Vu ket an c Hong Y Pell,

cac hng dan boi tham oan

va "hoai nghi hu ly"

 

Vu ket an c Hong Y Pell, cac hng dan boi tham oan va "hoai nghi hu ly".

Vu Van An

Melboune (VietCatholic News 16-04-2019) - Trong vu boi tham oan ket toi c Hong Y Pell, ngi ta thng nghe noi ti cum t "beyond reasonable doubt" ma neu dch tng ch th co the la "vt qua s hoai nghi hp ly" nom na la ngai co toi "vt qua s hoai nghi hp ly".

Co v linh muc hoi ngi viet y ngha thc s cua cum t nay. Ngi viet ch biet tra li nom na nh vay. Tra t ien luat phap cua Nha Xuat Ban Khoa Hoc Xa Hoi nam 1991, thay ho nh ngha cum t nay nh sau: "khong hu ly e nghi ng, chuan chac chan, chuan xac, o la mc ma boi tham oan lay quyet nh b can co toi hay vo toi".

nh ngha nh the hnh nh cung khong hn kieu ta hieu nom na bao nhieu. Tra cu tai lieu tieng Anh, chung toi gap c bai Jury Directions and "reasonable doubt cua William Shrubb tren trang mang https://www.ruleoflaw.org.au/beyond-reasonable-doubt/ va thay cum t nay noi len mot kha canh chu quan nao o ni tham phan va boi tham oan. Chung toi chuyen ng tieng Viet bai nay e oc gia rong ng phan oan:

Suy oan vo toi la mot phan quan trong cua bat c he thong t phap hnh s cong bang nao di nguyen tac thng ton phap luat (rule of law). Cach ro rang nhat ma chung ta bao ve s suy oan vo toi trong he thong cua chung ta la qua tieu chuan chng minh cao c at len cong to vien trong mot phien toa hnh s: ho phai chng minh vu kien chong lai b cao "vt qua s hoai nghi hp ly".

Tuy nhien, s bao ve o nghe co ve t ung hn, hoac co ve t chac chan hn, khi noi dung cua cum t c giai thch theo nhieu cach khac nhau.

Bai viet nay se tm hieu cac hng dan cho boi tham oan ve s suy oan vo toi lien quan en thng ton phap luat ra sao. Khi lam nh vay, bai viet nay se s dung mot trng hp ien hnh (case study) gan ay cua tieu bang Victoria: Dookheea.

Cac hng dan cho boi tham oan

Vao cuoi phien toa co boi tham oan, sau khi tat ca cac bang chng a c a ra trc boi tham oan, va sau khi cong to va ben bao cha a a ra cac tuyen bo ket thuc, tham phan se tong hp vu an cho boi tham oan. Ong hay ba nay se duyet lai cac bang chng va lap luan cua ca hai ben va len khuon cac nguyen tac phap ly da vao o boi tham oan phai a ra quyet nh. Nhng nhan xet nay cua tham phan c goi la "cac hng dan cho boi tham oan" (jury directions).

Cac hng dan cho boi tham oan ngay cang tr nen thng xuyen hn khi dien trnh hnh s phat trien qua nhieu the he. Trc khi he thong xet x chung ta co ngay nay, Vng quoc Anh trong the ky th mi tam, a co nhng viec nh sau:

Tham phan co vai tro giam sat, dan dat ieu von la mot cuoc thao luan phan ln phi cau truc vi cac boi tham vien, nhan chng, b cao va ng c coi la nan nhan. Cac tham phan co quyen han vo gii han e bnh luan vi boi tham oan ve bang chng va gia tr cua vu an khi ho lam viec vi nhau e thu lm bang chng.

"Cuoc thao luan phi cau truc" ay dan dan phat trien thanh he thong oi chat (adversarial system) chung ta co hien nay, trong o:

"Viec trnh bay cac trng hp e truy to va bao cha tr thanh trach nhiem cua luat s qua viec kiem tra va oi chat (cross-examination) cac nhan chng. Mot he thong cac luat le ve chng c c khai trien e ieu chnh va qui nh dien trnh nay, va quyen cua tham phan va boi tham oan trong viec ch than thu thap chng c a b han che nang ne. Trong o co quan niem cho rang boi tham oan oc lap oi vi tham phan va phan quyet (verdict) cung nh cac ngh an (deliberations) dan en phan quyet cua ho la ieu khong ai co the do c.

Khi boi tham oan phat trien vai tro oc lap mi nay, cac hng dan cho boi tham oan cung phat trien song hanh: e uon nan, cung nh ngan chan, boi tham oan sai lam trong viec thi hanh vai tro cua ho.

Uy ban cai cach luat phap New South Wales giai thch muc ch cua cac hng dan cho boi tham oan nay nh sau:

"He thong cac hng dan cho boi tham oan tiep tuc hoat ong theo mot tien e can ban nay: cac boi tham vien se gap kho khan trong viec thi hanh trach nhiem cua ho neu khong co s hng dan thch hp cua tham phan. Cac hng dan cho boi tham oan nham giup cac boi tham vien thi hanh vai tro cua ho trong viec quyet nh cac van e s kien di anh sang cac nguyen tac co the ap dung c cua luat phap. Chung nham tap chu tam tr cua boi tham oan vao nhng van e thc s cua vu an. Chung tm cach ngan chan cac boi tham vien da quyet nh tren cac s kien khong c tha nhan lam bang chng hoac xem xet bang chng cho mot muc ch khac vi muc ch c tha nhan. Khi lam nh vay, cac hng dan cho boi tham oan phuc vu muc ch ln hn la am bao mot phien toa cong bang hoac, noi khac i, e tranh bat c "rui ro co the thay nao ve viec hoai thai cong ly".

Vt qua s hoai nghi hp ly

Mot trong nhng hng dan chu chot c a ra cho cac boi tham oan trong cac phien toa hnh s khap nc Uc la nhac nh ho ve quyen b cao c suy oan la vo toi, va ch b ket toi neu boi tham oan a c thuyet phuc "vt qua s nghi ng hp ly". Hng dan chu chot nay ch la s bao ve cuoi cung danh cho s suy oan vo toi, mot khai niem a co trong cac he thong luat hnh s tren khap the gii trong nhieu the ky, va tng c mo ta mot cach noi tieng la "si ch vang" xuyen suot he thong luat tap tuc (common law).

Van e duy nhat vi cac hng dan nay la khong phai luc nao ngi ta cung hieu ro "hoai nghi hp ly" ngha la g.

Ro rang, khong phai moi hoai nghi eu hp ly. Trong he thong cua chung ta, cong to khong bat buoc phai chng minh toi loi cua b cao "vt qua moi hoai nghi co the co". Viec nang cao tieu chuan cua bang chng len mc o se khien cho viec bao am co c li ket toi gan nh bat kha hu, va se ngan can xa hoi khong the canh sat cac hanh vi hnh s.

Mat khac, viec ha thap tieu chuan bang chng cho cong to se loai bo cac bao ve quan trong cho b cao. Xa hoi cua chung ta a quyet nh rang t do ca nhan la ieu quan trong, va s nhuoc nh va oi x lien quan en trach nhiem hnh s la ieu manh me, en noi chung ta yeu cau cac boi tham oan phai c thuyet phuc theo mot tieu chuan ac thu trc khi ho thay mot b can co toi nh a b to cao.

V vay, cau hoi la, tieu chuan ac thu o la g?

Van phong nghien cu va thong ke toi pham cua tieu bang New South Wales a thc hien mot nghien cu vao nam 2008 ve ieu ngi ta hieu cum t "vt qua s hoai nghi hp ly". Ho a tham do 1,200 ngi tng la boi tham vien trong cac phien toa hnh s tren toan tieu bang. Ket qua nh sau:

55.4% cac boi tham vien tin rang cum t o co ngha la ho can phai "chac chan" rang, ngi o co toi;

22.9% tin rang no co ngha la "hau nh chac chan";

11.6% tin rang ieu o co ngha la "rat co the"; va

10.1% tin rang ieu o co ngha la "kha co kha nang".

Nh bao cao cua Van phong nghien cu va thong ke toi pham cua tieu bang NSW a r rom ghi nhan: "ay qua la mot phat bieu y kien phan tan qua rong rai".

Bao cao cung gi y rang mot so viec lam sang to phai c a ra cho cac boi tham vien ve y ngha cua cum t nay. Hng dan cho boi tham oan se la cach hien nhien e cung cap viec lam sang to nay.

Tuy nhien, theo luat hien hanh Uc - c hng dan bi phan quyet cua Toa an Toi cao trong vu Green v R (1971) 126 CLR 28 - cac tham phan khong co ngha vu phai a ra bat c minh giai nao cho cac boi tham oan. Cum t "vt qua s hoai nghi hp ly", khong can c giai thch ngoai chnh cac t ng cua no. Nh Toa an a noi trong vu Green, cac tham phan nen:

"Tuan thu va khong co gang giai thch mot cach khong can thiet cau tuyen bo co ien ve ban chat cua ganh nang chng c (onus of proof) nam pha cong to (the Crwon)".

Hng dan duy nhat do Toa an cung cap ve y ngha cua cum t la: "Mot hoai nghi hp ly la mot hoai nghi ma boi tham oan ac thu xem xet ngay trong hoan canh. Chnh cac boi tham vien t at ra tieu chuan cho ieu hp ly trong hoan canh".

Trng hp ien hnh Dookheea

ieu tren a chung ta en trng hp ien hnh Dookheea tieu bang Victoria. Ong Dookheea va v cua ong a b buoc toi ve cai chet cua chu nhan ho, ong Zazai, ngi ma ho b cao buoc a anh ap va sau o siet co en chet.

Ong Dookheea a b mot boi tham oan tai Toa an toi cao Victoria ket toi giet ngi, nhng ong a khang cao ban ket toi ong vi ly do mot trong nhng hng dan cho boi tham oan c a ra trong phien toa o. Khi tong ket vao cuoi phien toa o, tham phan noi:

"Cau hoi ma cac ban phai t at ra la 'Cong to co thiet lap vt qua c s hoai nghi hp ly rang luc ong Dookheea vi pham hanh vi hoac cac hanh vi co lien quan gay ra cai chet cua ong Zazai, ong ta co y nh giet ong Zazai hoac khien ong nay b thng thc s nghiem trong?' Nh mot he luan, cac ban co the hoi, 'toi co hoai nghi hp ly rang luc ong ta vi pham hanh vi hoac cac hanh vi lien quan gay ra cai chet cua ong Zazai, ong Dookheea co y nh giet ong Zazai hoac khien ong ta b thng thc s nghiem trong?' Noi cach khac, cac ban khong can phai tm ra dt khoat trang thai tam tr cua ong Dookheea la g khi ong gay ra nhng vet thng giet chet ong Zazai. Cac ban phai xem xet lieu Cong to co lam cac ban hai long khong rang ong Dookheea co y nh, mot ieu bat buoc phai co. Va Cong to phai lam cac ban hai long ve ieu nay khong vt qua bat c s hoai nghi nao, nhng vt qua s hoai nghi hp ly".

Cau cuoi cung tren ay - "khong vt qua bat c s hoai nghi nao, nhng vt qua s hoai nghi hp ly" - a b coi la mot loi lam cua tham phan. Trai vi Toa an toi cao trong vu Green, tham phan xet x a co gang lam ro y ngha cua viec "vt qua s hoai nghi hp ly", trong ban tom tat cua ba. Viec ket toi ong Dookheea a b gat sang mot ben va lenh tai tham c ban bo.

Thng ton phap luat (rule of law)

Nguyen tac bnh ang trc phap luat, cha ke en s suy oan vo toi, bat au b pha hoai khi hai ngi b x cung v cac toi pham tng t, nhng lai c phan x theo hai tieu chuan kha khac nhau - v du, mot boi tham oan cam thay ho phai "chac chan" ve toi loi, trong khi boi tham kia ch cam thay no "co kha nang kha cao".

ng loi cng ran cua cac toa an cap cao Uc oi vi viec giai thch noi dung cua cum t "vt qua s hoai nghi hp ly" bat nguon t no lc duy tr tnh liem chnh (integrity) cua dien trnh quyet nh cua boi tham oan, va khong lam cho 1 dien trnh von phc tap tr thanh qua phc tap.

Tuy nhien, viec t choi nhn xa hn "cum t ma thuat' nay co the cung gay thiet hai cho nguyen tac thng ton phap luat. Viec bao ve do nguyen tac suy oan vo toi ngay nghe nh cang t chan thc hay xem ra t chac chan hn, khi noi dung cua cum t b giai thch theo nhng cach rong rai nh tren.

Trong vu xet x c Hong Y George, ngi ta lu y: ngai phai ra trc hai phien toa gan nh lien tiep nhau. Trong phien toa au tien, boi tham oan chia re theo ty le 10 ngi khong thay ngai pham toi, ch co 2 ngi cho rang ngai pham toi. Tai phien toa sau, ca 12 ngi trong boi tham oan cho rang ngai pham toi "beyond reasonable doubt" sau khi c tham phan Peter Kidd "hng dan" ca cum t nay na. Theo cung cach ong nay ket an c Hong Y Pell, cum t o co the a c giai thch mot cach thien kien khien sinh hieu lam ni boi tham oan. Ta hay ch xem vao thang Sau nay, khi toa thng tham xet vu ngai khang an. Du sao, ta van tin tng ni Chua Quan phong, hn la tnh liem chnh cua con ngi. Cau nguyen van la phng cach tot nhat.

 


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