Chu Dan cua Tong Toa Xa Giai

ve An Tch B Tch

 

Chu Dan cua Tong Toa Xa Giai ve An Tch B Tch.

Vu Van An

Vatican (VietCatholic 07-07-2019) - An toa giai toi von la cai gai oi vi phong trao the tuc hoa. Lch s Giao Hoi cho thay nhieu v giai toi b bach hai ch v cai gai nay. Nhng cung nh viec qua khoa oi vi cac t ao ngi Viet thu nao, cac ngai van mot long trung tn oi vi tn ly bat kha xam pham cua an tn nay.

Cai gai ay cang sac hn bao gi het vi viec bung no nan giao s lam dung tnh duc. Phong trao the tuc hoa hung han han len oi phai huy bo cai th thc hanh b ho coi khong nhng loi thi ma con nguy hai en viec bai tr nan giao s lam dung tnh duc, nh the viec lam dung tnh duc tre em ch la chuyen cua cac linh muc Cong Giao va trc tiep do an tn toa giai toi gay ra.

Du sao, phong trao hung han tren cung lam boi roi mot so hang giao pham. Co nhng ni khong dam anh lai, anh anh bai tr hoan bang cach ha se tham khao Toa Thanh.

D nhien, Toa Thanh phai len tieng va au thang Bay nay, Tong Toa Xa Giai (Apostolic Penitentiary) a ra mot Chu Dan (Note) ta tieng Y la Nota della Penitenzieria Apostolica sull'importanza del foro interno e l'inviolabilita del sigillo sacramentale (Chu Dan cua Tong Toa Xa Giai ve Tam Quan Trong cua Toa Trong va Tnh Bat Kha Xam Pham cua An Tn B Tch), tai xac nhan tnh bat kha xam pham tuyet oi cua an tn toa giai toi, khong co luat tr.

An tch b tch, tuyet oi bat kha xam pham

Trong buoi cong bo Chu Dan tren, ngay 1 thang 7 nam 2019, tai Vatican, c Hong Y Mauro Piacenza, cam au Tong Toa, thuat lai chnh ch th cua c Giao Hoang Phanxico trong dien van vi cac tham d vien Khoa Toa Trong do Tong Toa Xa Giai to chc ngay 29 thang Ba nam 2019. Dp nay c Phanxico lien tiep nhan manh hai chu e het sc quan trong oi vi than hoc, giao luat va thc hanh cua Giao Hoi, rat xa la vi cong luan hien thi: tnh thanh thieng cua toa trong va tnh bat kha xam pham cua an tn b tch.

au bai dien van, c Giao Hoang, trc het, nhac nh ban chat thanh thieng cua toa trong, lanh vc than mat cua moi tng quan gia Thien Chua va tn hu, mot ieu khong luon c hieu biet va bao ve thch ang, ca trong chnh cong ong Giao Hoi. Ngai noi:

"Va toi xin noi them, ben ngoai ban van, mot li ve han t 'toa trong'. ay khong phai la kieu noi tam phao: no c phat bieu mot cach nghiem tuc: toa trong la toa trong,va no khong the tiet lo ra "ben ngoai". Va s d toi noi ieu nay v toi a e y mot so nhom trong Giao Hoi, cac ai bieu, cac be tren, ta hay noi nh the nay, tron lan hai ieu va can c vao toa trong ma a ra cac quyet nh toa ngoai. Xin vui long, ay la mot toi! ay la mot toi chong lai pham gia cua ngi tin tng v linh muc, va giai bay tnh huong cua ho e xin n tha th, the ma sau o, ieu nay c s dung e to chc cac van e cho nhom hay co le cho phong trao... Toi khong biet, toi ch oan the, tham ch co le cho ca mot hoi dong mi. Toi khong biet. Nhng toa trong la toa trong. Va no la ieu thanh thieng. Toi muon noi ieu nay v toi lo lang oi vi no".

Sau o, c Thanh Cha nhac lai tnh bat kha xam pham cua an tn b tch, mot bao tham khong the mien chap cua b tch hoa giai:

"Hoa giai chnh la mot n phuc ma s khon ngoan cua Giao Hoi luon bao ve bang moi kha nang tinh than va luat phap cua mnh, vi an tn b tch. Du khong luon c nao trang hien ai hieu ro, no la ieu khong the mien chc oi vi tnh thanh thieng cua b tch va oi vi t do lng tam cua hoi nhan la ngi bat c luc nao cung phai nam chac rang cuoc am luan b tch se mai c gi b mat cua toa giai toi, gia lng tam m ra cua ho e on nhan n thanh, va Thien Chua, qua s trung gian can thiet cua v linh muc. An tn b tch la ieu khong the mien chc va khong quyen lc nhan ban nao co quyen tai phan oi vi no, cung nh khong the a ra bat c oi hoi nao oi vi no".

Theo c Hong Y, Tong Toa Xa Giai, v trong suot 8 the ky nay von la Toa chu trach nhiem cac van e lien quan en toa trong, nen biet rat ro gia tr khon do cua tnh b mat b tch, tnh kn ao, va tnh bat kha xam pham cua lng tam. Khi viet Chu Dan nay, Toa muon t at mnh vao the phuc vu c Thanh Cha, Giao Hoi va moi ngi thien ch, tai khang nh tam quan trong cua chung va co vu viec hieu ro hn cac y niem nay, cac y niem ma hien nay xem ra b hieu lam cach rong rai, tham ch con b chong oi na.

Tai lieu nay bat au vi viec nhan xet rang trong xa hoi ngay nay, mot xa hoi co tnh cay nh trung gian cao o, viec phat trien ky thuat va viec thc thi cac phng tien truyen thong, noi chung, khong tng ng vi cam ket tng t e tm s that, nhng ung hn, ch tng ng vi y muon benh hoan la pho bien tin tc, bat ke ung sai, c khuech ai hay giam thieu tuy theo s thch. Ngay nay, moi s eu c phi bay, moi ieu phai c biet en. "Thc vay, bang cach nai en phan oan cua cong luan nh toa an cuoi cung, viec thong tin u loai, ke ca thuoc cac pham vi t rieng nhat va kn ao nhat, mot thong tin nhat nh (...) se xui giuc, hoac t nhat ung ho cac phan oan khinh suat, th thong tin nay qua a gay hai mot cach bat hp phap va khong tai nao sa cha c danh thm tieng tot cua ngi khac". Thai o pho quat hoa nay cung a c phan anh len Giao Hoi en noi co ngi mong trat t luat le cua Giao Hoi phai phu hp theo trat t nha nc ni ho sinh song nhan danh ieu c coi la chnh xac va minh bach.

Trong boi canh ay, Tong Toa Xa Giai thay khan cap phai nhac nh, trc nhat, tnh bat kha xam pham tuyet oi cua an tn b tch, da tren thien luat va khong chap nhan bat c ngoai le nao. Linh muc giai toi, hanh ong in persona Christi capitis (trong con ngi lam au la Chua Kito), biet toi loi cua hoi nhan "khong phai trong t cach con ngi, ma trong t cach Thien Chua", theo kieu noi thi danh cua Thanh Toma Aquino ('non ut homo sed ut Deus'). V ly do nay, linh muc c keu goi bao ve tnh b mat cua noi dung cua viec Xng Toi khong nhng qua viec "trung thanh" vi hoi nhan, ma, hn na, v ton trong tnh thanh thieng cua b tch.

Theo ngha nay, ieu chu yeu la phai nhan manh en tnh khon sanh cua an tn giai toi so vi b mat nghe nghiep cua mot so nhom chuyen nghiep (bac s, dc s, luat s, v.v.) e ngan chan luat phap the tuc ap dung vao an tn nay, von co tnh bat kha xam pham, cac ngoai le c ap dung mot cach hp phap vao viec gi b mat nghe nghiep.

Viec gi b mat giai toi khong phai la mot ngha vu c ap at t ben ngoai, ma ung ra la mot yeu cau noi tai cua b tch va, nh the, khong the b huy tieu du la bi hoi nhan. Hoi nhan khong noi vi v giai toi nh mot con ngi, nhng noi vi Thien Chua, do o, yeu sach mot ieu chnh ang ch thuoc ve Thien Chua qua la mot pham thanh. No lien quan en viec bao ve chnh b tch, c Chua Kito thiet lap lam ben b an toan cho viec cu roi nhng con ngi toi loi. Neu niem tin vao an tn b phan boi, tn hu se khong c khuyen khch tiep can b tch Hoa giai, ieu nay ro rang se dan en thiet hai nghiem trong cho cac linh hon. Mat khac, chnh moi quan tam oi vi salus animarum (phan roi cac linh hon) nay a khien Giao hoi phai thiet lap ra cac hnh phat nghiem khac nhat oi vi nhng ngi vi pham an tn (xem ieu 1388 Bo Giao Luat 728, ~1, so 1 va ieu 1456 Bo Giao Luat cac Giao Hoi ong Phng). Th hai, Chu Dan nay xem xet pham vi phap ly-luan ly cua nhng hanh vi cua toa trong dien ra ben ngoai b tch Giai toi. V du co ien la viec linh hng. Ca trong nhng trng hp nay, giao luat bao am mot s kn ao ac biet cho cuoc tro chuyen linh hng, lien quan en pham vi rieng t va than mat nhat cua tn hu e lang nghe va bien phan thanh y Thien Chua. V vay, chang han, vao dp c nhan chu chc thanh, khong nhng cam khong c hoi y kien v giai toi ma ca y kien cua v linh hng cua ng vien, e tranh bat c s lam quyen kha hu nao.

Sau cung, iem cuoi cung cua Chu Dan lien quan en cac "loai" khac cua b mat nam ngoai pham vi cua toa trong. Theo ngha nay, nguyen tac cua quyen t nhien c gi b mat a c tai khang nh, "tr cac trng hp ngoai le trong o viec gi b mat chac chan se gay ton hai rat nghiem trong cho ngi a tho lo no, vi ngi a tiep nhan no hoac vi ngi th ba va trong o, viec ton hai rat nghiem trong ch co the tranh c bang cach tiet lo s that (Sach Giao Ly cua Giao Hoi Cong Giao, so 2491). Noi chung hn, khi truyen at hoac che giau s that, Chu Dan e xuat nh mot tieu chuan chung "cuoc song cua mot ngi phai phu hp vi luat yeu thng anh em, e y ti ieu tot va an ninh, ton trong cuoc song rieng t va li ch chung". Can lu y rang ban van cua Chu Dan khong the va khong he tm cach tr thanh mot bien minh hay mot hnh thc khoan dung oi vi cac trng hp b oi lam dung do cac thanh vien cua hang giao s vi pham. Khong co s thoa hiep nao c chap nhan khi ung en van e co vu viec bao ve cac v thanh nien va nhng ngi de b ton thng, va ngan chan va chong lai moi hnh thc lam dung, theo tinh than cua ieu c Giao Hoang Phanxico a khong ngng nhac lai va gan ay a quy nh bang T Sac Vos estis lux mundi (Cac con la anh sang the gian, ngay 7 thang 5 nam 2019).

Bang cach cong bo mot Chu Dan ve tam quan trong cua toa trong va tnh bat kha xam pham cua an tn b tch, Toa Xa Giai co niem xac tn tuyet oi rang "viec bao ve an tn b tch va tnh thanh thieng cua viec xng toi khong bao gi co the cau thanh mot hnh thc ong loa vi toi ac; ngc lai, no ai dien cho thuoc giai oc thc s duy nhat chong lai toi ac ang e doa con ngi va toan the gii, chung la kha the thc s e pho thac cho tnh yeu cua Thien Chua, e mnh c bien oi va c bien oi bi tnh yeu nay, hoc hoi e tng ng vi no mot cach cu the bang chnh mang song cua mnh.

Noi dung

Toa Thanh mi ch cong bo Chu Dan bang tieng Y, cha co ban tieng Anh e chung toi co the trng dan. Tuy nhien theo Catholic News Service, th v "thien kien tieu cc ang lo ngai" chong lai Giao Hoi Cong Giao, c Giao Hoang a truyen phai cong bo ban Chu Dan, e keu goi cac linh muc bao ve an tn b tch du phai hy sinh mang song.

Li keu goi ay khong qua ang khi California va Uc a co nhng ao luat buoc cac linh muc vi pham an tn nay.

Theo Catholic News Service, Chu Dan viet rang "viec v giai toi bao ve an tn b tch, neu can, tham ch ti cho phai o mau, khong phai ch la mot hanh vi bat buoc phai trung thanh vi hoi nhan nhng con hn the na: ay la mot chng ta can thiet, mot viec t ao, oi vi quyen cu roi oc ao va pho quat cua Chua Kito va Giao Hoi cua Ngi".

Ban van at van e gi an tn b tch vao boi canh rong ln hn cua s "thoai hoa (involution) van hoa va luan ly" khien ngi ta het kha nang "nhan ra va ton trong" cac yeu to co tnh yeu tnh cua nhan sinh va i song trong Giao Hoi.

Ban van cung noi rang, qua nhieu khi, "phan oan cua cong luan" c nai ra lam toa an cao cap nhat va ngi ta cam thay t do c cong bo hay phat tuyen bat c ieu g, lay c la e cong chung lam tham phan ma khong quan tam chi ti lng tam, danh tieng hay quyen cua ngi ta c t benh vc mnh.

Ban Chu Dan viet: "Trong boi canh ay, dng nh co s xac nhan thien kien tieu cc ang lo ngai nao o chong lai Giao Hoi Cong Giao" ca v "cac cang thang co the thay ben trong hang giao pham lan do hau qua cac tai tieng gan ay ve lam dung do mot so thanh vien hang giao s vi pham mot cach ghe tm".

No cho rang thien kien tren "oi khi dien dch thanh 'oi hoi' vo ly buoc Giao Hoi, trong mot so van e, phai bat he thong phap luat cua rieng mnh phu hp vi dan luat cua nha nc trong o Giao Hoi sinh hoat nh la cach duy nhat 'e bao am s trung thc va liem chnh'".

Giao Hoi Cong Giao, thc s, "luc nao cung bao ve an toan an tch b tch vi het sc manh tinh than va phap che cua mnh. No thiet yeu oi vi tnh thanh thieng cua b tch va t do lng tam cua hoi nhan".

Khi c hanh b tch hoa giai, linh muc hanh ong khong phai nh chnh ngai ma "trong con ngi cua Chua Kito", nen khong nhng khong c t do pho bien bat c ieu g trong toa giai toi cho bat c ai, ke ca hoi nhan ben ngoai toa giai toi, ma con "buoc phai dep bo bat c hoai niem bat cht nao ve no".

Noi en viec hoi nhan xng vi linh muc mot toi ac (crime), ban van Chu Dan cho hay v giai toi nen noi cho hoi nhan biet cac quyen cua ho va cac bc thc te ho co the lam vi ca cac tham quyen dan s lan Giao Hoi trong viec bao cao toi ac nay. oi vi nhng trng hp xng mot toi ac nh the nay, ban van noi rang "khong bao gi c at len hoi nhan, nh mot ieu kien e c tha toi, ngha vu phai tng trnh vi nen cong ly dan s".

Ban Chu Dan noi rat ro: "bat c hanh ong chnh tr nao cua sang kien lap phap nham vi pham tnh bat kha xam pham cua an tn b tch eu la mot cuoc tan cong khong the nao chap nhan c chong lai quyen t do cua Giao Hoi, mot thc the khong tiep nhan tnh hp phap cua no t cac nha nc ca the, ma t Thien Chua".

Phat xuat t xep ln

Nhan nh ve ban Chu Dan, John Allen cho hay thong thng khi noi en mot th e doa t ben ngoai nh ap lc oi huy bo an tn b tch, Vatican nham hai c toa. C toa au tien d nhien la cac tac gia cua e doa kia; c toa th hai khong ai khac ma la chnh cac Giam Muc Cong Giao va cac nha lanh ao khac, cho ho thay xep ln mong ho gi vng lap trng.

Allen giai thch rang nam 2014, khi c Phanxico cham dt t cach bo trng Bo Giao S cua c Hong Y Mauro Piacenza, ai cung ngh ngai tach mnh ra khoi ng hng cua c Gioan Phaolo II va c Benecto XVI. V c Hong Y Piacenza von c ao tao ni lo duy truyen thong cua c Hong Y Giuseppe Siri, ngi tng thi danh c goi la "v giao hoang khong bao gi c bau" v duy truyen thong so vi c Gioan XXIII nam 1958.

Lui vao bong toi mot thi gian, nay tai xuat manh me vi mot Chu Dan rat thang rat thc e bao ve an tn b tch gia luc co nhng cuoc tan cong vu bao chong lai no California va Uc Chau do cuoc khung hoang giao s lam dung tnh duc, c Hong Y han phai da vao uy the cua xep ln, ngi von noi danh trong t cach "Giao Hoang cua Long Thng Xot", het sc e cao b tch xng toi, ni long thng xot co y ngha hn ca. Chnh v the, viec au tien cua c Hong Y Piacenza la trch dan li c Phnaxico noi trong khoa hoc ve Toa Trong do Toa Xa giai to chc au nam nay. Nhieu ngi van trach c c Phnaxico co tnh noi m ho, nhat la trong Amoris Laetitia e ai muon hieu the nao th hieu, nhng ay, li ngai het sc ro rang va cng quyet, khong the giai thch cach nao khac hn la: an tn b tch la ieu khong the vi pham do bat c quyen lc nao cua con ngi. Nhng ngi muon th gan cot Giao Hoi khong ai co the giai thch cach khac hn the, nen neu ho buoc cac linh muc phai vi pham an tn nay, la ho chong lai ca mot Giao Hoi, ung hn, theo quan iem Cong Giao, ho phan lai Thien Chua nh cong thc "Non ut homo sed ut Deus" cua Thanh Toma Aquino a chng to. Ho cung oc tai khong kem cac hoang e xa cua Roma hay cua Viet Nam trong viec bach hai ton giao, van la di mot chieu bai: hoang e Roma la t cach than thanh cua chnh ngoi v ho, hoang de Viet Nam la ao ly Khong Manh, ho bay gi la "bao ve v thanh nien".

Nhng mot bnh dien khac, theo Allen, ay cung la mot bai hoc cho nhng au goi ang run ray trc ap lc the tuc muon vi pham ieu von la cot loi e ngi ta chay ti vi long thng xot cua Thien Chua trong b tch hoa giai. V ay khong han la li cua c Hong Y Piacenza ma chnh la li cua xep ln.

 


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