAp 95). Viec cong bo va to cao nh vay uc chung ta bien phan di anh sang cua Chua Giesu Kyto, ang Hang Song (Kh 1:18), "s vien man cua moi mac khai" (DV 2).

"Song tot" (buen vivir)

12. Viec cac dan toc ban a Amazon tm kiem s song doi dao c phat bieu trong ieu ho goi la "song tot" (buen vivir) [4]. Tc la song "hai hoa vi ban than, vi thien nhien, vi nhng con ngi nhan ban va vi ang toi cao, v co s thong at qua lai gia toan bo vu tru, ni khong co ngi loai tr hay ngi b loai tr, va gia moi ngi chung ta, chung ta co the khuon uc mot d an song vien man" (5).

13. Mot cai hieu nh vay ve s song co ac trng tnh noi ket va hai hoa cac moi lien he gia nc, lanh tho va thien nhien, i song cong ong va van hoa, Thien Chua va cac lc lng tam linh khac nhau. "Song tot" ngha la hieu c tnh trung tam cua ac tnh tng quan - sieu viet cua con ngi nhan ban va cua sang the, va bao gom viec "lam tot" hay cac hanh ong tot. Cac chieu kch vat chat va tinh than khong the b ngat ket. Cach thc toan dien nay t phat bieu ra trong viec t to chc cach khac biet, bat au t gia nh va cong ong, va chap nhan viec s dung co trach nhiem moi cua cai cua sang the. Mot so ngi noi en viec bc ti "vung at khong co s ac", hoac i tm "ngon oi linh thanh", nhng hnh anh phan anh cac chuyen dch cong ong va khai niem hien hu cua ho.

S song b e doa

14. Nhng s song Amazon ang b e doa bi s huy hoai va khai thac moi trng va bi s vi pham co he thong cac nhan quyen can ban cua ngi Amazon. Cach rieng, viec vi pham cac quyen cua cac dan toc ban a, nh quyen lanh tho, quyen t quyet, quyen phan nh lanh tho, c tham khao va ong y trc. Theo cac cong ong tham gia vao viec lang nghe co tnh ong ngh nay, moi e doa oi vi s song xuat phat t li ch kinh te va chnh tr cua cac nhom thong tr trong xa hoi ngay nay, ac biet la cac cong ty khai khoang tai nguyen, thng co s thong ong hoac c dung tung bi chnh quyen a phng va quoc gia cung nh cac nha lanh ao ban a truyen thong. Nh c Giao Hoang Phanxico khang nh, nhng ngi theo uoi nhng li ch nh vay dng nh a b ngat ket hoac th trc cac tieng keu than cua ngi ngheo va cua trai at (x. LS 49, 91).

15. Nhieu cuoc tham khao c to chc khap Amazon cho thay cac cong ong cho rang s song Amazon b e doa ac biet bi: (a) ket toi va am sat cac nha lanh ao va ngi bao ve lanh tho; (b) chiem oat va t nhan hoa cac cua cai t nhien, chang han nh nc; (c) ca nhng bo khai thac go hp phap va khai thac go bat hp phap; (d) san ban va cau ca co tnh tran lot, chu yeu cac dong song; (e) cac sieu d an: cac nhng quyen thuy ien va rng, khai thac go e san xuat oc canh, xay dng ng bo va ng sat, hoac cac d an khai thac va dau kh; (f) o nhiem do toan bo nganh cong nghiep khai khoang gay ra, tao nen nhieu van e va benh tat, nhat la ni tre em va thanh thieu nien; (g) buon ban ma tuy; (h) cac van e xa hoi do o ma ra lien quan en cac moi e doa nh nghien ru, bao lc chong phu n, mai dam, buon ngi, mat van hoa va ban sac goc (ngon ng, cac thc hanh va phong tuc tam linh), va moi ieu kien ngheo oi ma ngi dan Amazon b ket an (xem Fr.PM).

16. Hien nay, bien oi kh hau va viec gia tang s can thiep cua con ngi (pha rng, hoa hoan va thay oi s dung at) ang ay Amazon en mot iem khong the quay tr lai, vi ty le mat rng cao, dan so b buoc phai di di va o nhiem. Chung ang at cac he sinh thai cua no vao nguy c va gay ap lc len cac nen van hoa a phng. Mc 4 o bach phan cua viec nong len hoac 40% nan pha rng la "nhng iem qua o" (tipping points) cua quan the sinh vat Amazon theo hng sa mac hoa, ngha la mot qua o sang trang thai sinh hoc mi thng la khong the ao ngc. Va qua la ieu ang lo ngai khi nan pha rng hien nay a at ti t 15 en 20%.

Bao ve s song, oi au vi boc lot

17. Cac cong ong c tham khao y kien cung nhan manh moi lien he gia s e doa oi vi s song sinh hoc va s song tinh than, ngha la moi e doa toan dien tong the. S pha huy nhieu mat lu vc song Amazon tao ra s mat can bang: mat can bang ve lanh tho a phng va hoan cau, mat can bang trong cac mua, mat can bang ve kh hau. Mot trong nhng ieu b ieu nay anh hng la nang ong lc sinh san va tai sinh ong vat va thc vat, gay khon kho cho moi cong ong Amazon. V du, viec pha huy va o nhiem thien nhien anh hng en san xuat, tiep can va pham chat thc pham. V vay, viec cham soc co trach nhiem oi vi s song va "song tot" gan lien vi viec khan trng oi au vi cac moi e doa, xam lc va th trong lnh vc nay. Viec cham soc s song trai ngc vi nen van hoa vt bo, vi nen van hoa boc lot, ap bc va doi tra. ong thi, ieu nay co ngha la chong lai vien kien vo o phai gia tang khong gii han, th ngau than tien bac, mot the gii b cat ri khoi coi nguon va moi trng cua no, mot nen van hoa chet choc. Noi tom lai, viec bao ve s song ngu y bao ve lanh tho va cac tai nguyen hoac cua cai t nhien cua no; no cung ngu y bao ve s song va nen van hoa cua cac dan toc cua no, cung co cac to chc cua ho, kha nang thc thi ay u cac quyen cua ho va kha the c lang nghe. Theo li cua chnh ngi dan ban a: "Chung toi, ngi ban a Guaviare (Colombia), la mot phan cua thien nhien bi v chung toi la nc, khong kh, trai at va s song cua moi trng do Thien Chua tao dng. Do o, chung toi yeu cau cham dt viec ngc ai va huy diet 'Me Trai at'. Trai at co mau va ang chay mau, cac cong ty a quoc gia a cat t cac tnh mach cua 'Me Trai at' cua chung toi. Chung toi muon tieng khoc ban a cua chung toi c ca the gii lang nghe" (6).

Khoc cho s song

18. S xam lc va cac moi e doa chong lai s song tao ra cac tieng keu khoc, ca t ngi dan lan t trai at. Bat au t tieng keu khoc nay nh mot chu e than hoc (mot nguon c lieu [locus] e suy ngh ve c tin), ngi ta co the khi xng cac neo ng hoan cai, hiep thong va oi thoai, nhng neo ng cua Chua Thanh Than, cua s doi dao va "song tot". Hnh anh s song va "song tot" nh "cach len oi linh thanh", ngu y hiep thong vi nhng ngi cung hanh hng va vi thien nhien noi chung, ngha la mot con ng hoa nhap vi s doi dao s song, vi lch s va vi tng lai. Nhng neo ng mi nay la ieu can thiet v, t goc o muc vu, khoang cach a d ln lao va s a dang van hoa phong phu cua Amazon van cha c e cap ve phng dien muc vu. Cac neo ng mi at can ban "tren cac moi lien he lien van hoa trong o, s a dang khong co ngha e doa va khong bien minh cho cac pham trat quyen lc cua mot so ngi oi vi nhng ngi khac, ma la oi thoai t cac vien kien van hoa khac nhau, cac c hanh, moi lien he qua lai va s hoi sinh hy vong" (DAp 97).

Chng II: Lanh tho

"Hay ci oi dep cua ngi ra khoi oi chan cua Ngi, v ni ngi bc len la ni thanh thieng (Xh 3: 5)

Lanh tho, s song va mac khai Thien Chua

19. Tai Amazon, s song c long, lien ket va tch hp vao lanh tho. Khong gian vat chat quan yeu va nuoi dng nay cung cap kha the, duy tr va gii han s song. Hn na, chung ta co the noi rang Amazon - hoac mot lanh tho hoac cong ong ban a khac - khong ch la mot ubi hoac mot ni (mot khong gian a d), ma con la mot quid hay mot ieu g o, mot ni co y ngha oi vi c tin hoac kinh nghiem ve Thien Chua trong lch s. Do o, lanh tho la mot c lieu than hoc ni c tin c song, va cung la mot nguon mac khai ac biet cua Thien Chua: nhng ni hien dung (epiphanic) trong o, d tr s song va s khon ngoan danh cho hanh tinh nay c bieu lo, mot s song va s khon ngoan noi ve Thien Chua. Amazon, "nhng cai vuot ve cua Thien Chua" tr thanh hien hien va nhap the vao lch s (x. LS 84, "at, nc, nui non: moi th eu nh the mot s vuot ve cua Thien Chua).

Mot lanh tho trong o moi s c noi ket

20. Mot cai nhn chiem niem, cham chu va ton knh vao anh ch em cua mnh, va ca thien nhien na - anh cay, ch hoa, ch em chim, anh em ca, va tham ch ca nhng ch em nho nhat nh kien, au trung, nam hoac con trung ( xem LS 233) - cho phep cac cong ong Amazon kham pha ra moi s c noi ket vi nhau ra sao, tran quy tng sinh vat, thay mau nhiem ve ep cua Thien Chua c mac khai trong chung (xem LS 84, 88) va song vi nhau mot cach than thien.

21. Khong co phan nao cua lanh tho Amazon co the t mnh ton tai. Cac bo phan khong nhng lien he vi nhau ben ngoai, ung hn, chung la cac chieu kch t c cau, von hien hu trong tng quan, tao thanh mot tong the quan yeu. Do o, lanh tho Amazon cung cap mot giao ly quan yeu e ta hieu mot cach toan dien cac tng quan cua chung ta vi nhng ngi khac, vi thien nhien va vi Thien Chua, nh c Giao Hoang Phanxico a tng noi (xem LS 66).

Ve ep va moi e doa oi vi lanh tho

22. Khi chiem ngng ve ep cua lanh tho Amazon, chung ta kham pha ra mot kiet tac sang tao cua Thien Chua S Song. Cac chan tri vo tan vi ve ep vo bien la mot bai ca, mot bai thanh ca dang len ang Tao Hoa. "Lay Chua la Thien Chua con th, Chua muon trung cao ca! Ao Ngai mac : toan oai phong lam liet, cam bao Ngai khoac : muon van anh hao quang" (Tv 104 (3): 1-2). Bieu thc muon mau cua s song la mot bc tranh ghep cua Thien Chua, ang ban cho chung ta mot "di san nhng khong ma chung ta nhan c e bao ve, nh mot khong gian quy gia danh cho cuoc song chung cua con ngi" va trach nhiem chung "oi vi li ch cua moi ngi" (DAp. 471). Li mi goi cua c Giao Hoang Phanxico tai Puerto Maldonado e bao ve khu vc b e doa nay, e bao ton va khoi phuc no v li ch cua moi ngi, em lai cho chung ta niem hy vong vao kha nang cua mnh e xay dng li ch chung va ngoi nha chung cua chung ta.

23. Ngay nay, Amazon ang b thng, ve ep cua no b bien dang, mot ni au n va bao lc, nh cac bao cao cua cac Giao hoi a phng a ch ra mot cach hung hon: "Rng hoang khong phai la mot tai nguyen e khai thac, no la mot hu the hoac nhieu hu the khac nhau e ta co tng quan vi" [7]. "Chung ta b ton thng bi viec huy hoai thien nhien, huy hoai rng nhiet i, s song, con cai chung ta va cac the he tng lai" [8]. S huy hoai a dang s song con ngi va moi trng, cac benh tat va o nhiem song ngoi va at ai, on va ot cay, mat a dang sinh hoc mot cach o at, nhieu loai diet chung (hn mot trieu trong so tam trieu ong vat va thc vat ang gap nguy c) [9], tao thanh mot thc tai tan bao thach thc moi ngi chung ta.

Bao lc, hon loan va tham nhung tran lan. Lanh tho a tr thanh mot khong gian bat hoa va huy diet cac dan toc, van hoa va cac the he. Nhng ngi b buoc phai ri khoi at ai cua ho thng ri vao bay cua mafias, buon ban ma tuy va buon ngi (chu yeu la phu n), lao ong tre em va mai dam tre em [10]. Thc tai bi tham va phc tap nay nam ben ngoai gii han cua luat phap va nhan quyen. Tieng khoc than au n cua Amazon vang vong lai tieng khoc than cua dan b lam no le Ai Cap, nhng ngi khong b Thien Chua bo ri: "Ta a thay ro canh kho cc cua dan Ta ben Aicap, Ta a nghe tieng chung keu than v bon cai hanh ha. Phai, Ta biet cac noi au kho cua chung. Ta xuong giai thoat chung khoi tay ngi Ai-cap" (Xh 3: 7-8).

Lanh tho cua hy vong va "song tot"

24. Amazon la ni co kha the "song tot", va ha hen cung hy vong co nhng neo ng mi cho s song. S song Amazon c hoa nhap va hp nhat vi lanh tho; khong co s phan tach hoac phan chia gia cac bo phan. S hp nhat nay bao gom tron hien sinh: viec lam, ngh ngi, cac lien he nhan ban, cac nghi thc va c hanh. Moi s eu c chia se; khong gian t rieng, rat ac trng cua thi hien ai, la ieu toi thieu. S song dien tien tren neo ng cong ong ni cac nhiem vu va trach nhiem c phan phoi va chia se v li ch chung. Khong co cho cho y niem ca nhan tach ri khoi cong ong hoac lanh tho cua no.

25. Cuoc song cua cac cong ong Amazon cha b anh hng bi nen van minh phng Tay c phan anh trong cac niem tin va nghi thc lien quan en cac hanh ong cua cac than linh, cua 1 than tnh c at bang nhieu ten goi khac nhau hanh ong vi va trong lanh tho, vi va trong tng quan vi thien nhien. The gii quan nay c nam bat trong 'cau than chu' cua c Phanxico: "moi s c noi ket vi nhau" (LS 16, 91, 117, 138, 240).

26. S hoa nhap cua sang the, cua s song c coi nh mot tong the bao trum tron hien sinh, la nen tang cua nen van hoa truyen thong c truyen t the he nay sang the he no qua viec lang nghe tui khon cua to tien - mot kho d tr song ong cua nen linh ao va van hoa ban a. S khon ngoan nay linh hng cho viec quan tam va ton trong sang the, v y thc ro rang c cac gii han cua no va ngan cam viec lam dung no. Lam dung thien nhien la lam dung to tien, anh ch em mnh, sang the va ang Tao hoa. Lam dung tat ca nhng ieu nay la the chap tng lai.

27. Vu tru quan cua Amazon va the gii quan Kito giao eu ang gap khung hoang do viec ap at chu ngha trong thng, the tuc hoa, nen van hoa vt bo va viec th ngau than tien bac (x. EG 54-55). Cuoc khung hoang nay ac biet anh hng en nhng ngi tre va boi canh o th von anh mat goc re vng chac cua truyen thong ho.

Chng III: Hoang thi (Kairos)

"Ta a nham li ngi vao thi Ta thi an" (Is 49: 8; 2 Cr 6: 2)

Thi an sung

28. Amazon ang song mot thi an sung, mot kairos (hoang thi). Thng Hoi ong Amazon la mot dau ch thi ai khi Chua Thanh Than m ra nhng neo ng mi ma chung ta bien phan c nh mot cuoc oi thoai ho tng gia toan the Dan Thien Chua. Cuoc oi thoai a bat au mot thi gian trc ay, t nhng ngi ngheo nhat, bat au t di i len, v gia thiet rang, "moi dien trnh xay dng eu cham va kho khan. No bao gom th thach pha v khong gian va ci m chnh mnh e lam viec vi nhau, song nen van hoa gap g, [...]xay dng mot giao hoi ch em (11).

29. Cac dan toc nguyen thuy cua Amazon co nhieu ieu e day chung ta. Chung ta nhn nhan rang trong hang ngan nam, ho a cham soc at ai, nc va rng cua ho va a co gang bao ton chung cho en ngay hom nay e nhan loai co the hng li trong viec thng thc nhng hong phuc nhng khong trong sang the cua Thien Chua. Cac neo ng truyen giang Tin Mng mi phai c xay dng trong cuoc oi thoai vi s khon ngoan cua to tien, trong o nhng hat giong cua Li Chua tr nen hien hien.

Mot thi e hoi nhap van hoa va tnh lien van hoa

30. Giao hoi tai Amazon a anh dau s hien dien cua no trong khu vc bang nhng kinh nghiem ang chu y va theo nhng cach oc ao, sang tao va hoi nhap van hoa. Phong cach truyen giang Tin Mng cua no khong phai ch n thuan la mot phan ng chien lc oi vi thc tai hien nay; ung hn, no i theo mot neo ng tng ng vi cac kairos (hoang thi) co the thuc ay dan Thien Chua en cho chao on Vng quoc cua Ngi gia tnh a dang sinh hoc va xa hoi cua ho. Giao hoi tr nen xac tht bang cach quyet nh c ngu - dng "tapiri" hay nha mai ra - Amazon [12]. ieu nay phu hp vi mot cuoc hanh trnh a bat au vi Cong ong Vatican II cho toan the Giao hoi; a c cong nhan trong Huan quyen Chau My Latinh ke t Medellin (1968); va c gia nh ro rang cho Amazon Santarem (1972) [13]. Ke t o, Giao hoi tiep tuc tm cach hoi nhap van hoa Tin mng trc cac thach thc lanh tho va cac dan toc cua no, trong cuoc oi thoai lien van hoa vi ho. S a dang oc ao cua khu vc Amazon - sinh hoc, ton giao va van hoa - gi y mot Le Ngu Tuan mi.

Mot thi cua nhng thach thc nghiem trong va khan cap

31. ay nhanh dien trnh o th hoa va m rong nong nghiep c thc hien bi cac doanh nghiep nong nghiep cong vi viec lam dung tai san thien nhien bi chnh cac dan toc Amazon: Tat ca nhng ieu nay cong vi cac than phien ln a e cap trc o. Viec boc lot thien nhien va cac dan toc Amazon (ngi ban a, ngi mestizos (tap chung), ngi cao mu cao su, dan song nc va tham ch ca c dan thanh pho) gay ra mot cuoc khung hoang hy vong.

32. Cac cuoc di c trong nhng nam gan ay cung lam tang cac thay oi ve ton giao va van hoa trong khu vc. oi dien vi cac dien trnh bien oi nhanh chong, Giao hoi a khong con la iem tham chieu duy nhat cho quyet nh cua ngi ta. Hn na, cuoc song mi tai thanh pho khong phai luc nao cung t te oi vi cac giac m va khat vong, nhng thng lam mat phng hng va m ca cho chu ngha cu the (messianism) non yeu, bat noi ket, tha hoa va vo ngha.

Mot thi cua hy vong

33. Trai ngc vi thc tai tren, Thng Hoi ong Amazon v the tr thanh mot dau hieu hy vong cho ngi dan Amazon va cho toan nhan loai. o la mot c hoi ln lao e Giao hoi kham pha s hien dien nhap the va tch cc cua Thien Chua: trong cac bieu hien a dang nhat cua sang the; trong linh ao cua cac dan toc nguyen thuy; trong cac bieu thc cua long ao bnh dan; trong cac to chc bnh dan khac nhau nham chong lai cac sieu d an; va trong e xuat mot nen kinh te lien i, co nang suat va ben vng, ton trong thien nhien. Trong nhng nam gan ay, s menh cua Giao hoi a c thc hien trong s hp tac vi cac khat vong va au tranh v s song va ton trong thien nhien cua cac dan toc Amazon va cac to chc cua rieng ho.

34. Nh quyen nang cua Chua Thanh Than, Giao hoi, c nhan dien nh lch s thap gia va phuc sinh nay, muon hoc hoi, oi thoai va ap ng mot cach ay hy vong va han hoan cac dau ch thi ai cung vi cac dan toc cua Amazon. Chung ta hy vong rang viec hoc hoi, oi thoai va ong trach nhiem nh vay cung co the m rong en moi ngo ngach cua hanh tinh von mong muon at ti s vien man tron ven cua s song theo moi y ngha. Chung ta tin rang kairos (hoang thi) nay cua Amazon, von la thi cua Thien Chua, se trieu tap va kch thch va la thi cua an sung va giai phong, cua ky c va hoan cai, cua cac thach thc va hy vong.

Chng IV: oi thoai

"Chung co mat ma khong thay, chung co tai ma khong nghe" (Mc 8:18)

Cac neo ng oi thoai mi

35. c Giao Hoang Phanxico a ra cho chung ta nhu cau nhn lai e m ra nhng neo ng oi thoai se giup chung ta thoat khoi con ng t huy hoai cua cuoc khung hoang xa hoi moi trng hien nay [14]. e cap en cac dan toc Amazon, c Giao Hoang cho rang ieu chu yeu la thc hien "cuoc oi thoai lien van hoa, trong o chnh anh ch em se la 'oi tac oi thoai chnh, nhat la khi cac d an ln anh hng en vung at cua anh ch em c e xuat'. Viec nhn nhan va oi thoai se la cach tot nhat e bien oi cac moi lien he lch s von co ac iem loai tr va ky th" (Fr.PM). Cuoc oi thoai a phng trong o Giao hoi muon tham gia la e phuc vu s song va "tng lai cua hanh tinh chung ta" (LS 14).

oi thoai va s menh

36. V Amazon la mot the gii a sac toc, a van hoa va a ton giao (xem DAp 86), nen viec thong at, va do o truyen giang Tin Mng, oi hoi nhng cach gap g va song chung vi nhau co the co vu oi thoai. Trai ngc vi oi thoai la viec thieu lang nghe va ap at nham ngan can chung ta gap g, thong at va do o, song vi nhau. Chua Giesu la mot ngi oi thoai va gap g. V vay, chung ta thay Ngi "vi ngi phu n Samaria, tai chiec gieng ni co ay tm cach lam du cn khat cua mnh (x. Ga 4: 7-26)" (EG 72); Co ay "a tr thanh mot nha truyen giao ngay sau khi noi chuyen vi Chua Giesu", va khi co tr ve lang cua mnh, "nhieu ngi Samaria a tin vao Ngi 'v chng t cua ngi phu n' (Ga 4:39)" (EG 120) . Chua Giesu a co the oi thoai va yeu thng vt ra ngoai tnh ac thu trong di san ton giao Samaria cua co. ay la cach truyen giang Tin Mng c thc hien trong cuoc song bnh thng cua Samaria, Amazon, tren toan the gii. oi thoai la mot cuoc thong at vui ti gia "nhng ngi bay to tnh yeu cua ho cho nhau" (EG 142).

37. Ke t bien co Nhap the, cuoc gap g vi Chua Giesu Kito luon dien ra trong pham vi mot cuoc oi thoai lch s va canh chung cua coi long. No xay ra trong cac khung canh khac nhau cua the gii a nguyen va an ket qua lai vi nhau cua Amazon. No bao gom cac lien he chnh tr vi cac quoc gia, cac lien he xa hoi vi cac cong ong, cac lien he van hoa vi nhieu loi song khac nhau va cac lien he sinh thai vi thien nhien va vi chnh mnh. oi thoai tm kiem s trao oi qua lai, ong thuan va thong at, thoa hiep va lien minh, nhng khong anh mat van e can ban, ngha la, moi quan tam oi vi "mot xa hoi cong bang, biet ap ng va bao gom" (EG 239). Do o, oi thoai luon u tien chon ngi ngheo, ngi b gat bo va loai tr. Chnh ngha cong ly va s khac biet la cac chnh ngha cua Nc Thien Chua. Chung ta khong bao ve "cac ke hoach do mot so t danh cho mot so t, hoac mot nhom thieu so hieu biet hoac bao an bao noi phac thao" (EG 239).

oi thoai la ve viec "ong y song vi nhau, mot hiep c van hoa va xa hoi" (EG 239). oi vi hiep c nay, Amazon ai dien cho mot pars pro toto, mot phan cho toan bo, mot mo hnh, mot hy vong cho the gii. oi thoai la phng phap luon phai c ap dung e at c cuoc song tot [neu buen vivir, th song tot] cho moi ngi. Nhng van e ln lao cua nhan loai phat sinh Amazon se khong tm c giai phap qua bao lc hoac ap at, ma qua oi thoai va thong at.

oi thoai vi cac dan toc Amazon

38. Chnh cac dan toc cua Amazon, nhat la ngi ngheo va khac biet ve van hoa, la nhng ngi oi thoai va nhan vat chu ao cua cuoc oi thoai. Ho oi mat vi chung ta bang ky c qua kh va vi nhng vet thng gay ra trong thi ky lau dai cua thc dan. o la ly do tai sao c Giao Hoang Phanxico khiem ton xin s tha th, khong ch v nhng vi pham cua chnh Giao hoi ma con v nhng toi ac chong lai cac dan toc nguyen thuy trong cuoc c goi la chinh phuc My Chau (15). a co nhng khoanh khac luc Giao Hoi ong loa vi nhng ngi thc dan, va ieu nay a bop nghet tieng noi tien tri cua Tin Mng. Nhieu tr ngai oi vi viec truyen giang Tin Mng theo loi oi thoai va viec ci m vi s khac biet ve van hoa co tnh lch s va an khuat pha sau cac hoc thuyet a hoa a. oi thoai la mot dien trnh hoc hoi, c tao ieu kien bi "viec ci m hng ti sieu viet" (EG 205) va b can tr bi cac y thc he.

oi thoai va hoc hoi

39. Nhieu ngi Amazon von co hu la nhng ngi oi thoai va thong at. Co mot dien an oi thoai rong ln va chu yeu gia cac linh ao, tn ngng va ton giao cua Amazon, oi hoi cach tiep can cua trai tim oi vi cac nen van hoa khac nhau. Ton trong khong gian nay khong co ngha la tng oi hoa cac xac tn rieng cua ngi ta, ma la nhn nhan nhng con ng / neo ng khac biet tm cach giai oan mau nhiem khon do cua Thien Chua. S ci m khong thanh that vi ngi khac, giong nh thai o pho nhng nhom quyen li ln (corporatist), von ch danh n cu roi oc nhat cho tn ngng rieng cua ho, la pha hoai chnh tn ngng o. ay la ieu Chua Giesu a giai thch cho Luat s trong du ngon Ngi Samaria nhan hau (Lc 10: 30-37). Tnh yeu mang ra song trong bat c ton giao nao cung lam hai long Thien Chua. "Qua viec trao oi cac n phuc, Chua Thanh Than co the dan chung ta tron ven hn vao s that va s thien" (EG 246).

40. Mot cuoc oi thoai co li cho s song la e phuc vu cho "tng lai cua hanh tinh chung ta" (LS 14), cua viec bien oi cac nao trang hep hoi, hoan cai cac trai tim sat a va chia se cac s that vi toan the nhan loai. Chung ta co the noi rang oi thoai co tnh Ngu Tuan, cung nh s ra i cua Giao hoi, mot Giao Hoi ang hanh trnh tm kiem ban sac mnh hng ti s hiep nhat trong Chua Thanh Than. Chung ta kham pha ra ban sac cua chung ta t cuoc gap g vi ngi khac, t cac khac biet va s trung hp cho chung ta thay s khon do cua thc tai va s mau nhiem cua viec Thien Chua hien dien.

oi thoai va khang c

41. San long tham gia oi thoai thng gap phai s khang c. Cac li ch kinh te va mo hnh ky tr (technocratic) bac bo bat c co gang thay oi nao. Nhng ngi ung ho chung san long ap at bang vu lc, vi pham cac quyen can ban cua cac dan toc Amazon va cac qui luat bao am s ben vng va bao ton no. Trong tnh huong nh vay, cac kha the oi thoai va gap g b giam thieu rat nhieu va tham ch bien mat trong mot so trng hp. Phai phan ng vi ieu nay ra sao? Mot mat, ngi ta nhat thiet se tr nen phan no, khong phai mot cach bao ong, nhng kien quyet va co tnh tien tri. o la s phan no cua Chua Giesu chong lai ngi Biet Phai (x. Mc 3: 5; Mt 23) hoac chong lai chnh Phero (Mt 16:23) - ieu ma Thanh Toma Aquino goi la "s phan no thanh thien", b kch ong bi cac bat cong [16], hoac lien ket vi cac li ha cha c thc hien hoac cac phan boi u loai. Bc tiep theo la tm kiem s thoa thuan, nh chnh Chua Giesu gi y (x. Lc 14: 31-32). ay la van e thiet lap ra mot cuoc oi thoai kha hu va khong bao gi th vi nhng bat cong cua khu vc hoac cua the gii [17].

42. Mot Giao hoi tien tri la mot Giao Hoi lang nghe cac tieng khoc va bai ca ve noi au va niem vui. ong thi khi chung truyen cam hng, cac bai hat doi sang cac tnh huong song cua ngi ta va trc giac c cac giai phap kha hu va cac thay oi co tnh bien oi. Co nhng dan toc hat lch s cua ho va ca hien tai cua ho na, en noi cac ngi nghe cac bai hat o co the thoang thay, co the phac thao tng lai cua ho. Noi tom lai, mot Giao hoi tien tri Amazon la mot Giao Hoi oi thoai, biet cach tm kiem cac thoa thuan, va, t viec chon ngi ngheo va cac chng t cua ho ve s song, biet tm kiem cac e xuat cu the co li cho mot he sinh thai toan dien. Mot Giao hoi co kha nang bien phan va tao bao khi oi mat vi viec lam dung cac dan toc va viec pha huy cac lanh tho cua ho, biet ap ng khong cham tre tieng keu cua trai at va cua ngi ngheo.

Ket luan

43. S song Amazon, ni nc, lanh tho, va cac ban sac va linh ao cua cac dan toc c an ket qua lai vi nhau, mi goi oi thoai va hoc hoi ve tnh a dang sinh hoc va van hoa cua no. Giao hoi tham d va tao ra cac dien trnh hoc hoi nham m ra cac neo ng ao tao lien tuc ve y ngha s song c hoa nhap vao lanh tho cua no va c lam giau bang tui khon va kinh nghiem cua to tien. Cac dien trnh nh vay mi goi chung ta ap ng mot cach trung thc va tien tri tieng keu van s song cua cac dan toc va vung at cua Amazon. ieu nay ngu y mot cam thc oi mi ve s menh cua Giao hoi tai Amazon, bat au t cuoc gap g vi Chua Kito, i ra ngoai gap g ngi khac, khi dien cac dien trnh hoan cai. Trong boi canh nay, khong gian hien ang c m rong e tai tao cac tha tac vu phu hp vi thi iem lch s nay. ay la thi iem thch hp e lang nghe tieng noi cua Amazon va ap ng nh mot Giao Hoi co tnh tien tri va Samaria.

 

Phan II: He Sinh Thai Toan Dien: Tieng Keu Cua Trai at Va Cua Ngi Ngheo

"Toi e ngh gi ay chung ta nen xem xet mot so yeu to cua he sinh thai toan dien ... cac yeu to moi trng, kinh te va xa hoi" (LS 137-8).

44. Phan II e cap en cac van e nghiem trong do cac cuoc tan cong chong lai s song tren lanh tho Amazon gay ra. S gay han oi vi khu vc quan trong nay cua Me at va c dan cua Me e doa s ton vong, nen van hoa va linh ao cua ho. No cung anh hng en s song cua toan the nhan loai, nhat la ngi ngheo, ngi b loai tr, b ay qua ben le, b an ap. Tnh hnh hien nay ang khan thiet keu goi phai co mot cuoc hoan cai sinh thai toan dien.

Chng I: S pha huy cua chnh sach duy khai khoang

"Ngay nay ... toi loi hien hien trong moi sc manh huy diet cua no di ... cac hnh thc bao lc va lam dung a dang, bo ri nhng ngi de b ton thng nhat va tan cong vao thien nhien" (LS 66).

Tieng keu cua Amazon

45. "Cac dan toc ban a Amazon co le cha bao gi b e doa nh vay tren chnh lanh tho cua ho nh hien nay" (Fr.PM). Cac d an khai khoang va nong nghiep nham khai thac lanh tho ma khong he xem xet bat c ieu g ang pha huy lanh tho nay (xem LS 4, 146), mot lanh tho ang co nguy c bien thanh mot hoang mac (savannah) [18]. Amazon ang b gianh giat mot so tran tuyen. Mot trong so nay ap ng cac li ch kinh te to ln ch muon dau hoa, kh ot, go, vang, oc canh cong nong nghiep, v.v. Mot tran tuyen khac la chu ngha duy bao ton sinh thai ch quan tam en sinh quan nhng bo qua cac dan toc Amazon. Ca hai moi e doa lam ton thng at ai va cac dan toc: "Chung toi ang b anh hng bi nhng ngi khai thac go, chu trang trai va cac ben th ba khac. Chung toi ang b e doa bi cac tac nhan kinh te ang thc thi mot mo hnh hoan toan xa la trong lanh tho cua chung toi. Cac cong ty on go vao lanh tho e khai thac rng. Chung toi cham soc rng cho con cai cua chung toi. Chung toi co tht, ca, cay dc lieu, cay an trai [...] Viec lap at thuy ien va d an ng thuy co tac ong en song ngoi va cac vung lanh tho [...] Chung toi la mot vung lanh tho b anh cap" (19).

46. Theo cac cuoc tham khao, tieng keu cua Amazon phan anh ba nguyen nhan chnh gay au n. (a) Viec thieu s cong nhan, phan nh ranh gii va quyen s hu cac vung at ban a von la mot phan tao ra cuoc song cua ho. (b) Cuoc xam lc cua cac d an goi la "phat trien" v ai, ma thc s pha huy ca cac vung at lan cac dan toc. V du quan trong la cac d an thuy ien; khai thac mo hp phap va bat hp phap lien ket vi cac garimpeiros bat hp phap (nhng th mo khong chnh thc khai khoang vang); cac d an ng thuy e doa cac nhanh chnh cua song Amazon; cac hoat ong hydrocarbon, cac hoat ong chan nuoi, pha rng, canh tac oc canh, ky nghe nong nghiep va grilagem (chiem dung at ai bang cach s dung tai lieu gia). Nhieu trong so cac d an pha hoai nhan danh s tien bo nay c ho tr bi chnh quyen a phng, quoc gia va nc ngoai. (c) S o nhiem song ngoi, khong kh, at va rng va s suy giam pham chat s song, cac nen van hoa va linh ao. Do o, ngay nay, "chung ta phai nhan ra rang mot cach tiep can sinh thai thc s luon tr thanh mot cach tiep can xa hoi; no phai tch hp cac van e cong ly trong cac cuoc tranh luan ve moi trng, e nghe c "ca tieng keu cua trai at lan tieng keu cua ngi ngheo" (LS 49). o la ieu c Giao Hoang Phanxico goi la he sinh thai toan dien.

He sinh thai toan dien

47. Sinh thai toan dien da tren viec tha nhan trong cac moi lien he la mot pham tru can ban cua con ngi. ieu nay co ngha: chung ta phat trien nh nhng hu the nhan ban tren c s cac moi lien he cua chung ta vi chnh mnh, vi nhng ngi khac, vi xa hoi noi chung, vi thien nhien / moi trng va vi Thien Chua. Tnh noi ket toan dien nay thng xuyen c nhan manh trong cac cuoc tham khao vi cac cong ong Amazon.

48. Thong iep Laudato Si' (cac so 137-142) gii thieu mo hnh lien he nay trong sinh thai toan dien nh la s noi khp can ban cac day lien ket von lam cho s phat trien thc s nhan ban tr thanh kha hu. Cac hu the nhan ban la mot phan cua he sinh thai tao ieu kien cho cac moi lien he em lai s song cho hanh tinh cua chung ta; do o viec cham soc cac he sinh thai nay la rat can thiet. Va no co tnh nen tang oi vi ca viec co vu nhan pham lan li ch chung cua xa hoi va oi vi viec cham soc moi trng. Khai niem sinh thai toan dien a va ang soi sang cho cac quan iem khac nhau tm cach giai quyet cac tng tac phc tap gia moi trng va con ngi, gia viec quan ly cua cai cua sang the va cac e xuat phat trien va truyen giang Tin Mng.

Sinh thai toan dien tai Amazon

49. oi vi s cham soc vung Amazon, cac cong ong tho dan la nhng ngi oi thoai khong the thieu, v chnh ho la nhng ngi thng cham soc tot nhat cac lanh tho cua ho (xem LS 149). Do o, luc bat au dien trnh Thng Hoi ong, c Giao Hoang Phanxico, trong chuyen vieng tham au tien mot khu vc Amazon, a noi vi cac nha lanh ao tho dan a phng: "Toi muon en tham anh ch em va lang nghe anh ch em, e c ben nhau gia long Giao hoi, e hp nhat chung ta trong viec oi au vi cac thach thc cua anh ch em va cung anh ch em tai khang nh viec chan thanh la chon bao ve s song, bao ve at ai va bao ve cac nen van hoa" (Fr.PM). Cac cong ong Amazon chia se quan iem nay ve he sinh thai toan dien: "moi hoat ong cua Giao Hoi Amazon phai bat au t tnh toan dien cua hu the nhan ban (s song, lanh tho va van hoa)" [20].

50. Tuy nhien, e co vu he sinh thai toan dien trong i song hang ngay cua Amazon, ieu cung can la phai hieu khai niem thong at va cong ly lien the he, bao gom viec truyen tai kinh nghiem, vu tru hoc, linh ao va than hoc co tnh to tien cua ngi ban a trong viec cham soc ngoi nha chung cua chung ta [21]. "Trong cuoc tranh au, chung ta phai tn thac vao quyen nang cua Thien Chua, v sang the la cua Thien Chua, v Thien Chua tiep tuc cong viec cua Ngi. Cuoc tranh au cua to tien chung ta la tranh au cho nhng dong song nay, cho cac lanh tho cua chung ta, tranh au cho mot the gii tot ep hn cho con cai chung ta" (22).

ng pha huy Amazon

51. Noi mot cach chuyen biet, tieng keu cua Amazon noi vi chung ta ve nhng cuoc au tranh chong lai nhng ke muon huy diet s song nh c quan niem mot cach toan dien. Cac lc lng nh vay c hng dan bi mot mo hnh kinh te lien ket vi san xuat, thng mai va tieu thu, trong o viec toi a hoa li nhuan u tien hn nhu cau con ngi va moi trng. Noi cach khac, cac cuoc au tranh chong lai nhng ngi khong ton trong nhan quyen va quyen thien nhien Amazon.

52. Mot cuoc tan cong khac vao nhan quyen la viec qui thanh toi pham cac cuoc bieu tnh chong lai viec pha huy lanh tho va cac cong ong cua no, v mot so luat le trong khu vc mo ta chung la bat hp phap [23]. Mot s lam dung na la phan ln cac quoc gia bac bo viec ton trong quyen tham khao va chap thuan trc cua cac nhom ban a va a phng trc khi ban cac nhng quyen va hp ong khai thac lanh tho, mac du quyen nh the c To chc Lao ong Quoc te cong nhan ro rang: "nhng ngi co lien quan co quyen quyet nh cac u tien cua ho oi vi dien trnh phat trien v no anh hng en i song, cac niem tin, nh che va phuc li tinh than cua ho va vung at ma ho chiem gi hoac s dung, va thi hanh viec kiem soat, ti mc co the, trong pham vi co the, viec phat trien kinh te, xa hoi va van hoa cua rieng ho" [24]. Cung nhng quyen nay c cac hien phap cua mot so quoc gia Amazon cong nhan.

53. Bi kch cua c dan Amazon xuat hien khong nhng viec mat at do b buoc phai di di, ma con chu b khuat phuc trc s du do cua tien bac, hoi lo va tham nhung cua cac tac nhan cua mo hnh kinh te ky thuat cua "nen van hoa vt bo" (xem LS 22), ac biet la trong gii tre. S song c lien ket va hoa nhap vao lanh tho, v vay bao ve s song la bao ve lanh tho, khong co s tach biet gia hai kha canh. ay la thong iep trong rat nhieu chng t: "Ho ang lay mat at ai cua chung toi - chung toi se i au? V b lay mat quyen nay la het ng t bao ve mnh trc nhng ke e doa s song con cua ho.

54. Viec on cay o at, tan diet rng nhiet i bang nhng vu ot rng co chu y, viec m rong bien gii nong nghiep va oc canh la nguyen nhan cua s mat can bang kh hau tai khu vc hien nay, vi nhng hieu qua ro ret oi vi kh hau hoan cau, vi kch thc hanh tinh nh han han ln va lu lut ngay cang thng xuyen hn. c Giao Hoang Phanxico goi cac lu vc song Amazon va Congo la "nhng la phoi cua hanh tinh chung ta", nhan manh s cap bach phai bao ve chung (LS 38).

55. Sang the c trnh bay trong sach Sang the nh mot bieu hien cua s song, nuoi dng, kha the va gii han. Trong trnh thuat au tien (St 1: 1-2: 4a), con ngi c mi goi lien he vi sang the theo cung mot cach nh Thien Chua. Trnh thuat th hai (St 2: 4b-25) lam sau sac them quan iem nay vi menh lenh phai "canh tac" (trong tieng Do Thai, no cung co ngha la "phuc vu") va "gi" (thai o bao ve va yeu thng) khu vn (St 2: 15). ieu nay ngu y moi quan he chu trach nhiem lan nhau gia con ngi va thien nhien" (LS 67), mot quan he oi hoi phai tha nhan mot gii han thch hp cua than phan tao vat va do o mot thai o khiem nhng v chung ta khong phai la chu s hu hu hoan toan (St 3: 3).

Cac gi y

56. Thach thc a ra rat ln: Lam the nao phuc hoi c lanh tho Amazon, giai cu no khoi s suy thoai do chnh sach tan thc dan va khoi phuc lai phuc li ch thc va lanh manh cua no? oi vi cac cong ong tho dan, chung ta n ho hang ngan nam cham soc va canh tac Amazon. Trong tui khon to tien cua ho, ho a nuoi dng xac tn rang toan bo sang the eu c noi ket vi nhau, va ieu nay ang c chung ton trong va chu trach nhiem. Nen van hoa cua Amazon, mot nen van hoa tch hp con ngi vi thien nhien, tao nen mot chuan mc e xay dng mot mo hnh mi ve sinh thai toan dien. Trong s menh cua mnh, Giao hoi can am nhan viec cham soc ngoi nha chung cua chung ta:

a) e xuat cac ng hng hanh ong co tnh nh che co the co vu s ton trong moi trng.

b) Sap at cac chng trnh huan luyen chnh thc va khong chnh thc ve viec cham soc ngoi nha chung cua chung ta cho cac tac nhan muc vu va tn hu, va ci m oi vi toan the cong ong, e "nang cao y thc cua moi ngi" (LS 214) nh a c yeu cau bi cac chng V va VI cua Thong iep Laudato Si'.

c) To cao viec vi pham nhan quyen va s huy diet gay ra bi chu ngha khai khoang khong han che.

Chng II: Cac dan toc ban a trong vung Co lap T nguyen (PIAV): Cac moi e doa va viec bao ve

"Toi ngh ti [...] cac dan toc ban a trong vung Co lap T nguyen (PIAV). Chung ta biet rang ho la nhng ngi de b ton thng nhat trong so nhng ngi de b ton thng" (Fr.PM).

Cac dan toc cac vung ngoai vi

57. Trong lanh tho Amazon, theo cac d kien cua cac to chc Giao hoi chuyen nganh (v du: CIMI) va cac to chc khac, hien co t 110 en 130 dan toc ban a khac nhau trong vung Co lap T nguyen hay "cac dan toc t do". Ho song ben le xa hoi hoac ch tiep xuc le te vi no. Chung ta khong biet ten, ngon ng hoac van hoa rieng cua ho. o cung la ly do tai sao chung ta goi ho la "nhng dan toc co lap", "t do", "t tr" hay "cac dan toc khong co tiep xuc". Nhng dan toc nay song trong moi lien he sau sac vi thien nhien. Nhieu ngi trong so ho a quyet nh t co lap mnh v trc ay ho b chan thng; nhng ngi khac a b bao lc gat sang mot ben bi viec boc lot kinh te Amazon. Cac dan toc nay chong lai mo hnh phat trien kinh te san moi, diet chung va diet moi sinh hien thi, la chon song giam ham e song t do (xem Fr.PM).

56. Mot so "cac dan toc co lap" song tren nhng vung at oc hu ban a, nhng ngi khac song tren cac vung at ban a chung vi cac "dan toc a c tiep xuc", lai co nhng ngi song trong khu vc bao ton va mot so song trong cac vung lanh tho bien gii.

Nhng ngi de b ton thng

59. Cac dan toc ban a trong vung Co lap T nguyen de b ton thng trc cac moi e doa cua cac doanh nghiep ky nghe nong nghiep va cua nhng ngi khai thac khoang san, go va cac tai nguyen thien nhien khac. Ho cung la nan nhan cua nan buon ban ma tuy, cac sieu d an ve c s ha tang nh ap thuy ien va sieu lo quoc te, va cac hoat ong bat hp phap lien quan en mo hnh phat trien khai khoang.

60. Nguy c bao lc oi vi phu n cua nhng ngoi lang nay gia tang do s hien dien cua nhng ngi lap c, on go, binh lnh va nhan vien cua cac ky nghe tai nguyen, hau het la an ong. mot so vung cua Amazon, 90% ngi ban a b sat hai tai cac khu lap c biet lap la phu n. Bao lc va ky th nh vay e doa nghiem trong s song con ve the chat, tinh than va van hoa cua cac dan toc ban a nay.

61. Them vao o la s thieu cong nhan quyen lanh tho cua cac dan toc ban a va cua cac dan toc ban a trong vung Co lap T nguyen. Viec qui ket la pham toi cac ong minh cua ho v cac cuoc bieu tnh va viec cat giam ngan sach von danh e bao ve vung at cua ho lam cho viec xam chiem lanh tho cua ho tr nen de dang hn, do o, e doa hn na en cuoc song de b ton thng cua ho.

Cac gi y

62. Trc tnh huong bi tham nay, va nghe thay nhng tieng keu than cua trai at va cua ngi ngheo (xem LS 49), qua la thch ang e:

a) Yeu cau cac chnh phu lien he bao am cac nguon lc can thiet e bao ve hu hieu cac dan toc ban a song co lap. Cac chnh phu phai thc hien moi bien phap can thiet e bao ve s toan ven the ly cua ho va s toan ven cua lanh tho ho, da tren nguyen tac phong nga hoac cac c che bao ve khac theo luat phap quoc te, nh cac Khuyen cao chuyhen biet c quy nh bi Uy ban Nhan quyen Lien My (IACHR cua OAS) va cha trong chng cuoi cung cua bao cao, cac dan toc ban a trong vung Co lap T nguyen va viec tiep xuc ban au chau My (2013). Cung can phai bao am quyen t do c t bo s co lap cua ho khi ho muon.

b) Yeu cau bao ve cac khu vc / khu bao ton thien nhien tai ni chung toa lac, ac biet la ve viec phan ranh gii / quyen s dung cua chung e ngan chan s xam chiem cua nhng ni ho song.

c) Co vu viec cap nhat ieu tra dan so va lap ban o cac vung lanh tho ni nhng dan toc nay sinh song.

d) Thanh lap cac nhom chuyen biet trong cac giao phan va giao x va len ke hoach hanh ong muc vu chung tai cac vung bien gii v o la ni ngi chuyen di chuyen c tm thay.

e) Thong bao cho cac dan toc ban a ve cac quyen li cua ho va thong bao cho cong chung ve tnh hnh cua ho.

Chng III: Di dan

"Cha toi la mot ngi Aram lang thang..." (nl 26: 5)

Cac dan toc Amazon ri c

63. Amazon, di c e tm kiem mot cuoc song tot hn la mot hang so lch s. No giong nh mot con lac en roi i [25], buoc phai di c trong cung mot at nc va ra nc ngoai, t y di c t khu vc nong thon ti cac thanh pho cung nh di c quoc te. S chuyen dch nay [26] Amazon cha c hieu ro hoac giai quyet ay u theo quan iem muc vu. Tai Puerto Maldonado, c Giao Hoang Phanxico a e cap en thc tai nay: "Nhieu ngi a di c en Amazon e tm kiem nha , at ai va viec lam. Ho en tm kiem mot tng lai tot hn cho ban than va gia nh. Ho t bo cuoc song ngheo kho, nhng xng ang. Nhieu ngi trong so ho, v hy vong rang mot so cong viec nao o se cham dt tnh trang bap benh cua ho, c loi keo bi sc hap dan ay ha hen cua viec khai thac vang. Nhng chung ta ng quen rang vang co the bien thanh mot v than gia oi hoi s hy sinh cua con ngi" (27).

Nguyen nhan cua di c

64. Amazon la mot trong nhng khu vc co mc o di ong quoc noi va quoc te cao nhat Chau My Latinh. Cac nguyen nhan cua no la chnh tr xa hoi, kh hau va kinh te cung nh an ap sac toc. Cac nguyen nhan kinh te chu yeu c gay ra bi cac d an chnh tr, cac sieu d an va cac cong ty khai khoang, thu hut cong nhan nhng ong thi truc xuat c dan cua cac khu vc b anh hng. S xam lang oi vi moi trng di danh ngha "phat trien" [28] a lam giam ang ke pham chat cuoc song cua cac dan toc Amazon, ca dan c thanh th lan nong thon, do o nhiem lanh tho va mat kha nang sinh san.

65. Do nhng nguyen nhan nay, tren thc te, khu vc a tr thanh mot hanh lang di c. Nhng cuoc di c nh vay xay ra gia cac quoc gia vung Amazon (nh lan song di c ang gia tang t Venezuela) hoac en cac khu vc khac (v du: en Chile va Argentina) [29].

Cac hau qua cua viec di c

66. Hien tng di c, b lang quen ca ve chnh tr lan muc vu, a gop phan gay bat on xa hoi trong cac cong ong Amazon. Cac thanh pho trong khu vc, ni lien tuc nhan c so lng ln ngi mi nhap c, khong the cung cap cac dch vu can ban ma ngi di c can. ieu nay a khien nhieu ngi i lang thang va ngu cac khu vc trung tam thanh pho, khong co cong an viec lam, khong co thc an, khong co ni tru an. Nhieu ngi trong so nay thuoc cac dan toc ban a buoc phai t bo vung at cua ho. "Cac thanh pho dng nh la mot vung at khong co chu s hu. Chung la ch en ma ngi ta thng hng ve sau khi b uoi khoi lanh tho cua ho. Thanh pho phai c hieu theo mo hnh khai thac nay: lam trong cac vung lanh tho e chiem oat chung, di di dan c va truc xuat ho vao thanh pho" [30].

67. Hien tng nay, trong nhieu ieu khac, gay bat on cho cac gia nh khi mot trong hai cha me i xa tm viec lam, e lai con cai va ngi tre ln len khong co hnh anh ngi cha va / hoac ngi me. Nhng ngi tre cung di chuyen e tm kiem viec lam hoac viec lam khong au vao au mien giup duy tr nhng g con lai cua gia nh, bo ca nen giao duc tieu hoc va chu ng u th lam dung va boc lot. nhieu vung Amazon, nhng ngi tre nay la nan nhan cua buon ban ma tuy, buon ngi hoac mai dam (nam va n) [31].

68. S l la cua cac chnh phu lien quan en viec thc thi cac chnh sach cong co chat lng trong noi a, chu yeu la giao duc va y te, cho phep dien trnh di ong nay tang toc moi ngay. Mac du Giao hoi a ong hanh vi dong di c nay, nhng khoang trong muc vu van con trong khu vc Amazon can c giai quyet.

Cac gi y

69. Ngi di c mong i g t Giao hoi? Lam the nao chung ta co the giup ho cach hu hieu hn? Lam the nao chung ta co the co vu viec hoi nhap gia ngi di c va cong ong a phng?

a) Can co s hieu biet tot hn ve cac c che dan en s tang trng bat can xng cua cac trung tam o th va va viec bo cac khu vc noi a, bi v ca hai nang ong tnh eu la thanh phan cua cung mot he thong (moi s eu c noi ket). Moi ieu nay eu oi hoi s chuan b cua au va tim cua cac tac nhan muc vu e oi dien vi tnh huong nguy cap nay.

b) Can phai lam viec theo nhom, tham nhiem ly tng truyen giao manh me va c phoi hp bi nhng ngi co ky nang a dang va bo tuc cho nhau e hanh ong hu hieu. Van e di c can c x ly mot cach co phoi hp, nhat la bi cac Giao Hoi bien gii.

c) Thiet lap mot dch vu tiep on trong moi cong ong o th, co the nhanh chong chao on nhng ngi en bat ng co cac nhu cau khan cap va cung co the cung cap s bao ve chong lai moi e doa cua cac to chc toi pham.

d) Co vu cac d an nong nghiep-gia nh trong cac cong ong nong thon.

e) Lam cho cong ong giao hoi can d vao viec ap lc cac c quan cong quyen ap ng cac nhu cau va quyen li cua ngi di c.

f) Co vu s hoa nhap gia ngi di c va cong ong a phng trong khi ton trong ban sac van hoa cua nhau, nh c Giao Hoang Phanxico tng tuyen bo:

"Hoa nhap, mot ieu khong phai la ong hoa hay sap nhap, la mot dien trnh hai chieu, bat nguon t s tha nhan chung s giau co ve van hoa cua ngi khac: o khong phai la s ap at mot nen van hoa len mot nen van hoa khac, cung khong phai la s co lap lan nhau, vi rui ro xao quyet va nguy hiem tao nen cac khu 'ghettos' (biet c)" [32].

Chng IV: o th hoa

"Cac thanh pho tao ra mot lng phan (ambivalence) vnh vien v, trong khi cung cap cho cac c dan cua chung vo so kha the, chung cung em lai cho nhieu ngi u th tr ngai oi vi viec phat trien toan dien cua cuoc song cua ho" (EG 74).

o th hoa vung Amazon

70. Mac du ngay nay, ngi ta noi en Amazon nh la phoi cua hanh tinh (xem LS 38) va la ro banh cua the gii, nhng viec tan pha khu vc va canh ngheo oi a gay ra s ri c ln lao cua dan chung nham tm kiem mot cuoc song tot hn. Ket qua cua cuoc "xuat hanh nay e i tm vung at ha" la s tang trng cua hien tng o th hoa trong khu vc [33], ni cac thanh pho cau thanh mot thc tai lng phan. Kinh thanh mieu ta s m ho nay khi trnh bay Cain nh ngi sang lap cac thanh pho sau toi loi cua han (St 4:17), nhng sau o cung trnh bay nhan loai ang co gang hng ti viec thc hien li ha ve Gierusalem tren tri, ni cua Thien Chua vi loai ngi (Kh 21 : 3).

71. Theo thong ke, dan so o th cua Amazon a tang theo cap so nhan; hien co t 70% en 80% dan so c tru tai cac thanh pho [34]. Nhieu ngi trong so ho thieu c s ha tang va cac tai nguyen cong cong can thiet e ap ng nhu cau cua cuoc song o th. Khi so lng thanh pho tang len, so lng c dan nong thon giam i.

Van hoa o th

72. Tuy nhien, van e o th hoa khong ch bao gom viec ri c cua ngi dan va s phat trien cua cac thanh pho, ma ca viec truyen tai loi song o th ac thu. Kieu mau cua no i vao the gii nong thon, thay oi tap quan, phong tuc va cach song truyen thong. Van hoa, ton giao, gia nh, giao duc tre em va thanh thieu nien, viec lam va cac kha canh khac cua cuoc song thay oi nhanh chong e ap ng cac li mi goi mi cua thanh pho.

Cac thach thc o th

73. a Amazon vao th trng hoan cau hoa tao ra nhieu loai tr hn, cung nh viec o th hoa ngheo oi. Theo cac cau tra li cho Bang cau hoi cua Tai lieu chuan b, cac van e chnh nay sinh vi viec o th hoa la:

a) Tang bao lc u loai.

b) Lam dung va khai thac tnh duc, mai dam va buon ban ngi, ac biet la phu n.

c) Buon ban va tieu thu ma tuy.

d) Buon ban vu kh.

e) Di ong tnh nhan ban va khung hoang ban sac.

f) Gia nh tan v [35].

g) Cac xung ot van hoa va mat y ngha trong cuoc song.

h) S khong hu hieu cua cac dch vu y te / ve sinh. [36]

i) Thieu pham chat giao duc va bo hoc [37].

j) Thieu ap ng cua cac c quan cong quyen oi vi c s ha tang va viec co vu nhan dung.

k) Thieu ton trong quyen t quyet va quyen t chu cua dan chung.

l) Tham nhung hanh chanh [38].

Cac gi y

74. Co e ngh cho rang :

a) Phai co vu mot moi trng o th ni cac khong gian cong cong c hoi sinh, vi cac quang trng va trung tam van hoa c phan phoi tot.

b) Phai co vu viec tiep can pho cap giao duc va van hoa.

c) Phai co vu y thc ve moi trng, tai che rac va tranh ot rac.

d) Phai co vu mot he thong ve sinh moi trng va tiep can y te pho quat.

e) Phai bien phan cach giup cai thien cuoc song nong thon, vi cac phng the sinh ton khac nh nong nghiep gia nh.

f) Phai tao cac khong gian e tng tac gia tui khon cua ngi ban a, song ngoi va cac dan toc "quilombola" (no le goc Phi chau a giai phong Ba Tay) trong cac khung canh o th va tui khon cua ngi dan thanh th, e tao ra cuoc oi thoai va hoa nhap quanh viec cham soc cuoc song.

Chng V: Gia nh va cong ong

"Chnh Chua Giesu cung c sinh ra trong mot gia nh khiem ton, phai sm chay tron en mot vung at xa la" (AL 21)

Cac gia nh Amazon

75. Mot chieu kch vu tru (cosmovivencia) cua kinh nghiem ang ap nhp trong cac gia nh. No da tren kien thc va thc hanh truyen thong lau i trong cac lnh vc khac nhau nh nong nghiep, y hoc, san ban va cau ca, hai hoa vi Thien Chua, thien nhien va cong ong. Cung chnh trong gia nh, cac gia tr van hoa c truyen tai, nh tnh yeu at ai, tnh ho tng, lien i, song trong hien tai, cam thc gia nh, s n gian, cong viec cong ong, t to chc, y hoc to tien va giao duc. Ngoai ra, van hoa truyen khau (nhng cau chuyen, tn ngng va bai hat) vi mau sac, quan ao, thc an, ngon ng va nghi le cua no la mot phan cua di san nay c lu truyen trong gia nh. Tom lai, gia nh la ni ngi ta hoc cach song hoa hp: gia cac dan toc, gia cac the he, vi thien nhien, trong cuoc oi thoai vi cac v than [39].

Cac thay oi xa hoi va tnh de b ton thng cua gia nh

76. Gia nh vung Amazon von a la nan nhan cua chu ngha thc dan trong qua kh va chu ngha tan thc dan trong hien tai. Viec ap at mo hnh van hoa phng tay a khac sau mot s khinh miet nao o oi vi ngi dan va phong tuc cua lanh tho Amazon, tham ch con goi ho la nhng ke man r. Ngay nay, viec ap at mo hnh kinh te khai khoang phng Tay mot lan na anh hng en cac gia nh bang cach xam chiem va pha huy at ai, van hoa va cuoc song cua ho, buoc ho phai di c en cac thanh pho va vung ngoai vi.

77. Nhng thay oi tang toc hien tai anh hng en gia nh vung Amazon. Do o, chung ta tm thay nhieu c cau gia nh mi: gia nh cha me n than do mot ngi phu n ng au; s gia tang cac gia nh ly than, cac cuoc ket hp ong thuan va cac gia nh tap hp; va t hn la cac cuoc hon nhan theo nh che. Ngoai ra, ngi ta van thay phu n b khuat phuc trong gia nh, trong khi bao lc gia nh, cha me vang mat, mang thai tuoi thieu nien va pha thai ang gia tang.

78. Gia nh trong thanh pho la ni tong hp, trong o, cac nen van hoa truyen thong va hien ai gap nhau. Tuy nhien, cac gia nh thng phai chu canh ngheo oi, nha ca bap benh, thieu viec lam, tang tieu thu ma tuy va ru, ky th va thieu nien t t. Ngoai ra, thieu oi thoai gia cac the he trong gia nh; cac truyen thong va ngon ng b anh mat. Cac gia nh cung phai oi dien vi cac van e mi ve sc khoe; can co s giao duc ay u ve viec lam me. Ngi ta cung thay thieu chu y en phu n trong luc mang thai va cac giai oan trc luc sinh va sau khi sinh [40].

Cac gi y

79. Vung Toan Amazon rat a van hoa, do o ong gop ln nhat la tiep tuc tranh au e bao ton ve ep cua no bang cach cung co c cau gia nh-cong ong cua cac dan toc cua no. e at muc ch nay, Giao hoi phai coi trong va ton trong cac ban sac van hoa. Cach rieng, nen:

a) Ton trong cach to chc cong ong rieng. Xet v nhieu chnh sach cong anh hng en ban sac gia nh va tap the, can phai khi xng va ho tr cac dien trnh bat au t gia nh / th toc / cong ong e co vu li ch chung, giup vt qua cac c cau nham tha hoa: "chung ta phai t to chc t gia nh cua mnh" [41].

b) Nghe nhng bai hat hoc c trong gia nh nh mot cach phat bieu li tien tri trong the gii Amazon.

c) Phat huy vai tro cua phu n, nhn nhan cac chc nang can ban cua ho trong viec hnh thanh va lien tuc tnh cua cac nen van hoa, trong linh ao, trong cac cong ong va gia nh. Phu n phai am nhan vai tro lanh ao trong Giao hoi.

d) Noi ro rang cac yeu to cua tha tac vu gia nh phan anh li khuyen cua Tong huan Amoris laetitia:

i. Mot tha tac muc vu ong hanh toan dien vi gia nh, khong loai tr cac gia nh b thng tch.

ii. Mot tha tac muc vu b tch co the cung co va khuyen khch moi ngi va khong loai tr ai.

iii. ao tao lien tuc cac tac nhan muc vu, lu y ti Thng Hoi ong gan ay va cac thc tai cua cac gia nh Amazon.

iv. Mot tha tac muc vu gia nh trong o gia nh va la chu the va la nha chu ao.

Chng VI: Tham nhung

"Moi ieu nay cang khien nhng ngi b thiet thoi tr nen bc tc hn trong boi canh tham nhung tran lan va co goc re sau xa nhieu quoc gia - trong chnh phu, doanh nghiep va cac nh che cua ho - bat ke y thc he chnh tr nao cua cac nha lanh ao cua ho" (EG 60)

Tham nhung Amazon

80. Tham nhung Amazon anh hng nghiem trong en cuoc song cua cac dan toc va lanh tho cua no. Co t nhat hai loai tham nhung: mot loai ton tai ben ngoai luat phap va loai kia c bao ve bi luat phap phan boi li ch chung.

81. Trong nhng thap nien gan ay, viec au t vao viec khai thac cac tai nguyen phong phu cua khu vc Amazon bi cac cong ty ln a tang toc. Nhieu cong ty trong so nay theo uoi li nhuan bang moi gia ma khong quan tam en s thiet hai xa hoi - moi trng ma ho gay ra. Cac chnh phu tng cho phep cac thc hanh nh vay, v can ngoai hoi e thuc ay cac chnh sach cong cua ho, khong phai luc nao cung chu toan ngha vu bao ve moi trng va quyen li ngi dan cua ho. Do o, tham nhung chang bay cac tham quyen chnh tr, t phap, lap phap, xa hoi, giao hoi va ton giao, nhng ngi nhan c li ch, nhng oi lai, phai cho phep cac hanh ong cua cac cong ty nay (xem DAp 77). Co nhng trng hp trong o cac cong ty ln va chnh phu tao ra cac he thong tham nhung. Mot so ca nhan gi chc vu cong cong hien ang b xet x, ang tu hoac a bo tron. Nh Tai lieu Aparecida noi: "Cung bao ong tng t la mc o tham nhung trong cac nen kinh te, bao gom cac khu vc cong va t, gia trong bi s thieu minh bach va trach nhiem giai trnh oi vi toan the cong dan. Tham nhung thng lien ket vi tai hoa buon ban ma tuy hoac cac doanh nghiep ma tuy c tai tr la nhng doanh nghiep thc s ang pha huy c cau kinh te va xa hoi trong toan bo khu vc" (DAp. 70).

Mot tai hoa ao c thuoc c cau

82. Mot nen van hoa c tao ra nh the e au oc nha nc va cac nh che cua no, tham nhiem moi tang lp xa hoi, ke ca cac cong ong ban a. ay thc s la mot tai hoa ao c; ket qua la, niem tin vao cac nh che va ai dien cua no b mat i, chnh tr va cac to chc xa hoi hoan toan mat uy tn. Cac dan toc Amazon khong xa la g vi tham nhung, va ho tr thanh nan nhan chnh cua no.

Cac gi y

83. Xet v ro rang thieu cac phng tien kinh te cua cac Giao hoi ac thu Amazon, can ac biet chu y en nguon goc cua cac quyen gop hoac cac loai phuc li khac, cung nh cac khoan au t cua cac nh che giao hoi hoac Kito giao. Cac Hoi ong Giam muc co the cung cap mot dch vu t van va ong hanh, tham van va co vu cac chien lc chung khi oi dien vi tham nhung tran lan va cung e giai quyet nhu cau tao ra va au t cac nguon lc e ho tr cong viec muc vu. Mot phan tch can than la ieu can thiet khi oi au vi viec buon ban ma tuy.

a) Chuan b hang giao s ung cach e oi au vi s phc tap, tinh te va tram trong cua cac van e cap bach lien ket vi tham nhung va thi hanh quyen lc.

b) Co vu nen van hoa trung thc va ton trong ngi khac va li ch chung.

c) ong hanh, co vu va huan luyen giao dan, e ho hien dien cong khzai va co y ngha trong chnh tr, kinh te, i song hoc thuat va moi hnh thc lanh ao (xem DAp. 406).

d) ong hanh cung ngi dan trong cuoc tranh au cua ho e cham soc cac lanh tho cua ho va ton trong quyen li cua ho.

e) ieu tra cach tao ra tien bac va cach au t trong Giao hoi, vt qua s ngay th ve van e nay qua mot he thong quan tr va kiem toan cong ong, lu y en cac quy tac hien hanh cua giao hoi.

f) Thiet lap cac hnh thc hun hap (partnership) cua Giao hoi vi cac thc the khac trong cac sang kien oi hoi cac cong ty chu trach nhiem oi vi cac tac ong xa hoi - sinh thai trong hanh ong cua ho, phu hp vi cac thong so phap ly cua chnh cac quoc gia.

Chng VII: Van e Sc Khoe Toan Dien

"Nc nay chay ve mien at pha ong, xuong vung Arava, roi o ra bien Chet va lam cho nc bien hoa lanh ... Trai dung lam lng thc con la e lam thuoc" (Edk 47: 8,12 ).

Sc khoe Amazon

88. Khu vc Amazon ngay nay cha ng s a dang ln nhat cua he thc vat va ong vat tren the gii, va dan so ban a cua no co mot y thc toan dien ve s song khong b o nhiem bi chu ngha duy vat kinh te. Amazon la mot lanh tho lanh manh trong lch s lau dai va sinh hoa trai cua no, mac du khong thieu benh tat. Tuy nhien, vi tnh di ong cua ngi dan, vi s xam lan khong kiem soat cua cac nganh ky nghe gay o nhiem, vi cac ieu kien bien oi kh hau, va trc s th cua cac c quan y te cong cong, nhieu benh mi a xuat hien va cac benh ly a xuat hien tr lai. Mo hnh phat trien tap trung hoan toan vao khai thac kinh te rng, khai thac mo va s phong phu hydrocarbon cua Toan Vung Amazon anh hng en sc khoe cua cac sinh quan Amazon, cong ong cua ho va toan bo hanh tinh! Thiet hai khong ch anh hng en sc khoe the chat ma con ca van hoa va linh ao cua ngi dan: no gay thiet hai ti "sc khoe toan dien" cua ho. Ngi dan Amazon co quyen co sc khoe va "song khoe manh", co ngha la hai hoa vi "nhng g Me at cung ng cho chung ta" [42].

anh gia va phat trien cac loai thuoc truyen thong

85. ap lai "nen van hoa vt bo" (xem LS 22), cac mon e cua Chua Kito c keu goi co vu nen van hoa cham soc va sc khoe. Do o, cam ket cham soc sc khoe oi hoi cac thay oi khan cap trong loi song ban than va trong cac c cau.

86. S phong phu cua he thc vat va ong vat cua rng nhiet i cha "dc ien (pharmacopoeias) song ong" chan chnh va cac nguyen tac di truyen cha c kham pha. Nan pha rng Amazon se ngan chung ta chia se nhng phong phu nh vay, lam ngheo nan cac the he tng lai. Hien tai, ty le tuyet chung cua cac loai Amazon do cac hoat ong cua con ngi ln hn hang ngan lan so vi cac dien trnh t nhien. Cach duy nhat e bao ton s phong phu nay la cham soc lanh tho va rng nhiet i Amazon va trao quyen cho ngi dan va cong dan ban a.

87. Cac nghi thc va nghi le ban a rat chu yeu oi vi sc khoe toan dien v chung tch hp cac chu ky khac nhau cua s song con ngi va thien nhien. Chung tao ra s hai hoa va can bang gia con ngi va vu tru. Chung bao ve s song khoi nhng toi ac co the gay ra bi ca con ngi lan cac sinh vat khac. Chung giup cha cac benh gay hai cho moi trng, s song con ngi va cac sinh vat khac.

Cac gi y

88. Cham soc sc khoe cua cac c dan bao gom kien thc chi tiet ve cay thuoc va cac yeu to truyen thong khac von la thanh phan cua dien trnh cha benh. e at muc tieu nay, ngi dan ban a da vao nhng ngi, trong suot cuoc i cua ho, chuyen quan sat thien nhien va lang nghe cung thu thap kien thc cua ngi cao nien, ac biet la phu n. Nhng v o nhiem moi trng, ca thien nhien lan c the cua ngi dan Amazon ang xau i. Viec tiep xuc vi cac yeu to oc hai mi nh thuy ngan lam cho cac benh mi xuat hien ma cho en nay, cac thay lang cao tuoi cha biet en. Tat ca nhng ieu nay at tui khon cua to tien vao nguy c. o la ly do tai sao cac cau tra li cho Tai lieu Chuan b nhan manh s can thiet phai bao ton va truyen at kien thc ve y hoc co truyen [43]. Co e ngh cho rang phai giup cac dan toc cua Amazon duy tr, phuc hoi, he thong hoa va pho bien kien thc nay e co vu sc khoe toan dien.

89. ng au vi nhng can benh mi nay, c dan buoc phai mua thuoc t cac cong ty dc pham s dung cung loai cay co t Amazon. Sau khi c tung ra th trng, cac loai thuoc nay nam ngoai kha nang tai chnh cua ho v nhng ly do bao gom bang sang che thuoc va gia qua cao. Do o, co e ngh phai coi trong y hoc co truyen, s khon ngoan cua ngi cao nien va cac nghi thc ban a, va ong thi tao ieu kien e tiep can vi cac loai thuoc cha cac benh mi.

90. Nhng khong phai ch co dc lieu va thuoc ho tr cha benh. Nc va khong kh sach, va thc pham lanh manh, trai cay cua chnh ho trong trot, hai lm, san ban va anh ca, eu la cac ieu kien can thiet cho sc khoe toan dien cua cac dan toc ban a [44]. Do o, co e ngh yeu cau cac chnh phu ra qui nh nghiem ngat cho cac nganh ky nghe va to cao nhng ky nghe lam o nhiem moi trng. Mat khac, co e ngh phai tao ra cac khong gian e tng tac va ong hanh giao duc e phuc hoi cac thoi quen "song tot", nh the, tao ra mot nen van hoa cham soc va phong nga.

91. Cuoi cung, co e ngh phai anh gia cac c cau y te cua Giao hoi, nh cac benh vien va trung tam y te, ve mat sc khoe toan dien san sang co o cho moi c dan von cay nh y hoc co truyen nh mot thanh phan trong cac chng trnh sc khoe cua ho.

Chng VIII: Giao duc toan dien

"Nhng ngi tre chung toi a va ang anh mat ban sac van hoa va ngon ng cua chung toi noi rieng. Chung toi quen rang chung toi co nguon goc cua mnh, rang chung toi thuoc ve mot dan toc nguyen thuy va chung toi ang e ban than mnh b ky nghe keo i. Khong phai la ieu te hai khi i bang ca hai chan, va biet hien ai va cham soc truyen thong. Luon luon ni ban co ca hai th nay hien dien, ghi nh nguon goc cua ban, ni ban phat xuat va ng quen i" (Slendy Grefa, Doc. Consulta, Ecuador)

Mot Giao hoi ong ngh: Tro va Thay

92. Thong qua viec lang nghe ho tng cac dan toc va thien nhien, Giao hoi bien thanh mot Giao hoi i ra ngoai ca ve phng dien a ly lan c cau, va mot Giao hoi la ch em va mon e thong qua tnh ong ngh (synodality). ay la ieu c Giao Hoang Phanxico a noi ro trong Tong Hien Episcopalis Communio: "Do o, Giam muc va la thay va la tro ... Ngai la tro khi, nh biet rang Chua Thanh Than a c ban cho moi ngi a c ra toi, ngai lang nghe tieng Chua Kito noi qua toan the dan Chua" (EC 5). Chnh c Phanxico a tr thanh hoc tro Puerto Maldonado bang cach bay to s san long lang nghe tieng noi cua Amazon.

Giao duc nh mot cuoc gap g

93. Giao duc ham y mot cuoc gap g va trao oi trong o cac gia tr c tham hoa. Moi nen van hoa eu giau va ngheo cung mot luc. V co tnh lch s, van hoa luon co mot chieu kch s pham hoc tap va cai tien. "Khi cac pham tru nao o cua ly tr va khoa hoc c tiep nhan vao viec cong bo s iep, cac pham tru nay se tr thanh cong cu truyen giang Tin Mng; nc c oi thanh ru. Bat c ieu g c tiep nhan khong ch c cu chuoc, ma con tr thanh mot cong cu cua Chua Thanh Than e khai sang va lam mi the gii" (EG 132). Cuoc gap g "la viec m long ra lam thanh kha hu s gan gui o" (EG 171) cua Chua Thanh Than, mot s gan gui co the dan en nhieu hoc hoi a dang.

94. Nen giao duc nay, mot nen giao duc phat trien qua s gap g, khac vi nen giao duc tm cach ap at len ngi khac (va ac biet la ngi ngheo va de b ton thng) chnh cac the gii quan von la chnh nguyen nhan gay ra s ngheo oi va de b ton thng cua ho. Giao duc Amazon khong co ngha la ap at cac thong so van hoa, triet hoc, than hoc, phung vu va cac phong tuc xa la len cac dan toc Amazon. Ngay nay, "mot so ngi ch n gian t hai long vi viec o loi cho ngi ngheo va cac nc ngheo hn v a gay rac roi cho ho; t cho phep mnh tong quat hoa khong chnh ang, ho cho rang giai phap la mot nen 'giao duc' lam cho ho tram lang, khien ho thuan hoa va vo hai" (EG 60). "e ap lai, chung ta can cung cap mot nen giao duc day suy t co phe phan va khuyen khch s phat trien cac gia tr ao c trng thanh" (EG 64), mot nen giao duc ci m oi vi tnh lien van hoa.

Giao duc trong mot he sinh thai toan dien

95. The gii quan cua cac dan toc ban a Amazon bao gom li keu goi t giai thoat khoi mot tam nhn ri rac ve thc tai, khong co kha nang tri nhan cac noi ket a dang, cac lien he lan nhau va phu thuoc lan nhau. Giao duc trong mot he sinh thai toan dien bao gom moi moi lien he cau thanh cua cac ca nhan va cac dan toc. e hieu vien kien giao duc nay, ieu ang lam la ap dung cung mot nguyen tac nh trong van e sc khoe: muc tieu la quan sat toan bo c the va cac nguyen nhan gay benh ch khong ch cac trieu chng ma thoi. Mot he sinh thai lau ben cho cac the he tng lai "khong the b gian lc thanh mot loat cac giai ap khan cap va phien dien cho cac van e tc thi nh o nhiem, suy thoai moi trng va can kiet tai nguyen thien nhien. Can phai co mot cach nhn s vat khac biet, cach suy ngh, cac chnh sach, mot chng trnh giao duc..." (LS 111). Mot nen giao duc ch da tren cac giai phap ky thuat cho cac van e moi trng phc tap a che giau "cac van e thc s va sau sac nhat cua he thong hoan cau" (LS 111).

96. Nh the, ay la mot nen giao duc ve s lien i phat sinh t viec "y thc c nguon goc chung cua chung ta" va "tng lai chung cua moi ngi" (LS 202). Cac dan toc ban a co mot phng phap day-hoc da tren truyen tong truyen khau va thc hanh kinh nghiem vi mot dien trnh s pham c boi canh hoa trong tng giai oan. Thach thc la tch hp phng phap nay trong cuoc oi thoai vi cac e xuat giao duc khac. ieu nay oi hoi "mot cuoc phat trien mot nen ao c sinh thai va giup ngi ta, qua nen s pham hu hieu, phat trien trong tnh lien i, trach nhiem va cham soc cam thng" (LS 210). Amazon mi chung ta kham pha ra nhiem vu giao duc nh mot dch vu toan dien oi vi toan nhan loai nham mot nen cong dan co tinh than sinh thai" (LS 211).

97. Giao duc nh vay ket hp cam ket cham soc trai at vi cam ket oi vi ngi ngheo, va kch thch thai o ieu o va ton trong mang ra song qua "loi song n gian co trach nhiem, trong chiem niem mot cach biet n the gii cua Thien Chua va quan tam en cac nhu cau cua ngi ngheo va bao ve moi trng" (LS 214). Nen giao duc nh vay "phai c dien dch thanh cac thoi quen mi" (LS 209) lu y en cac gia tr van hoa. Giao duc, theo quan iem sinh thai va Amazon, co vu viec 'song tot', viec 'song tot vi nhau' va 'cac hanh ong tot'; cac ieu nay phai co the tri nhan c va ben b e co tac ong ang ke oi vi ngoi nha chung cua chung ta.

Cac gi y

98. Cac ieu sau ay a c gi y:

a) ao tao cac tac nhan muc vu giao dan trng thanh e giup ho phat trien ve tinh than trach nhiem va oc sang tao.

b) ao tao cac tha tac vien c phong chc:

1. Cac ke hoach ao tao phai phan anh mot nen van hoa than va triet hoc thch nghi vi cac nen van hoa cua Amazon, co kha nang c hieu ro va do o nuoi dng c i song Kito hu. Nen than hoc va sinh thai hoc ban a nen c tch hp v chnh ly do nay: ieu nay se chuan b cho ho biet lang nghe va m ra cuoc oi thoai trong o viec truyen giang Tin Mng dien ra.

2. Co e ngh cai cach cac c cau chung vien e tao ieu kien cho viec tch nhap cac ng c vien chc linh muc trong cong ong.

c) Cac trung tam ao tao:

1. Cac trng hoc: cac ke hoach giao duc can thiet e tap chu vao nen giao duc co the phan anh nen van hoa cua chnh ngi ta va ton trong ngon ng ban a, mot nen giao duc toan dien tng ng vi thc tai cua chnh ngi ta, e oi pho vi tnh trang bo hoc va mu ch, ac biet la ni phu n.

2. ai hoc: can co vu khong nhng nh hng lien khoa ma con giai quyet cac van e theo cach thc lien khoa, ngha la, ung ho mot cach tiep can co the khoi phuc s thong nhat trong a dang oi vi kien thc con ngi, doc theo ng hng nghien cu mot he sinh thai toan dien theo li m au cua Tong Hien Veritatis Gaudium.

3. Viec giang day nen than hoc ban a Toan-Amazon c yeu cau trong moi nh che giao duc.

d) Nen than hoc tho dan vung Amazon:

1. ieu ang c ao la lam sau sac hn nen than hoc tho dan cua ngi Amazon hien nay, mot ieu se giup hieu ro hn va nhieu hn ve nen linh ao ban a va do o tranh pham cac sai lam lch s tng xuc pham nen van hoa nguyen thuy.

2. Chang han, co yeu cau phai lu y en cac huyen thoai, truyen thong, bieu tng, kien thc, nghi thc va cac c hanh nguyen thuy, nhng ieu von bao gom cac chieu kch sieu viet, cong ong va sinh thai.

Chng IX: Hoan cai sinh thai

"V vay, ieu moi ngi can la mot s hoan cai sinh thai, nh o, cac hieu qua cua viec ho gap g Chua Giesu Kito tr nen ro rang trong moi lien he cua ho vi the gii xung quanh" (LS 217).

Chua Kito keu goi chung ta hoan cai (x. Mc 1:15)

99. Mot kha canh can ban cua goc re toi loi con ngi la tach mnh ra khoi thien nhien va khong nhn nhan no nh mot phan cua con ngi va khai thac thien nhien khong gii han, do o pha v giao c nguyen thuy vi sang the va vi Thien Chua (St 3: 5). "S hai hoa gia Tao hoa, nhan loai va sang the nh mot toan bo a b pha v bi s cao ngao cua chung ta muon thay the Thien Chua va t choi tha nhan cac han che trong than phan tao vat cua chung ta" (LS 66).

Sau cac gian oan do toi loi va tran lut hoan cau, Thien Chua lap lai giao c vi chnh con ngi va vi sang the (St 9: 9-17), keu goi loai ngi cham soc no.

100. S hoa giai vi sang the ma c Giao Hoang Phanxico mi goi chung ta (xem LS 218) trc nhat ham y chung ta phai vt qua s thu ong - nh thai o thu ong cua Vua David t choi nhan s menh cua mnh (x. 2 Sm 11: 1). Dien trnh pham toi cua Vua David bat au vi viec ch than bo sot (ngai lai cung ien cua mnh khi quan oi xong pha ngoai chien tran) va sau o mang hnh thc tch cc vi pham cac hanh vi ang trach di con mat Thien Chua (ngoai tnh, noi doi va giet ngi) lien quan en nhng ngi khac, tao ra mot mang li ong loa (2 Sm 11: 3-25). Tng t nh vay, Giao hoi co the b cam do c mai khep kn trong chnh mnh, t bo s menh loan bao Tin Mng va lam cho Nc Thien Chua hien dien. Trai lai, mot Giao hoi hng ngoai la mot giao hoi oi au vi toi loi cua the gii nay ma mnh khong he xa la (x. EG 20-24). Toi loi nay, nh thanh Gioan Phaolo II a noi, khong ch mang tnh ban than ma con co tnh xa hoi va c cau na (Xem RP 16; SRS 36; SD 243; DAp. 92). "Moi s eu c noi ket", c Phanxico von cho biet (LS 138); "mot khi con ngi tuyen bo oc lap khoi thc tai va hanh x mot cach thong tr tuyet oi, th chnh cac nen tang cua cuoc song chung ta bat au sup o" (LS 117). Chua Kito cu chuoc toan bo sang the von b nhan loai quy phuc vao toi loi (Rm 8: 19-22).

Hoan cai toan dien

101. Do o, hoan cai cung phai co cung nhng bnh dien cu the: ban than, xa hoi va c cau, lu y cac kha canh khac nhau cua tnh tng quan. o la "mot s hoan cai ban than toan dien" xuat phat t trai tim va m ra "mot s hoan cai cong ong" nhn nhan cac lien ket xa hoi va moi trng cua no, ngha la, mot "hoan cai sinh thai" (xem LS 216-221). Viec hoan cai nay ngu y nhn nhan s ong loa cua ban than va xa hoi trong cac c cau toi loi, vach mat nhng y thc he chuyen bien minh cho mot loi song tan cong sang the. Chung ta thng nghe nhng cau chuyen nham bien minh cho hanh ong pha hoai cua cac nhom quyen lc chuyen khai thac thien nhien, thong tr c dan cua no mot cach chuyen che (x. LS 56, 200) va pht l tieng khoc au n cua trai at va cua ngi ngheo (x. LS 49 ).

Hoan cai Giao Hoi Amazon

102. Dien trnh hoan cai ma Giao hoi c keu goi thc hien lien quan en viec hoc bo (unlearning), hoc hoi va hoc lai. Con ng nay oi mot s quan tam phe phan va t phe giup chung ta xac nh c ieu chung ta can phai hoc bo, ieu gay hai cho ngoi nha chung cua chung ta va c dan cua no. Chung ta can thc hien mot hanh trnh noi tam e tm ra thai o va nao trang ngan can chung ta noi ket vi chnh mnh, vi ngi khac va vi thien nhien. Nh c Giao Hoang Beneicto XVI a noi, "cac sa mac ben ngoai tren the gii ang phat trien, v cac sa mac ben trong a tr nen qua rong ln" [45]. Dien trnh nay tiep dien khi ngi ta bat au than phuc tui khon cua cac dan toc ban a. Cuoc song hang ngay cua ho cho chung ta nhieu chng t cho thay ho tng chiem niem, cham soc va lien he vi thien nhien. Ho day chung ta nhan ra chnh mnh nh mot phan cua sinh quan va nh nhng ngi ong trach nhiem cho viec cham soc no trong hien tai va tng lai. Do o, chung ta phai hoc lai cach det cac moi day nham noi ket moi chieu kch cua cuoc song va thc hien mot cuoc kho hanh ban than va cong ong giup chung ta "vun si mot cuoc song ieu o va thoa man" (LS 225).

103. Hoan cai c trnh bay trong Sach Thanh nh mot chuyen ong t toi loi bc sang tnh ban vi Thien Chua trong Chua Giesu Kito; o la ly do tai sao no thuoc ve tien trnh c tin (Mc 1:15). Nhn vao thc tai cua Amazon bang con mat c tin giup chung ta anh gia cao cong viec cua Thien Chua trong sang the va cac dan toc cua no, nhng chung ta cung thay s hien dien cua cai ac nhieu bnh dien khac nhau: chu ngha thc dan (thong tr), mot nao trang duy kinh te - duy thng mai, chu ngha duy tieu thu, chu ngha duy ca nhan, ky tr, van hoa vt bo.

* Mot nao trang a c phat bieu trong lch s trong mot he thong thong tr lanh tho, chnh tr, kinh te va van hoa van ton tai cho en ngay nay theo nhieu cach khac nhau nham keo dai chu ngha thc dan.

* Mot nen kinh te ch oc nhat da vao li nhuan nh muc tieu duy nhat cua no, loai tr va cha ap len ke yeu nhat va len thien nhien, tao thanh mot ngau than gieo rac huy diet va chet choc (x. EG 53-56).

* Mot nao trang thc dung quan niem thien nhien nh mot nguon tai nguyen n thuan va con ngi nh nhng ngi san xuat- tieu dung n thuan, xoa bo gia tr noi tai va ac tnh tng quan cua tao vat.

* "Chu ngha duy ca nhan lam suy yeu cac day noi ket cong ong" (DAp. 44), lam lu m trach nhiem oi vi ngi hang xom, cong ong va thien nhien cua ta.

* S phat trien ky thuat a mang lai nhieu li ch to ln cho nhan loai, nhng no cung a tr thanh mot tuyet oi va mot cong cu e s hu, thong tr va thao tung (xem LS 106) thien nhien va con ngi. Tat ca nhng ieu nay tao ra mot nen van hoa hoan cau chiem u the ma c Giao Hoang Phanxico a goi la "mo hnh ky tr" (LS 109).

* Ket qua la s mat i mot chan tri sieu viet va nhan ao va s tran lan cua luan ly hoc "s dung roi vt i" (LS 123), tao ra "mot nen van hoa vt bo" (LS 22) tan cong chnh sang the.

Cac gi y

104. a co cac gi y sau ay:

a. Vach mat cac hnh thc mi cua chu ngha thc dan hien dien Amazon.

b. Nhan dien va phan tch co phe phan cac y thc he mi chuyen bien minh cho nan diet chung Amazon.

c. To cao cac c cau toi loi tai ni lam viec trong lanh tho Amazon.

d. Nhan dien cac ly do ma chung ta thng dung e bien minh cho s tham gia cua chung ta vao cac c cau toi loi e phan tch chung mot cach co phe phan.

e. Ung ho mot giao hoi nh mot nh che phuc vu (ch khong phai mot nh che t qui chieu vao chnh mnh) biet chia se trach nhiem cham soc ngoi nha chung cua chung ta va bao ve cac quyen cua cac dan toc.

f. Co vu cac th trng lien i sinh thai (eco-solidarity), tieu thu hp tnh hp ly va "ieu o hanh phuc" (LS 224, 225) biet ton trong thien nhien va cac quyen li cua ngi lao ong. "Mua hang luon luon la mot hanh ong ao c - ch khong ch n gian kinh te" (CV 66; LS 206).

g. Co vu thoi quen ve tac phong, san xuat va tieu thu, tai che bien va tai s dung chat thai.

h. Cu cac huyen thoai va cap nhat cac nghi thc va c hanh cong ong co kha nang gop phan ang ke vao dien trnh hoan cai sinh thai.

i. Cam n cac dan toc ban a a cham soc lanh tho suot thi gian qua va nhan ra trong o tui khon to tien tng tao c s cho cach hieu tot ep ve sinh thai toan dien.

j. Tao nen cac hanh trnh muc vu hu c tren c s nen sinh thai toan dien e bao ve ngoi nha chung cua chung ta, vi s hng dan cua chng 5 va 6 trong thong iep Laudato Si'.

k. Giao hoi a phng chnh thc cong nhan tha tac vu ac biet cua cac tac nhan muc vu, nham co vu viec cham soc ngoi nha chung cua chung ta.

 

Phan III: Mot Giao Hoi Tien Tri Tai Amazon: Cac Thach Thc Va Hy Vong

"Phai chi toan dan cua Chua eu c lam tien tri! c chi Chua ban Than kh cua Ngi xuong tren ho" (Ds 11:29)

105. Viec tuyen xng Chua Giesu Kito va viec c gap g sau sac vi Ngi qua hoan cai va kinh nghiem c tin gia nh mot Giao hoi biet chao on va co tinh than truyen giao c nhap the vao cac nen van hoa. Giao Hoi nay phai lu y cac bc a thc hien e ap ng cac chu e ay thach thc ve tnh trung tam cua s iep s truyen (kerygma) va cua s menh trong khu vc Amazon. Mo hnh nay cua hanh ong Giao Hoi truyen cam hng cho cac tha tac vu, giao ly, phung vu va tha tac muc vu xa hoi ca nong thon lan thanh th.

106. Nhng neo ng mi cho tha tac muc vu Amazon oi hoi "phai tai phat ong ... mot cach trung thanh va tao bao" s menh cua Giao Hoi (DAp. 11) tai lanh tho va lam sau sac them "dien trnh hoi nhap van hoa" (EG 126) va tnh lien van hoa (x. LS 63, 143, 146). ieu nay oi hoi nhng e xuat "manh bao" cua Giao hoi tai Amazon; ngc lai, Giao Hoi nay gia thiet phai co can am va am me, nh c Giao Hoang Phanxico yeu cau chung ta. Truyen giang Tin Mng tai Amazon la mot tap hp cac th nghiem cho Giao hoi va cho xa hoi [46].

Chng I: Mot Giao Hoi vi khuon mat Amazon va truyen giao

"Hay e khuon mat Ngai toa sang tren toi t Ngai" (Tv 31 [30]: 17)

Mot khuon mat bieu cam phong phu

107. Bo mat Amazon cua Giao hoi c bieu lo ro qua s a dang cua cac dan toc, nen van hoa va he sinh thai cua no. S a dang nay oi hoi Giao hoi phai quyet nh tr thanh mot Giao hoi i ra ngoai va truyen giao, c nhap the vao moi hoat ong, cach dien at va ngon ng cua no. Cac Giam muc Santo Domingo e ngh vi chung ta muc tieu cua mot viec truyen giang Tin Mng hoi nhap van hoa "se luon la s cu roi va giai thoat toan dien mot dan toc hoac mot nhom ngi ac thu; no cung se cung co ban sac va niem tin cua ho vao tng lai chuyen biet, chong lai quyen lc s chet" (DSD, Ket luan 243). Va c Giao Hoang Phanxico a phat bieu ro rang nhu cau phai co mot Giao hoi hoi nhap van hoa va lien van hoa nay: "chung ta can cac dan toc ban a len khuon nen van hoa cua cac Giao hoi a phng Amazon" (Fr.PM).

108. S hoa nhap va tnh lien van hoa khong oi nghch lan nhau; chung bo tuc cho nhau. Nh Chua Giesu nhap the vao mot nen van hoa ac thu (hoi nhap van hoa) the nao, cac mon e truyen giao cua Ngi cung dan bc theo chan Ngi nh vay. V ly do nay, cac Kito hu t mot nen van hoa nay i ra ngoai e gap g nhng ngi t cac nen van hoa khac (tnh lien van hoa). ieu nay xay ra t buoi au cua Giao hoi khi cac Tong o ngi Do Thai mang Tin mng en cac nen van hoa khac nhau, chang han nh van hoa Hy Lap, phat hien o "nhieu hat giong cua Li Chua" [47]. Nhng neo ng mi cua Chua Thanh Than xuat hien t cuoc gap g va oi thoai ay gia cac nen van hoa. Ngay nay, trong cuoc gap g va oi thoai vi cac nen van hoa Amazon, Giao hoi tiep tuc tm kiem nhng neo ng mi.

109. Theo Tai lieu Aparecida, viec u tien chon ngi ngheo la tieu chuan giai thch e phan tch cac e ngh xay dng xa hoi (501, 537, 474, 475) va tieu chuan e Giao hoi t hieu chnh mnh. ay cung la mot trong nhng ac iem theo qui luat t nhien rat ac trng cho Giao hoi Chau My Latinh va vung Caribbean (391, 524, 533) va moi c cau cua no, t giao x en cac trung tam giao duc va xa hoi (176, 179, 199, 334 , 337, 338, 446, 550). Khuon mat Amazon la khuon mat cua mot Giao hoi vi viec ro rang la chon ngi ngheo (va vi ngi ngheo) [48] va s cham soc sang the. T ngi ngheo, va t thai o cham soc cua cai Thien CHua ban, nhng neo ng mi c m ra cho Giao hoi a phng va t o hng ti Giao hoi hoan vu.

Mot khuon mat a phng vi chieu kch hoan vu

110. Mot Giao Hoi vi khuon mat Amazon co gang tr thanh mot Giao Hoi "i ra ngoai" (EG 20-23), bac bo truyen thong ch co mot nen van hoa, giao s tr va thc dan t ap at len chnh mnh, va biet cach bien phan va khong s hai ung ho cac bieu thc van hoa a dang cua cac dan toc. Khuon mat nay canh cao rang qua that la nguy hiem "khi chung ta phai thot ra mot thong iep thong nhat va a ra mot giai phap co gia tr pho quat" (x. OA 4; EG 184). Chac chan thc tai xa hoi van hoa phc tap, a nguyen, mau thuan va m uc ngan can viec ap dung "mot bo hoc thuyet oc khoi c bao ve bi moi ngi va khong cha cho nao cho cac sac thai" (EG 40). Do o, tnh pho quat hay Cong Giao cua Giao hoi c lam phong phu "bi ve ep tren khuon mat a dang cua Giao hoi" (NMI 40) tren o cac bieu hien khac nhau cua cac giao hoi ac thu va cac nen van hoa cua ho tao nen mot Giao hoi a dien (xem EG 236).

Mot khuon mat thach thc oi au vi cac bat cong

111. Len khuon mot Giao hoi vi khuon mat Amazon bao gom mot chieu kch giao hoi, xa hoi, sinh thai va muc vu, thng xung ot nhau. Thc the, to chc chnh tr va phap ly khong phai luc nao cung lu y en bo mat van hoa cua nen cong ly rieng cua cac dan toc va nh che cua ho. Giao hoi khong xa la g vi s cang thang nay. oi khi no co xu hng ap at mot nen van hoa xa la oi vi Amazon khien chung ta khong the hieu c cac dan toc cua no va anh gia c the gii quan cua ho.

112. Thc tai cua cac giao hoi a phng oi mot Giao hoi biet tham gia t lam cho mnh hien dien trong i song xa hoi, chnh tr, kinh te, van hoa va sinh thai cua c dan; mot Giao hoi biet chao on hieu khach oi vi s a dang van hoa, xa hoi va sinh thai e co the phuc vu cac ca nhan hoac cac nhom ma khong ky th; mot Giao hoi co oc sang tao biet ong hanh cung ngi dan cua mnh trong viec a ra cac ap ng cho nhng nhu cau mi me; va mot Giao hoi hoa hp biet phat huy cac gia tr hoa bnh, thng xot va hiep thong.

Mot khuon mat hoi nhap van hoa va truyen giao

113. S a dang ve van hoa oi hoi mot s nhap the manh me hn e on nhan nhng cach song va cac nen van hoa khac nhau. "Nguyen tac nhap the c Thanh Irene phat bieu van con hieu lc trong trat t muc vu: 'ieu g khong c tiep nhan th khong c cu chuoc'"[49]. Nhng thuc ay va cam hng quan trong cho viec hoi nhap van hoa hang mong muon nay c tm thay trong huan quyen Giao hoi va trong tien trnh cua cac Hoi ong Giam muc cua Giao Hoi Chau My Latinh (Medelln, 1968, Puebla, 1979, Santo Domingo, 1992, Aparecida, 2007), cua cac cong ong, cac v thanh va cac v t ao cua no [50]. Mot thc tai quan trong cua dien trnh nay la s xuat hien cua nen than hoc My Latinh, nhat la nen than hoc Tho dan.

114. Xay dng mot Giao hoi truyen giao vi khuon mat a phng co ngha la tien bo trong viec xay dng mot Giao hoi hoi nhap van hoa, biet cach lam viec va an khp (nh cac dong song trong lu vc song Amazon) vi nhng g co san ve mat van hoa, trong moi lnh vc ni no hien dien va hoat ong. "Lam Giao Hoi co ngha lam dan Thien Chua" (EG 114), c nhap the "vao cac dan toc tren trai at" va vao nen van hoa cua ho (EG 115).

Chng II: Nhng thach thc cua viec hoi nhap van hoa va tnh lien van hoa [51]

"Trong s a dang cua cac dan toc ang trai nghiem n phuc cua Thien Chua, moi dan toc theo van hoa rieng cua mnh, Giao hoi phat bieu tnh Cong Giao chan chnh cua mnh va cho thay 've ep khuon mat a dang cua mnh'" (EG 116).

Tren neo ng dan en mot Giao Hoi vi khuon mat Amazon va ban a

115. S menh cua Giao hoi la loan bao Tin Mng cua Chua Giesu thanh Nadaret, Ngi Samaria nhan hau (Lc 10: 25-36), ang co long cam thng oi vi nhan loai b thng va b bo ri. Giao hoi cong bo mau nhiem s chet va s phuc sinh cua Ngi cho moi nen van hoa va moi dan toc, ra toi cho ho nhan danh Cha va Con va Thanh Than (Mt 28:19). Theo gng cua Thanh Phaolo, ngi a muon tr thanh ngi Hy Lap vi ngi Hy Lap, co gang t thch nghi: "e gianh chien thang cang nhieu cang tot ... Toi a tr thanh moi moi th cho moi ngi (xem 1 Cr 9: 19- 22), Giao hoi a lam mot co gang ln e truyen giang Tin Mng cho moi dan toc trong suot lch s. Giao Hoi a co gang thi hanh menh lenh truyen giao nay bang cach nhap than va phien dch s iep Tin Mng trong cac nen van hoa khac nhau, gia nhng kho khan u loai - chnh tr, van hoa, a ly. Nhng van con nhieu viec phai lam.

116. Giao hoi a co gang trong nhieu the ky e chia se Tin Mng vi cac dan toc Amazon, nhieu dan toc trong so nay a tham gia cong ong Giao Hoi. Cac ngi an ong va an ba truyen giao co mot lch s lien he sau xa vi khu vc nay. Ho a e lai dau vet sau tham trong tam hon cua ngi Cong Giao Amazon. Giao hoi a i mot chang ng dai, nhng viec ao sau va cap nhat van can thiet e tr thanh mot Giao hoi v khuon mat ban a va Amazon.

117. Tuy nhien, nh a c tiet lo trong cac cuoc tham khao khu vc cua chung ta, van con mot vet thng toang hoac do cac lam dung trong qua kh. Thc the, vao nam 1912, c Giao Hoang Pio X a nhn nhan ra s tan ac ma ngi dan ban a b oi x trong Thong iep Lacrimabili Statu Indorum (tnh the ay nc mat cua ngi tho dan). Cac giam muc Chau My Latinh Puebla a chap nhan s hien hu cua "mot dien trnh thong tr khong lo", ay "cac mau thuan va nc mat" (DP 6). Aparecida, cac giam muc keu goi "phi thc dan hoa cac tam tr" (DAp 96). Trong cuoc gap g vi cac dan toc Amazon Puerto Maldonado, c Giao Hoang Phanxico a nhac lai nhng li cua Thanh Toribio de Mogrovejo: "khong nhng trong thi qua kh, cac sai lam ln va cac hanh ong cng che a c thc hien oi vi nhng ngi khon kho nay, ma trong chnh thi ai cua chung ta, nhieu ngi tm cach lam ieu y het" [52]. Xet v nao trang thuoc a va cha chu van con ton tai, mot dien trnh hoan cai va hoa giai sau sac hn la ieu can thiet [53].

Cac gi y

118. Cac cong ong c hoi y kien mong muon Giao hoi cam ket cham soc ngoi nha chung cua chung ta va c dan cua no, "[...] bao ve cac lanh tho, giup cac dan toc ban a to cao nhng g gay ra chet choc va e doa cac lanh tho" [54]. Mot Giao hoi tien tri khong the ngng bien ho cho nhng ngi b vt bo va cho nhng ngi au kho (xem Fr.PM).

119. Lang nghe tieng noi cua Chua Thanh Than trong tieng khoc than cua cac dan toc Amazon va trong huan quyen cua c Giao Hoang Phanxico oi hoi mot dien trnh hoan cai muc vu va truyen giao (x. EG 25). e at c muc ch nay, co nhng gi y sau ay:

a) Tranh ong nhat hoa van hoa e nhn nhan va phat huy gia tr cua cac nen van hoa Amazon.

b) Bac bo lien minh vi nen van hoa thong tr va vi quyen lc chnh tr va kinh te e co vu cac nen van hoa va quyen li cua ngi ban a, cua ngi ngheo va cua lanh tho.

c) Vt qua moi hnh thc giao s tr; song tnh huynh e va phuc vu nh cac gia tr Tin Mng von lam sinh ong moi lien he gia tham quyen va cac thanh vien cua cong ong.

d) Loai bo cac chu trng cng ngac khong lu y en cuoc song cu the cua con ngi va thc tai muc vu, e thay vao o thoa man cac nhu cau thc s cua cac dan toc va van hoa ban a.

Truyen giang Tin Mng trong cac nen van hoa [55]

120. Thanh Than Tao Dng, ang lap ay vu tru (Kn 7: 1), la ang a nuoi dng nen linh ao cua cac dan toc nay trong nhieu the ky, trc ca luc cong bo Tin Mng, va a thuc ay ho chap nhan no t ben trong cac nen van hoa va truyen thong cua ho. Viec cong bo nay phai lu y en cac "hat giong Li Chua" [56] hien dien trong chung. No cung nhn nhan rang hat giong a moc len va sinh hoa trai nhieu nen van hoa va truyen thong nay. No gia nh viec lang nghe ay ton trong, khong ap at cac cong thc c tin a c phat bieu vi cac tham chieu (referents) van hoa khac, nhng cong thc khong ap ng vi thc tai song cua ho. Trai lai, hay lang nghe "tieng Chua Kito noi qua toan the dan Chua" (EC 5).

121. ieu can thiet la phai nam bat nhng g Thanh Than cua Chua a day cho cac dan toc nay trong suot nhieu the ky: c tin vao Thien Chua Cha-Me Tao Dng; hiep thong va hoa hp vi trai at; lien i vi cac ban ong hanh cua mnh; phan au e 'song tot'; tui khon cua cac nen van minh a ton tai hang ngan nam ma ngi cao nien von s hu va anh hng en sc khoe, cuoc song chung, giao duc, canh tac at ai, moi lien he song ong vi thien nhien va "Me at", cac kha nang e khang va phuc hoi n gii noi rieng, cac nghi thc va bieu thc ton giao, cac moi lien he vi to tien, thai o chiem niem, cam thc cho khong, c hanh va le hoi, va y ngha thanh thieng cua lanh tho.

122. Viec hoi nhap van hoa cua c tin khong phai la mot dien trnh t tren xuong di hay mot ap at t ben ngoai, ma la viec lam phong phu lan nhau cua cac nen van hoa trong oi thoai (lien van hoa) [57]. Cac chu the tch cc cua viec hoi nhap van hoa chnh la cac dan toc ban a. Nh c Giao Hoang Phanxico a khang nh, "n thanh gia thiet van hoa" (EG 115).

Cac gi y

123. ieu thch ang la:

a) Bat au t nen linh ao c song bi nhng cac dan toc ban a khi tiep xuc vi thien nhien va van hoa cua ho, e chung c soi sang bi tnh mi me cua Chua Kito a chet va song lai va at c s nen tron ni Ngi.

b) Nhn nhan nen linh ao ban a nh nguon phong phu cho kinh nghiem Kito giao.

c) Xet v tnh t s la mot ac iem cua cac dan toc nguyen thuy va la cac phng tien e ho truyen at tui khon lau i cua ho, nen hay thc hien mot th giao ly mang ngon ng va y ngha cua cac cau chuyen trong cac nen van hoa ban a va hau due Chau Phi hoa hp vi cac trnh thuat Kinh Thanh.

d) Theo cung mot ng hng tren, cach giang cac bai giang phai ap ng cac kinh nghiem song va vi thc tai xa hoi moi trng cua ngi ta (EG 135-144) trong mot van phong ke chuyen thch hp. Hy vong rang ieu nay se khi day s quan tam va tham gia cua cac tn hu va an khp vi the gii quan ban a toan dien, kch thch mot s hoan cai muc vu ung ho he sinh thai toan dien.

e) Trc s xam chiem thc dan cua cac phng tien truyen thong ai chung, cac cong ong a kien quyet yeu cau cac loi truyen thong thay the, at c s tren cac ngon ng va nen van hoa cua chnh ho. e at muc ch nay, chnh cac chu the ban a nen co mat tren cac phng tien truyen thong ng thi [58].

f) Cung se thuan li khi tao ra cac ai phat thanh mi cua Giao hoi nham co vu Tin Mng va cac nen van hoa, truyen thong va ngon ng nguyen thuy [59].

Chng III: C hanh c tin, mot phung vu hoi nhap van hoa

"Viec truyen giang Tin Mng trong niem vui tr thanh ve ep trong phung vu, nh mot phan trong quan tam hang ngay cua chung ta muon truyen ba s tot lanh" (Evangelii Gaudium, 24).

124. Hien che Sacrosanctum Concilium (37-40, 65, 77, 81) e ngh rang phung vu nen c hoi nhap van hoa ni cac dan toc ban a. Tnh a dang van hoa chac chan khong e doa tnh hp nhat cua Giao Hoi; ung hn, Giao Hoi phat bieu tnh Cong Giao chan thc cua mnh bang cach trng bay "ve ep tren khuon mat a dang cua mnh" (Evangelii Gaudium 116). o la ly do tai sao "chung ta phai bao dan u e kham pha ra cac dau ch mi va cac bieu tng mi, cac xng tht mi e hien than va thong truyen li Chua, va cac hnh thc khac cua ve ep von c tran quy trong cac khung canh van hoa khac..." (Evangelii Gaudium 167). Khong co s hoi nhap van hoa nay, phung vu co the b gian lc thanh "mon o vien bao tang" hay "tai san cua mot t ngi u tuyen" (Evangelii Gaudium 95).

125. Viec c hanh c tin phai c tien hanh mot cach hoi nhap van hoa e no tr thanh mot bieu thc cho kinh nghiem ton giao cua rieng ngi ta va tr thanh si day hiep thong trong cong oan c hanh. Mot nen phung vu hoi nhap van hoa cung se la mot bang tham do oi vi cac tranh au va hoai vong cua cac cong ong va la mot lc ay co tnh bien oi hng ti mot "lanh tho khong co s ac".

Cac Gi Y

126. Nen lu y cac ieu sau ay:

a) Mot dien trnh bien phan la ieu can thiet lien quan en cac nghi le, bieu tng, va phong thai c hanh cac nen van hoa ban a khi tiep xuc vi thien nhien, nhng ieu can c tch nhap vao cac nghi thc phung vu va b tch. ieu can la chu y e nam bat y ngha ch thc cua cac bieu tng, mot y ngha vt len tren tham my va van hoa dan gian, ac biet trong b tch khai tam Kito Giao va Hon Phoi. Co gi y cho rang cac c hanh nen co tnh le hoi, vi am nhac va ieu mua cua rieng ho, s dung ngon ng va trang phuc ban a, trong hiep thong vi thien nhien va cong ong. Mot phung vu biet ap ng nan van hoa rieng cua ho e tr thanh nguon coi va nh cao i song Kito hu cua ho (xem Sacrosanctum Concilium 10) va lien ket vi cac tranh au, au kho va niem vui cua ho.

b) Cac b tch nen la nguon song va thuoc cha ai cung vi ti c (xem Evangelii Gaudium 47), nhat la ngi ngheo (xem Evangelii Gaudium 200). Chung ta c yeu cau vt qua cac cng ngac ve ky luat von co tnh loai tr va tha hoa, va thc hanh mot nhay cam muc vu biet ong hanh va tch nhap (Amoris Laetitia 297, 312).

c) Cac cong ong thay kho co the c hanh b tch Thanh The v thieu linh muc. "Giao Hoi rut ta s song cua mnh t Thanh The" va Thanh The xay dng Giao Hoi (60). Do o, thay v e cac cong ong khong co Thanh The, can phai co s thay oi trong cac tieu chuan la chon va chuan b cac tha tac vien c phep c hanh b tch Thanh The.

d) Phu hp vi viec "tan quyen lanh manh" trong Giao Hoi (Evangelii Gaudium 16), cac cong ong yeu cau cac Hoi ong Giam Muc thch ng cac nghi thc cua b tch Thanh The theo nen van hoa cua ho.

e) Cac cong ong yeu cau anh gia cao hn, ong hanh va co vu long ao c ma ngi ngheo va nhng ngi n s von dung e phat bieu c tin cua ho qua hnh anh, bieu tng, truyen thong, nghi le va cac a b tch khac. Tat ca cac ieu nay dien ra nh cac hiep hoi cua cong ong biet to chc cac bien co nh cau nguyen, hanh hng, tham vieng cac en thanh, va rc kieu cung nh cac le hoi mng thanh quan thay. ay la bang chng cua tui khon va nen linh ao tng tao nen mot nguon c lieu than hoc (theological locus) thc s co tiem nang truyen giang Tin Mng (xem Evangelii Gaudium 122-126).

Chng IV: To chc cac cong ong

"Viec ung la phai tha nhan s hien hu cua cac sang kien ay ha hen phat xuat t cac cong ong va to chc cua rieng anh ch em" (Fr.PM).

The gii quan cua ngi ban a

127. Giao hoi phai c nhap the vao cac nen van hoa Amazon von co cam thc cong ong, bnh ang va lien i ro ret - va o la ly do tai sao chu ngha giao s tr khong c chap nhan di moi chieu bai cua no. Cac dan toc ban a co mot truyen thong to chc xa hoi phong phu, ni tham quyen co tnh luan phien va co cam thc phuc vu sau sac. V kinh nghiem to chc nay, ieu thch hp la xem xet lai y niem cho rang viec thc thi quyen tai phan (quyen cai tr) phai c lien ket trong moi lnh vc (b tch, t phap, hanh chnh) va theo cach vnh vien vi B tch Truyen Chc Thanh.

Cac khoang cach a d va muc vu

128. Ngoai tnh a nguyen van hoa tai Amazon, cac khoang cach cung tao ra mot thach thc muc vu nghiem trong khong the giai quyet bang cac phng the may moc va ky thuat ma thoi. Cac khoang cach a d lam xuat hien ca cac khoang cach van hoa va muc vu na; thanh th "tha tac muc vu tham vieng" can nhng bc cho "tha tac muc vu hien dien". ieu nay oi giao hoi a phng tai cau hnh moi chieu kch cua no: cac tha tac vu, cac b tch, than hoc va cac dch vu xa hoi.

Cac Gi Y

129. Cac gi y sau ay t cac cong ong gi nh cac kha canh cua Giao Hoi s khai khi ap ng cac nhu cau cua mnh bang cach tao ra cac tha tac vu thch ang (Cv 6:1-7; 1 Tm 3:1-13):

a) Cac tha tac vu mi e ap ng hu hieu hn cac nhu cau cua cac dan toc vung Amazon:

1. Co vu cac n goi ni cac an ong va an ba ban a e ap ng nhu cau cham soc muc vu va b tch. Viec ong gop chu yeu cua ho nam trong phong trao hng ti mot viec truyen giang Tin Mng chan chnh theo quan iem ban a phu hp vi cac thoi quen va phong tuc cua ho. ay se la viec ngi ban a truyen giang cho ngi ban a theo mot nhan thc sau sac nen van hoa va ngon ng cua ho, co kha nang thong at s iep Tin Mng bang sc manh va s hu hieu cua nhng ngi co chung mot boi canh van hoa vi ho. ieu can la chuyen dch t mot "Giao Hoi tham vieng" sang mot "Giao Hoi hien dien", mot Giao Hoi biet ong hanh va hien dien qua cac tha tac vien xuat phat t chnh cac cong ong cua ho.

2. Trong khi qua quyet rang song oc than la mot hong phuc oi vi Giao Hoi, co yeu cau cho rang, oi vi cac khu vc xa xoi heo lanh nhat trong vung, nen nghien cu kha the truyen chc linh muc cho cac ngi cao nien, u tien la ngi ban a, c cong ong cua ho knh trong va chap nhan, du ho ang co mot gia nh vng on, e bao am co san cac b tch e ong hanh va nang i song Kito hu.

3. Nhan dien loai tha tac vu chnh thc co the trao cho phu n, lu y en vai tro trung tam ma ngay nay ho ang ong trong Giao hoi Amazon.

b) Vai tro cua giao dan:

1. Cac cong ong ban a co tnh tham gia vi mot cam thc ong trach nhiem cao. Vi suy ngh nay, co yeu cau at gia tr ung an vao vai tro chu ong cua nhng ngi an ong va an ba Kito hu va nhn nhan v tr cua ho nh cac chu the trong Giao hoi biet vn tay ra.

2. Cung cap cac giai phap ao tao toan dien e am nhan vai tro cua ho nh nhng ngi co vu ang tin cay va ong trach nhiem cua cac cong ong.

3. Tao ra cac hanh trnh ao tao di anh sang cua Hoc thuyet xa hoi cua Giao hoi vi tap chu Amazon cho cac ngi nam n lam viec trong cac lanh tho cua Amazon, ac biet la trong cac lnh vc cong dan va chnh tr.

4. M cac kenh mi cua cac dien trnh ong ngh, vi s tham gia cua moi tn hu, nham hng ti viec to chc cong ong Kito giao e thong truyen c tin.

c) Vai tro cua phu n:

1. Trong lnh vc giao hoi, s hien dien cua phu n trong cac cong ong khong phai luc nao cung c coi trong. Viec cong nhan phu n c tm kiem v cac ac sung va tai nang cua ho. Ho yeu cau lay lai v tr ma Chua Giesu a ban cho phu n, "trong o tat ca chung ta, an ong va an ba, tat ca chung ta eu thch ang" [61].

2. Cung co e ngh cho rang phu n c bao am co c hoi lanh ao, cung nh pham vi ngay cang rong va thch hp trong lnh vc ao tao: than hoc, giao ly, phung vu va cac trng phai c tin va chnh tr.

3. Cung co li yeu cau phai lang nghe tieng noi cua phu n, ho c tham khao va tham gia vao viec ra quyet nh, va do o co the ong gop vi s nhay cam cua ho vao tnh ong ngh trong Giao hoi.

4. Mong sao Giao hoi on nhan ngay cang nhieu phong cach n trong hanh ong va hieu cac bien co.

d) Vai tro cua i song thanh hien:

1. "Cac dan toc Chau My Latinh va vung Caribe rat mong i ni i song thanh hien [...mot i song cho thay] khuon mat mau than cua Giao Hoi. Long khao khat lang nghe, chao on va phuc vu cua ho, va chng ta cua ho oi vi cac gia tr thay the cua Nc Chua, cho ta thay rang mot xa hoi Chau My Latinh va vung Caribe mi, c at nen tang tren Chua Kito, la ieu kha hu" (DAp. 224). Do o, co e ngh phai co vu mot i song thanh hien thay the va co tnh tien tri, lien hoi dong va lien nh che, chuyen e hien dien nhng ni khong ai muon hien dien va vi nhng ngi khong ai muon tr thanh.

2. Ho tr nhng ngi an ong va an ba thanh hien trong viec ho i ti va hien dien vi nhng ngi ngheo kho va b loai tr nhat, va vao viec van ong chnh tr, e bien oi thc tai.

3. Khuyen khch cac tu s nam n en t nc ngoai san long chia se cuoc song a phng vi het trai tim, au oc va tay chan cua ho e hoc bo cac mo hnh, cong thc, ke sach va c cau a thiet lap trc; va e hoc hoi cac ngon ng, van hoa, truyen thong khon ngoan, vu tru hoc va than thoai hoc cua cac dan toc ban a.

4. V cac cap bach muc vu va cn cam do muon lam viec ngay tc khac, nen co khuyen cao phai danh thi gian e hoc ngon ng va van hoa nham tao ra cac day noi ket va phat trien mot tha tac muc vu toan dien.

5. Co khuyen cao nen bao gom vao viec ao tao i song tu tr cac dien trnh ao tao tap chu vao tnh lien van hoa, hoi nhap van hoa va oi thoai gia cac nen linh ao va the gii quan cua Amazon.

6. Co gi y phai danh u tien cho cac nhu cau cua ngi dan a phng hn la cac hoi dong.

e) Vai tro cua ngi tre:

1. Co mot nhu cau cap thiet la oi thoai vi nhng ngi tre e lang nghe cac nhu cau cua ho.

2. Can phai ong hanh vi cac dien trnh trong gia nh e truyen tai va tiep nhan di san van hoa va ngon ng [62] e vt qua cac kho khan trong thong at lien the he.

3. Nhng ngi tre tuoi thay mnh gia hai the gii, gia nao trang ban a va s loi cuon cua nao trang hien ai, ac biet khi ho di c en cac thanh pho. Mot mat, can co cac chng trnh e cung co ban sac van hoa cua ho trc s mat mat cac gia tr, ngon ng va moi lien he vi thien nhien; mat khac, cac chng trnh giup ho bc vao cuoc oi thoai vi van hoa o th hien ai.

4. Viec giai quyet van e di c cua ngi tre en cac thanh pho la ieu rat cap bach [63].

5. Can nhan manh hn vao viec bao ve va phuc hoi cac nan nhan cua cac mang li buon ban ma tuy va buon ngi, cung nh nghien ma tuy va ru.

f) Cac giao phan khu vc bien gii:

1. Bien gii la mot nhan to can ban trong cuoc song cua cac dan toc Amazon. ay la v tr rat tot cho cac xung ot va bao lc tr nen toi te hn; va la ni luat phap khong c ton trong va tham nhung lam suy yeu viec kiem soat cua Nha nc, khien nhieu cong ty t do khai thac ba bai. V tat ca nhng ly do nay, can phai lam viec e bien Amazon thanh ngoi nha cho moi ngi va ang c s cham soc cua moi ngi. Cac Giao hoi bien gii nen tham gia vi nhau vao hanh ong muc vu e oi pho vi cac van e chung nh khai thac lanh tho, pham phap, buon ban ma tuy, buon ban ngi, mai dam, v.v.

2. Cac mang li muc vu tai cac khu vc bien gii nen c khuyen khch va cung co nh mot neo ng dan en hanh ong muc vu xa hoi va sinh thai hu hieu hn, tiep tuc dch vu cua Mang Li Giao Hoi Toan Amazon (REPAM).

3. V cac ac iem chuyen biet cua lanh tho Amazon, nen phai xem xet c cau giam muc cua Amazon e thc thi Thng Hoi ong.

4. Co li yeu cau phai tao ra mot quy kinh te e ho tr viec truyen giang Tin Mng, co vu nhan ban va sinh thai toan ven, nhat la viec thi hanh cac e ngh cua Thng Hoi ong.

Chng V: Truyen giang Tin Mng trong cac thanh pho [64]

"Mot nen van hoa hoan toan mi a i vao cuoc song va tiep tuc ln manh cac thanh pho" (EG 73).

S menh o th

130. Thanh Gioan Phaolo II tng canh bao chung ta: "Ngay nay hnh anh cua s menh ad gentes (i ti cac dan toc, truyen giao) co le ang thay oi: nen tap trung cac co gang vao cac thanh pho ln, ni cac phong tuc va phong cach song mi cung phat sinh vi cac hnh thc van hoa va truyen thong mi, la cac hnh thc sau o anh hng en dan so rong ln hn" (RM, 37b). Giao hoi can phai oi thoai thng trc vi thc tai o th, mot thc tai oi hoi nhng phan ng khac nhau va sang tao. oi vi ieu nay, ieu can thiet la cac linh muc, nam va n tu s, va giao dan cua cac tha tac vu, phong trao, cong ong va cac nhom khac nhau trong cung mot thanh pho hoac giao phan, nen ngay cang hp nhat trong viec thc hien cac hoat ong truyen giao chung, thong minh va co kha nang tham gia cac lc lng. S menh o th se ch tien trien chng nao con co s hiep thong ln lao gia nhng ngi lam vn nho cua Chua, v, oi dien vi s phc tap cua thanh pho, hanh ong muc vu ca nhan va biet lap se mat hieu qua.

Cac thach thc o th

131. Thanh pho, du co nhng thach thc cua no, co the chng kien mot vu bng n cuoc song. Cac thanh pho la mot phan cua lanh tho, v vay chung phai cham soc rng va ton trong ngi dan ban a. Tuy nhien, nhieu c dan cua cac thanh pho Amazon, coi ngi ban a nh mot tr ngai cho s tien bo cua ho va song quay lng oi vi rng.

132. Cac ca nhan ban a trong thanh pho la nhng ngi di c, nhng con ngi khong co at ai, nhng ke song sot tran chien lch s e phan nh at ai cua ho, vi ban sac van hoa cua ho ri vao khung hoang. cac trung tam o th, cac c quan chnh phu thng ne tranh trach nhiem cua mnh trong viec bao am quyen li cua ho, bac bo can tnh cua ho va buoc ho phai vo hnh. Ve phan ho, mot so giao x, van cha nhan trach nhiem hoan toan trong the gii a van hoa von ang ch mot tha tac muc vu muc vu chuyen biet, truyen giao va co tnh tien tri.

133. Mot hien tng quan trong can c lu y la s tang trng nhanh chong cua cac nha th Phuc Am mi c thanh lap gan ay co nguon goc Ngu Tuan, ac biet cac vung ngoai vi [65].

134. Tat ca nhng ieu o khien chung ta phai t hoi: c cau giao x nao co the ap ng tot nhat vi the gii o th, ni viec an danh, anh hng cua truyen thong va s bat bnh ang xa hoi ro ret ang ng tr mot cach toi cao? Cac nh che Cong Giao co the co vu nen giao duc nao cac bnh dien chnh thc va khong chnh thc?

Cac gi y

135. Nhng ieu co the thch ang la:

a. Co vu mot tha tac muc vu chuyen biet cho nhng ngi ban a song cac thanh pho, vi viec ho tham gia nh cac nhan vat chu ong.

b. Co vu s hoa nhap ngi dan ban a vao cac hoat ong muc vu khac nhau cua giao x vi s theo doi va ao tao, biet anh gia s ong gop cua ho ngay cang nhieu hn.

c. Phat trien mot chien lc chung cho cong viec muc vu tai cac thanh pho [66].

d. Suy ngh lai ve c cau Giao Hoi, khac phuc cac hnh thc van hoa loi thi a thu lm c trong nhieu the ky qua [67].

e. Co vu cac c hoi cho mot s ao tao toan dien [68].

f. Nang cao y thc ve tam quan trong song con cua v tr thanh pho trong lanh tho va anh gia cao khu rng va c dan cua no. Co vu cac thay oi can thiet trong c cau kinh te va xa hoi e s phat trien cua cac thanh pho khong la mot moi e doa.

g. Nhay cam hoa cong ong ve cac cuoc au tranh xa hoi, ho tr cac phong trao xa hoi khac nhau e co vu nen cong dan sinh thai va bao ve cac nhan quyen [69].

h. Co vu mot Giao hoi truyen giao va truyen giang Tin Mng, tham vieng va lang nghe thc tai hien nay trong cac khu pho mi.

i. Cap nhat giai phap danh cho nhng ngi tre [70], len khuon mot tha tac muc vu trong o chnh ho la cac nhan vat chu chot [71].

j. Co mat tren cac phng tien truyen thong va chnh truyen thong e truyen giang Tin Mng va co vu cac nen van hoa nguyen thuy [72].

Chng VI: oi thoai ai ket va lien ton

"Bay gi chung ta se co gang phac thao nhng neo ng chnh cua cuoc oi thoai co the giup chung ta thoat khoi vong xoay t huy diet hien ang nhan chm chung ta" (LS 163)

136. Cuoc oi thoai ai ket dien ra gia nhng ngi co chung niem tin vao Chua Giesu Kito nh Con Thien Chua va ang Cu The, va da vao Kinh thanh, tm cach lam chng chung. Cuoc oi thoai lien ton dien ra gia nhng tn o chia se cuoc song, cuoc au tranh, cac moi quan tam va kinh nghiem cua ho ve Thien Chua, lam cho s khac biet cua ho tr thanh mot s kch thch e phat trien va ao sau c tin cua chnh ho.

137. Mot so nhom truyen ba mot nen than hoc thnh vng va hanh phuc da tren cach ho oc Kinh thanh. Cung co nhng xu hng nh menh thuyet tm cach lam boi roi ngi nghe; sau o, tra li cho cai nhn tieu cc ve the gii, ho a ra mot cau noi dan en s mot s cu roi nao o. Nhng xu hng nay co tac ong tieu cc en cac nhom tai Amazon, mot so bang s hai va so khac bang cach tm kiem thanh cong.

138. Tuy nhien, gia rng nhiet i Amazon cung vi nhng ngi ngheo nhat, cac nhom khac co mat, truyen giang Tin Mng va giao duc; ho duy tr c mot sc hap dan ln oi vi ngi dan mac du khong anh gia tch cc nen van hoa cua ho. S hien dien cua ho a cho phep ho pho bien va day Kinh Thanh c dch sang cac ngon ng nguyen thuy. Phan ln cac phong trao nay a lan rong do s vang mat cua cac tha tac vien Cong Giao. Cac muc s cua ho a tao ra cac cong ong nho vi khuon mat ngi, ni ngi ta ch than cam thay mnh co gia tr. Mot yeu to tch cc khac la s hien dien a phng, gan gui va cu the cua cac muc s en tham vieng, ong hanh, an ui, biet va cau nguyen cho cac nhu cau chuyen biet cua cac gia nh. Ho la nhng ngi giong nh nhng ngi khac, de gap g, song cung nhng van e va tr nen "gan gui hn" va t "khac biet" hn vi cac thanh vien khac trong cong ong. Ho ang ch cho chung ta mot cach khac e lam Giao Hoi ni ngi ta cam thay ho la nhng nhan vat chu ong va la ni tn hu co the t do t phat bieu ma khong b kiem duyet hay giao ieu hay ky luat nghi le.

Cac gi y

139. Nhng ieu co the thch ang la:

a. Tm kiem c s chung qua cac cuoc gap g nh ky vi ai dien cua cac ton giao khac e cung lam viec vi nhau cham soc ngoi nha chung cua chung ta va cung nhau au tranh v li ch chung trc s xam lan t ben ngoai.

b. Hay xem xet nhng kha canh nao cua viec lam Giao Hoi ma cac ton giao khac co the day chung ta va nhng kha canh nao can c ket hp vao nhng neo ng mi cho Giao hoi Amazon.

c. Khuyen khch dch Kinh thanh sang cac ngon ng nguyen thuy cua Amazon.

d. Co vu cac cuoc gap g vi cac nha than hoc Kito giao Phuc Am.

Chng VII: S menh cua Cac Phng Tien Truyen thong va cua chnh Truyen Thong

"Giao hoi se danh tam quan trong ln hn cho cac phng tien truyen thong xa hoi va se s dung chung e truyen giang Tin Mng" (DP 158)

Cac phng tien truyen thong, cac y thc he va cac nen van hoa

140. Mot trong nhng thach thc ln oi vi Giao hoi la suy ngh ve viec lam cach nao t nh v mnh trong the gii lien noi ket nay. Cac phng tien truyen thong xa hoi ai chung truyen tai cac mau mc tac phong, loi song, cac gia tr va nao trang nham truyen ba mot nen van hoa co xu hng t ap at va tieu chuan hoa the gii noi ket qua lai cua chung ta. Van e la s quyen ru ve y thc he bi nao trang duy tieu thu, chu yeu anh hng en gii tre. Trong nhieu trng hp, ngi tre b dan en cho khong con quy chuong - va tham ch bac bo - nen van hoa va truyen thong rieng cua chnh ho, chap nhan mot cach khong phe phan mo hnh van hoa ng thnh. ieu nay gay ra viec bng goc va mat ban sac.

Cac phng tien truyen thong cua Giao Hoi

141. Giao hoi co mot c s ha tang cac phng tien truyen thong, ac biet la cac ai phat thanh, von la phng tien truyen thong chnh cua mnh. Cac phng tien truyen thong co the la mot dung cu rat quan trong e truyen tai loi song Tin Mng, cac gia tr va tieu chuan cua no. Chung cung la mot phng tien e cung cap thong tin ve nhng g ang xay ra Amazon, ac biet lien quan en cac hau qua cua mot loi song nham huy hoai - c truyen thong che giau trong tay cac tap oan ln. a co mot so trung tam truyen thong xa hoi c ieu hanh bi chnh ngi dan ban a; ho trai nghiem niem vui khi co the phat bieu li le va tieng noi cua chnh ho khong nhng vi cac cong ong cua chnh ho ma con vi ca the gii ben ngoai na. The gii ban a cho thay cac gia tr khong c the gii hien ai chia se. o la ly do tai sao ieu quan trong la chnh cac ngi ban a c trao quyen s dung cac phng tien truyen thong. Viec ong gop cua ho co the cong hng vi va ho tr cho viec hoan cai sinh thai cua Giao hoi va hanh tinh. ay la ve thc tai Amazon phat sinh t Amazon va co cac hau qua hanh tinh.

Cac gi y (xem DAp. 486)

142. Nhng ieu sau ay c e ngh:

a. Huan luyen toan dien cac nha truyen thong ban a, ac biet la ngi ban a, e tang cng cac trnh thuat chuyen biet oi vi lanh tho.

b. S hien dien cua cac tac nhan muc vu trong cac phng tien truyen thong ai chung.

c. Tao ra, co vu va cung co cac ai phat thanh va cac ai truyen hnh mi vi cac noi dung phu hp vi thc tai Amazon.

d. S hien dien cua Giao hoi tren Internet va cac mang truyen thong khac e nang cao y thc ve thc tai cua Amazon cac phan khac cua the gii.

e. Mot ke hoach muc vu chuyen biet bao gom cac phng tien truyen thong khac nhau trong tay cua Giao hoi va nhng ngi lam viec trong cac phng tien truyen thong khac.

f. Phai co vu trong cac c cau va mang chuyen cua Giao hoi hoan vu viec tao ra va pho bien noi dung ve tnh lien quan cua Amazon, cac dan toc va cac nen van hoa cua no oi vi the gii.

Chng VIII: Vai tro tien tri cua Giao hoi va viec co vu nhan ban toan dien

"T tam iem cua Tin Mng, chung ta thay moi noi ket sau sac gia viec truyen giang Tin Mng va s tien bo cua con ngi, mot ieu nhat thiet phai tm c bieu thc va phat trien trong moi cong viec truyen giang Tin Mng" (EG 178)

Giao hoi vn tay ra

143. Giao hoi co s menh truyen giang Tin Mng, mot ieu cung ngu y cam ket co vu viec thi hanh tron ven cac quyen cua cac dan toc ban a. Thc the, khi nhng dan toc nay hop nhau, ho noi ve linh ao cung nh ve nhng g ang xay ra vi ho va cac van e xa hoi cua ho. Giao hoi khong the t bo moi quan tam cua mnh oi vi s cu roi toan dien con ngi, mot ieu oi phai ung ho nen van hoa cua cac dan toc ban a, noi en cac nhu cau song con cua ho, ong hanh vi cac cuoc di chuyen cua ho va tham gia cac lc lng e au tranh cho quyen li cua ho.

Giao hoi lang nghe

144. Chua Thanh Than noi trong tieng noi cua ngi ngheo; Giao hoi phai lang nghe ho v ho la nguon c lieu t tng than hoc. Khi lang nghe noi au, s im lang tr nen can thiet e co the nghe c tieng noi cua Chua Thanh Than. Giong noi tien tri ngu y mot anh mat chiem niem mi co kha nang thng xot va cam ket. La thanh phan cua ngi dan Amazon, Giao hoi lam mi li tien tri t truyen thong ban a va Kito giao. Nhng no cung co ngha la nhn bang mot lng tam co phe phan mot loat cac tac phong va thc tai cua cac dan toc ban a i ngc lai Tin Mng. The gii Amazon yeu cau Giao hoi lam ong minh cua no.

Giao hoi va quyen lc

145. Lam Giao hoi Amazon mot cach thc te co ngha la neu van e ve quyen lc mot cach tien tri, v khu vc nay, ngi dan khong the khang nh quyen cua ho chong lai cac li ch kinh te va nh che chnh tr to ln. Ngay nay, at van e quyen lc trong viec bao ve lanh tho va cac nhan quyen la lieu mang song cua mnh, la bc len con ng thap gia va t ao. So cac t ao Amazon rat ang bao ong (v du, ch rieng Brazil, 1,119 ngi ban a a b sat hai t nam 2003 en nam 2017 v bao ve lanh tho cua ho) [73]. Giao hoi khong the th ; ngc lai, no phai giup bao ve nhng ngi nam n ang bao ve nhan quyen va tng nh cac v t ao cua ho, trong so o co cac nha lanh ao nh N tu Dorothy Stang.

Cac gi y

146. La mot cong ong lien i khap the gii, Giao hoi phan ng co trach nhiem oi vi tnh hnh hoan cau ve bat cong, ngheo oi, bat bnh ang, bao lc va loai tr Amazon. Gia nh can ban cua Giao Hoi la tha nhan cac moi lien he bat cong. Do o, ieu can la phai:

a. To cao cac mo hnh khai khoang gay thiet hai cho lanh tho va vi pham quyen li cua cac cong ong. Cat cao tieng noi chong lai cac d an anh hng en moi trng va co vu chet choc.

b. Tham gia cac phong trao xa hoi c s, e cong bo cach tien tri mot chng trnh ngh s ve cong ly nong nghiep nham co vu viec cai cach nong nghiep sau sac, ho tr nong nghiep va nong lam hu c. Tiep nhan chnh ngha nen sinh thai nong nghiep bang cach long no vao cac hoat ong huan luyen cua ho nham phat trien mot y thc ln hn oi vi chnh ngi dan ban a [74].

c. Co vu viec ao tao, bao ve va tnh co the chap phap cac nhan quyen cua cac dan toc Amazon, cua cac sac dan khac va cua thien nhien. Bao ve cac nhom thieu so va nhng ngi de b ton thng nhat.

d. Lang nghe tieng khoc cua "Me at" ang b tan cong va b ton thng nghiem trong bi mo hnh kinh te cua viec phat trien san moi va tieu diet sinh thai, von c hnh thanh va ap at t ben ngoai e phuc vu cac li ch ben ngoai het sc manh me, va la nhng li ch sat hai, cp boc, tieu diet va tan pha, truc xuat va vt bo.

e. Co vu pham gia va s bnh ang cua phu n ni cong cong, t rieng va Giao hoi, bang cach bao am co c hoi e tham gia; bang cach chong lai bao lc the xac, gia nh va tam ly, sat hai con gai, pha thai, khai thac va buon ban tnh duc; va bang cach cam ket au tranh e bao am quyen li cua ho va vt qua bat c loai tien mau nao.

f. Co vu mot y thc sinh thai mi co the dan chung ta en cho thay oi thoi quen tieu thu, co vu viec s dung nang lng tai tao, tranh cac vat lieu co hai va thc thi cac neo ng hanh ong khac c neu bat bi thong iep Laudato Si'" [75]. Co vu cac lien minh e chong pha rng va co vu viec tai trong rng.

g. Tiep nhan mot cach khong s hai va cu the viec u tien chon ngi ngheo trong cuoc au tranh cua cac dan toc ban a, cac cong ong truyen thong, cac di dan va ngi tre e hnh thanh ac tnh cua Giao hoi Amazon.

h. Tao ra cac mang li hp tac trong cac lnh vc van ong khu vc, toan cau va quoc te, trong o Giao hoi tham gia mot cach hu c, e chnh cac dan toc co the to cao s vi pham cac nhan quyen cua ho.

 

Ket luan

147. Trong suot hanh trnh dai cua no, Tai lieu Lam viec nay a lang nghe tieng noi cua Amazon di anh sang c tin (Phan I); va no a co gang ap lai tieng keu cua ngi dan va lanh tho Amazon ve nen sinh thai toan dien (Phan II) va tm kiem nhng neo ng mi cho mot Giao hoi tien tri Amazon (Phan III). Nhng tieng noi cua Amazon nay keu goi mot ap ng mi cho cac thach thc a dang; ho yeu cau nhng neo ng mi e lam mot "kairos" (hoang thi) tr thanh kha hu, mot thi cua n thanh va hy vong trong Giao hoi va cho the gii. Chung ta ket luan di s che ch cua Me Maria, ang c ton knh di nhieu tc hieu khac nhau khap Amazon. Chung ta hy vong rang Thng Hoi ong nay se la mot bieu thc cu the cua tnh ong ngh cua mot Giao hoi ang vn tay ra ngoai, e s song vien man ma Chua Giesu a mang en cho the gii (Ga 10:10) co the en tay moi ngi, nhat la ngi ngheo.

* * * * * *

[1] Ngoai dien trnh chnh thc nay, nhieu cuoc hoi thao a c to chc tai Washington D.C., Rome va Bogota, vi cac chuyen vien thuoc nhieu khu vc va ai dien cac dan toc Amazon, e suy t ve cac van e c phan tch ay.

[2] Tai lieu Eje de Fronteras, p. 3.

[3] Xem Nobre, C. A., Sampaio, G., Borma, L. S., Castilla-Rubio, J. C., Silva, J. S., Cardoso, M., et al., "The Fate of the Amazon Forests: land-use and climate change risks and the need of a novel sustainable development paradigm", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A., 113(39), September 2016.

[4] Co mot so kieu phat bieu khac nhau ve ieu nay trong ngon ng cua ho nh Sumak Kawsay trong tieng Quechua, hay Suma Qamana trong tieng Aymara, hay Teko Pora trong tieng Guaran. Trong triet hoc Chau Phi, ch ubuntu co ngha tng t nh sumak kawsay cua tieng quechua: ai lng, lien i, cam thng oi vi nhng ngi thieu thon, va thanh thc mong muon hanh phuc va hoa hp gia moi ngi.

[5] Xem "The cry of sumak kawsay in the Amazon,'' Tuyen ngon cua cac dan toc va quoc tch ban a cac vung Mesoamerican, Andean, Caribbean, Southern Cone va Amazon, tu hop tai thanh pho Pujili-Cotopaxi nham muc ch ao sau y ngha chan thc cua sumak kawsay, trong: trang nha cua Toa ai dien Aguarico; Acosta, A., Good living, an opportunity to build, Ecuador Debate: Quito, 2008; xem "Sumak Kawsa, Suma Qamana, Teko Pora. O Bem-Viver" (Year X, n. 340, 23.08.2010), in: IHUOnlineEdicao 340.pdf.

[6] Giao phan San Jose del Guaviare va Tong giao phan Villavicencio va Granada (Colombia, Bien gii Brazil, Colombia va Peru).

[7] Tai lieu Bolivia, 36.

[8] Tai lieu Venezuela, 1.

[9] IPBES, Nature's Dangerous Decline 'Unpredented' Species Extintion Rates 'Accelerating'; https://www.ipbes.net/news/Media-Release-Global-Assessment#_Indigenous_Peoples,_Local

[10] Xem Phan II, Chng III cua Tai lieu nay: Di Dan.

[11] Tai lieu Eje de Fronteras, 1.

[12] Tai lieu cua Assembleia dos Regionais Norte 1 e 2 da CNBB, "A Igreja e faz carne e arma sua tenda na Amazonia", Manaus, 1997, trong: CNBB, Desafio missionario: Cac Van kien cua Giao Hoi vung Amazonia. Coletanea, Ed. CNBB, Braslia, 2014, 67-84.

[13] Santarem (1972) va Manaus (1997) trong CNBB, Desafio missionario: Cac Van kien cua Giao Hoi vung Amazonia. Coletanea, Ed. CNBB, Braslia, 2014, 9-28 va 67-84.

[14] Xem LS 163, va Tai lieu Chuan b so 13.

[15] c Phanxico, Dien van Nhan Cuoc Gap g Cac Phong trao Bnh dan The gii Lan II, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, 9 Thang Bay 2015. Xem Phan II, Ch. I: S huy diet cua duy khai khoang.

[16] Xem Summa Theologiae II-II, q. 158, art. 1.

[17] XemSint. REPAM, 135.

[18] Mot ch Tay Ban Nha mi, "sabanizarse", at ten cho dien trnh qua o 1 canh rng hay 1 canh rng nhiet i b bien thanh thao nguyen.

[19] Xem Sint. REPAM - Brazil, 120.

[20] Xem Sint. REPAM, 43.

[21] Xem Sint. REPAM, 86.

[22] Xem Sint. REPAM, Antonio, Brazil, 57.

[23] Xem Phan II, Ch. II: Cac dan toc ban a trong vung Co lap T nguyen (PIAV): Cac moi e doa va viec bao ve.

[24] To chc Lao ong Quoc te (ILO), Cong c 169: Ve Cac Dan toc va Bo lac Ban a, 1989, ieu 7.

[25] Mot so ngi di c ti cac thanh pho e mua ban cac nhu yeu pham hay e lam viec tam b kiem tien nuoi song gia nh (th du viec di c u a noi a e lam viec vi cac ngi on cay).

[26] Thoi quen chuyen len nui da vao hai hien tng t nhien co lien he qua lai vi nhau: s khac biet ve mua trong san xuat nong nghiep va viec ri c cua thu vat. Nh the, viec chuyen ngi len nui c lien ket vi nen sinh thai toan dien: con ngi can san xuat, va vi tnh hnh sinh thai khien mot so nhom ngi phai di c.

[27] c Phanxico, Gap mat Dan chung, Vien Jorge Basadre (Puerto Maldonado), 19 thang Gieng 2018.

[28] Xem Phan I, Ch. I, so 14; Phan II, Ch. I, so 48.

[29] Cac Mon e Truyen Giao vung Amazonia, 2007. Tai lieu IX, Phien hop cac Giam muc vung Amazonia, Manaus (2007), trong: CNBB, Desafio missionario: Cac Van kien cua Giao Hoi vung Amazonia, Coletanea, Ed. CNBB, Braslia, 2014, 161-216 (269).

[30] Xem REPAM Synthesis, 124.

[31] Xem Tai lieu Venezuela, Tom tat Cuoi cung, 4.

[32] c Phanxico, Dien van vi cac Tham d vien Dien an Quoc te "Di dan va Hoa bnh" 21 thang Hai 2017.

[33] Xem Phan II, Ch. III: Di dan.

[34] Xem Tai lieu Chuan b, 6.

[35] Xem Phan II, Ch. V: Gia nh va Cong ong.

[36] Xem Phan II, Ch. VII: Van e Sc khoe Toan dien.

[37] Xem Phan II, Ch. VIII: Giao duc Toa dien.

[38] Xem Phan II, Ch. VI: Tham nhung.

[39] Sint. REPAM, 42.

[40] Xem Sint. REPAM, 71, va Phan II, Ch. VII: Van e Sc khoe Toan dien.

[41] Sint. REPAM, 57.

[42] Xem Sint. REPAM, 161.

[43] Xem Sint. REPAM, 125.

[44] Xem Sint. REPAM, 125.

[45] c Beneicto XVI, Bai giang trong Thanh le Khai mac Tha tac vu Phero (24 thang T 2005).

[46] c Phanxico, Dien van trc Hoi Ngh cac Giam muc Ba tay (27 thang Bay 2013).

[47] Xem Thanh Justino, II Apologia, 7,3; 8,1; 13, 2-3; 13, 6; AG 11; DP 401, 403.

[48] Xem Huan quyen chau My Latinh trong cac Phien hop Toan the cua CELAM; Thanh Gioan Phaolo II, Sollicitudo Rei Socialis 42 va Centesimus annus 11, 57; c Beneicto XVI, Dien van trc Phien Khai mac Hoi Ngh Toan the lan Th 5 cac Giam muc chau My Latinh va vung Caribe (2007); EG 197-201.

[49] DP 400; xem Thanh Irene thanh Lyon, Contra Herejes, V, praef; I, 6, 1.

[50] Trong so nhng ngi khac, ta co the ke: Rodolfo Lunkenbein SDB va Simao Bororo (1976), Maral de Souza Tupa-i (1983, Guaran), Ezequiel Ramin (1985, Comboniano), Sr. Cleusa Carolina Rody (1985, nha truyen giao thuoc Dong Cai Cach Thanh Augustino), Josimo Moraes Tavavares (1986, linh muc trieu), Vicente Canas SJ (1987), c Cha Alejandro Labaka va N tu Ines Arango (1987, ca hai thuoc dong Capuchins), Chico Mendes (1988, nha sinh thai hoc), Galdino Jesus dos Santos (1997, Pataxo Ha-Ha-Hae), Ademir Federici (2001), Sr. Dorothy Mae Stang (2005, Dong N.S. de Namur).

[51] Xem EG 68-70, 116, 122, 126, 129.

[52] Ibid.

[53] Ibid.

[54] Xem Tai lieu Chuan b, 4; Phan I, Ch. IV: oi thoai.

[55] Sint. REPAM, 58.

[56] Xem Phan I, Ch. III: Hoang thi (kairos), so 30; Phan III, Ch. I: Mot Giao hoi vi Khuon mat Amazon va Truyen giao, cac so 106-107, 113.

[57] Xem Thanh Justino, Apologa II, 8; AG 11.

[58] Xem Phan III, Ch. I: Mot Giao hoi vi Khuon mat Amazon va Truyen giao, so 107.

[59] Xem Phan III, Ch. VI: S menh cua cac Phng tien Truyen thong.

[60] c Gioan Phaolo II, Ecclesia de Eucharistia (2003), 1, Ch. II.

[61] Xem Sint. REPAM, 78.

[62] Xem Phan II, Ch. V: Gia nh va Cong ong.

[63] Xem Phan II, Ch. III: Di dan.

[64] Xem Phan II, Ch. IV: o th hoa.

[65] Xem Phan III, Ch. V: oi thoai ai ket va Lien ton.

[66] Xem Phan II, Ch. IV: o th hoa.

[67] Xem Phan III, Ch. IV: Viec To chc cac cong ong.

[68] Xem Phan III, Ch. IV: Viec To chc cac cong ong.

[69] Xem Phan III, Ch. VII: Vai tro Tien tri cua Giao Hoi va viec Co Vu Con ngi Toan dien.

[70] Xem DP 1166-1205; Tai lieu Sau cung cua Khoa Hop Thng Le lan th XV cua Thng Hoi ong Giam muc ve Ngi tre, c tin va viec Bien phan n goi; c Phanxico, Tong huan Hau-Thng Hoi ong Christus Vivit (25 thang Ba 2019).

[71] Xem Phan III, Ch. IV: Viec To chc cac cong ong.

[72] Xem Phan III, Ch. II: Cac Thach o Hoi nhap Van hoa va Tnh Lien Van hoa.

[73] Xem CIMI, "Relatorio de violencia contra os Povos Indgenas no Brasil".

[74] Xem Sint. REPAM, 142, 146.

[75] Xem Phan II, Ch. IX, Hoan cai Sinh thai.

 


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