Toi pham va hnh phat

theo luat Giao Hoi Cong Giao

 

Toi pham va hnh phat theo luat Giao Hoi Cong Giao.

Lm. Nguyen Tat Thang OP

Roma (VietCatholic News 19-02-2019) - Xet theo ban chat, Giao Hoi Cong Giao va la mot thc the tam linh (nhiem the Chua Kito) va la mot oan the hu hnh bao gom cac giao s, tu s va giao dan Kito). ong thi, Giao Hoi la mot to chc co c cau pham trat, trong o cac phan t oi vi nhau theo cong bang va bac ai. Ngoai ra, cac tn hu phai vang phuc cac v lanh ao cua mnh tai a phng cung nh tai trung ng.

1. Quyen bnh cua Giao Hoi

Xet theo oi ngoai, Giao Hoi lanh nhan quyen hanh t Chua Giesu, ang Sang Lap Giao Hoi, ch khong phai do nhan dan hay Nha nc ban cap. Do o, Giao Hoi goi quyen nay la quyen bam sinh (x. . 362; 747 ~1; 1254 ~1; 1260). Xet theo oi noi, Giao Hoi phai at ra nhng quy luat thng c goi la "luat" e xac nh ro rang tng quan cong ly gia cac phan t. Trc tien, Giao Hoi phai chu toan nhng ngha vu vi Chua nh trung thanh vi Loi Chua, c tin, b tch, loan truyen Tin Mng cho moi ngi. Tiep theo, Giao Hoi nhac nh cac tn hu chu toan nhng ngha vu cua ho oi vi Chua va Giao Hoi, song xng ang vi a v con cai Thien Chua, hiep thong e xay dng Giao Hoi vng manh trong c tin, c cay, va c ai.

2. Giao Hoi la cong oan cac thanh

Giao Hoi y thc mnh la cong oan cac thanh nhng cung y thc rang tat ca thanh phan cua Giao Hoi eu la nhng con ngi yeu uoi toi loi (1Ga 1,18). Do o, co nhng thanh phan vi pham luat le, khong nhng gay nen xao tron trat t nhng con nghch lai ban tnh thanh thien cua cac tn hu cung nh cong oan Kito. Mot ang, Giao Hoi to ra nghiem khac do y thc cao o ve n cu o va s thanh thien. ang khac, Giao Hoi to ra thong cam do y thc ve than phan mong don cua con ngi. Chnh cac v lanh dao Giao Hoi a trai qua nhng sa nga nh n Chua. Thanh Phero choi Chua 3 lan. Thanh Phaolo a long ngon, bach ao va ngao ngc nhng a c Chua thng xot... (1Tim 1,13-15) Trong xa hoi hoac Giao Hoi, co nhng thanh vien hanh ong sai lam nen gay thiet hai cho cong oan va ca nhan. Xa hoi co nhng hnh phat danh cho cac pham nhan v lam roi loan trat t cong cong. Giao Hoi bai tr cac toi pham v chung lam hoen o s thanh thien cua Giao Hoi.

3. Y niem va nhng yeu to tao nen toi pham

Theo Giao luat, toi pham c hieu nh la s vi pham ben ngoai va co the quy trach mot luat co the gan theo mot che tai t la bat nh. Co 3 yeu to cau thanh toi pham: 1/ S vi pham ben ngoai ve mot luat hoac mot menh lenh cua Giao Hoi qua li noi hoac hanh ong; 2/ Hanh vi ay co the quy trach c cho chu the, ngha la ng s phai nhan trach nhiem ve hanh vi o khi vi pham luat cach y thc va t do; 3/ Luat hay menh lenh co kem theo che tai. Mot hanh v ch b coi la toi pham khi vi pham mot luat co kem theo hnh phat. Mot ieu ang chu y la ch co nhng tn hu Cong Giao mi la chu the cua toi pham b trng phat theo quy nh cua bo Giao luat.

4. Khac biet gia "toi loi" (sin) va "toi pham" (delict)

"Toi loi" la t dung cho s vi pham trong lanh vc luan ly. Toi pham dung trong lanh vc hnh s. Toi loi khac biet vi toi pham nhng iem sau: 1/ Toi loi co the dien ra trong tam t, li noi va hanh ong. Toi pham phai c thc hien ra ben ngoai; 2/ Toi loi co the la nang hoac nhe (toi nang hoac toi nhe), trong khi co ch co nhng vi pham nang mi co the tr thanh toi pham; 3/ Toi loi la s vi pham luan ly noi chung. Toi pham ch gii han vao luat hnh s ma thoi.

5. Muc ch Giao Hoi ap dung nhng hnh phat

Giao luat ieu 1399 qui nh tong quat: Ngoai nhng trng hp do luat nay hay do nhng luat khac an nh, s vi pham ben ngoai ve mot luat Thien Chua hay luat Giao Hoi ch co the b mot hnh phat thch ang, khi tnh cach nghiem trong ac biet cua s vi pham oi hoi mot s trng phat, va khi co yeu cau thuc bach phai phong nga hay sa cha nhng gng xau. Hnh phat la bien phap cua Giao luat trng tr toi pham. Hnh phat gom co 3 yeu to: 1/ B gii han hng ieu tot. Pham nhan co the b gii han ve nhng ieu tot ben ngoai nh khong c tham d cac b tch hoac gi cac chc vu; 2/ V lanh ao mi co quyen thiet lap va ap dung nhng hnh phat nhat nh (. 1319); 3/ Muc ch chnh hnh phat la cai hoa pham nhan va sa cha toi pham. Khi ra hnh phat, Giao Hoi khong nham en viec loai tr pham nhan ra khoi cong oan cho bang tm cach giup ho xng ang lanh nhan n cu roi. Chnh v the, cai hoa pham nhan i trc viec trng tr toi pham.

6. Nhng hnh phat "cha tr" (penal remedies) va nhng hnh phat "en toi" (expiatory penalties)

Hnh phat "cha tr" c coi nh thuoc cha benh, giup cai thien pham nhan e ho t bo co chap. Trc khi ra hnh phat, can phai canh cao ho e ho t bo s co chap, neu khuyen cao vo ch th mi dung hnh phat (. 1347 ~1). Hnh phat nay keo dai cho en khi pham nhan thanh thc hoi loi. Pham nhan c tha khi cham dt s co chap (. 1358 ~1). Hnh phat "en toi" hay bao ap c ap dung v ch li thien ch cong cong hn la ca nhan. Hnh phat nay thng c xac nh thi gian.

7. Nhng v co tham quyen thiet lap hnh phat di hnh thc luat hoac menh lenh

Nhng v co tham quyen c phan chia ra nh sau: 1/ Ch co nhng v nao co tham quyen lap phap mi co the thiet lap luat hnh s (. 1315); 2/ Ai c quyen cai quan th co the thiet lap menh lenh hnh s (. 1319). Nhng ngi co tham quyen lap phap gom co: a) c Thanh Cha va Cong ong hoan vu, oi vi toan the Giao Hoi; b) Cac cong ong a phng (quoc gia, mien) trong gii han a phng; c) Giam muc giao phan trong giao phan cua mnh. ieu 1315 giai thch them ve viec c quan a phng co tham quyen trong 5 iem sau: a) Ho co the ban hanh luat kem theo hnh phat danh cho a phng cua mnh (. 1315 ~1), th du them hnh phat cho cac song bac, buon ma tuy hoac buon dam; b) Ho co the them hnh phat vao mot luat Chua (. 1315 ~1) thi du nh them hnh phat cho nhng ngi ly d tai toa an dan s; c) Ho co the them hnh phat vao mot luat do cap tren ban hanh (. 1315 ~1); d) Khi can thiet tram trong, ho co the tang them hnh phat vao mot luat hnh do c quan lap phap toan cau a ban hanh (. 1315 ~3); e) Ho co the quy nh hnh phat xac nh va bo buoc ma luat chung co tnh cach bat nh hoac nhiem y (. 1315 ~3). Tuy nhien, ieu 1317 nhac nh: Ch nen thiet lap hnh phat khi thc s can thiet e bao ve ky luat Giao Hoi mot cach thch hp.

8. Tnh chat hnh luat

Khi ap dung , nhng hnh luat co the la "xac nh" (determinate) hay "bat nh" (indeterminate), co the la "bat buoc" (obligatory) hay "nhiem y" (facultative). Goi la xac nh khi luat a xac nh ro rang hnh phat cho pham nhan, th du ai pham toi ly giao th b phat tuyet thong (x. i 1364). Goi la bat nh v nha lap phap danh viec xac nh hnh phat cu the cho c quan hanh phap (. 1315 ~2). Goi la bat buoc khi luat buoc phai ra hnh phat pham nhan. Goi la nhiem y khi luat e cho nha chc trach tuy nghi tham nh co can ra hnh phat hay khong (. 1369; 1370 ~3; 1371; 1372; 1376; 1377; 1379; 1381; 1386; 1392; 1395 ~2; 1396). Ngoai ra con co hnh phat "tien ket" hay t ket (latae sententiae) va hnh phat "hau ket" (ferendae sententiae). Ve hnh phat tien ket, pham nhan mac phai hnh phat ngay khi vi pham do luat qui nh va khong can toa ket an (x. 1314). Hnh phat hau ket ch nhan hnh phat sau khi b toa ket an.

9. Nhng toi pham mac phai cac hnh phat tien ket

a. Co 6 toi pham mac hnh phat tuyet thong tien ket: 1/ Nhng ngi boi giao, lac giao hay ly giao (. 1364 ~1); 2/ Nhng ngi nem bo, lay hoac gi Mnh Mau Thanh Chua vi muc ch pham thanh (. 1367); 3/ Ngi nao dung vu lc the ly chong lai c Giao Hoang Roma (. 1370 ~1); 4/ T te nao giai toi pham ieu th sau cho ngi ong loa, chieu theo ieu 977 (. 1378 ~1); 5/ Giam Muc nao phong chc Giam Muc cho mot ngi ma khong co th uy nhiem cua c Giao Hoang, cung nh ngi nao c v ay truyen chc cho (. 1382); 6/ Cha giai toi trc tiep vi pham an toa giai toi (. 1388)

b. Co 5 toi pham mac hnh phat cam che tien ket: 1 Ngi nao dung vu lc the ly chong lai mot ngi co chc Giam Muc (. 1370 ~2); 2/ Ngi nao khong phai la t te ma cam c hanh Thanh Le hay ban b tch Giai toi hoac nghe xng toi nh b tch (1378 ~2); 3/ Giam muc phong chc cho mot ngi thuoc quyen Giam Muc khac ma khong co th gii thieu hp phap (. 1383); 4/ Ngi nao cao gian mot cha giai toi vi Be Tren trong Giao Hoi ve toi du do hoi nhan pham toi ieu ran th sau, chieu theo ieu 1387 (. 1390 1); 5/ Mot giao s mu toan ket hon, du ch la dan s, th b va huyen chc tien ket (. 1394 ~1)

c. Co 6 toi pham mac hnh phat huyen chc: 1/ Giao s dung vu lc the ly chong lai mot ngi co chc Giam Muc (1370 ~2); 2/ Giao s khong phai la t te ma dam c hanh phung vu Hien Te Thanh The hoac dam ban b tch Giai Toi hoac nghe xng toi nh b tch ( 1378 ~2); 3/ Ngi c thu phong do mot Giam Muc khac ma khong co th gii thieu hp phap (. 1383); 4/ Giao s cao gian mot cha giai toi vi Be Tren trong Giao Hoi ve toi du do hoi nhan pham toi ieu ran th sau, chieu theo ieu 1387 (. 1390 1); 5/ Giao s mu toan ket hon, du ch la hon nhan dan s (. 1394 ~1)

d. Co 1 toi pham mac cam che tien ket: Giam Muc truyen chc cho mot ngi thuoc quyen Giam Muc khac ma khong co giay gii thieu hp phap, th b cam truyen thc trong vong mot nam (. 1383)

10. Nhng hnh phat cha tr

Trong bo Giao luat hien hanh, nha lap phap a lie ke ba th hnh phat cha tr: tuyet thong (excommunication), cam che (censure) va huyen chc (suspension). 1/ Hnh phat va tuyet thong ngan cam pham nhan lanh nhan tat ca cac b tch. Chnh ng s t y ri bo Giao Hoi, ch khong phai la Giao Hoi a truc xuat ho (x. . 316 ~1; 1117); 2/ Cam che co ngha la b cam oan. Trong giai oan mot, pham nhan b: a) cam khong c lam tha tac vien trong cac buoi c hanh phung vu; b) cam khong c ban va nhan lanh cac b tch va a b tch. Trong giai oan hai (sau khi b tuyen an) pham nhan b truc xuat khoi cac buoi c hanh phung vu hay buoi le phai tam nh ch; 3/ Huyen chc (suspension) ch ap dung cho giao s. Pham nhan b cam thi hanh cac chc nang thuoc quyen thanh chc, quyen cai quan hoac quyen li trong bac giao s (. 1333 ~1)

11. Nhng hnh phat en toi

Nhng hnh phat en toi nham muc ch sa cha nhng ton hai ma toi pham ay gay ra. ieu 1336 ~1 neu len 5 hnh thc hnh phat vnh vien hoac tam thi: 1/ Cam ch (prohibition) hay bat buoc lu tru tai mot ni hay mot lanh tho nhat nh. Hnh phat nay ap dung cho giao s va tu s; 2/ Tc quyen hanh (privation of power) hay chc vu (office), nhiem vu (function), quyen li (right), ac an (privilege), nang quyen (faculty), an hue (grace) danh hieu (title) hoac phu hieu (insignia) du ch la thuan tuy danh d; 3/ Cam thi hanh nhng ieu ke khai so 2 hoac cam thi hanh cac ieu ay mot ni hoac ngoai mot ni nhat nh; 4/ Thuyen chuyen sang chc vu khac v tnh cach hnh s. Theo giao luat, co th thuyen chuyen nh la thu tuc hanh chanh (. 190-191; 1748-1752) nham ti ch li cua cac tn hu hoac nhu cau cua Giao Hoi. Con s thuyen chuyen hnh s nham trng phat mot toi pham; 5/ Truc xuat khoi hang giao s. An tch a nhan lanh do chc thanh khong the nao b huy bo hoac tc oat (. 1328 ~2). Tuy nhien, giao s b cam thi hanh tac vu chc thanh va mat het quyen li bac giao s. Viec cam thi hanh chc thanh b nh ch moi khi can phai giup mot ngi tn hu ang trong tnh trang nguy t (. 1338 ~2, . 1335)

12. Nhng bien phap hnh s va viec sam hoi

ieu 1339 noi en hai bien phap "canh cao" (warning) va "khien trach" (rebuke). Be Tren canh cao e ho dng lai viec ho ang toan tnh hoac canh cao ho t bo s co chap. Canh cao bang van th la ieu kien hu hieu cho viec tuyen ket (. 1347). Nha lap phap oi hoi Be Tren Dong tu phai canh cao tu s hai lan trc khi tien hanh thu tuc truc xuat (. 697). Be tren khien trach ng s e ho thay hanh kiem cua ho gay ra gng xau va xao tron trat t tram trong. Theo s khon ngoan cua mnh, ang Ban Quyen co the them nhng viec sam hoi vao dc hnh canh cao va khien trach thay v a ra cach hnh phat nang hn v pham nhan ang c khoan hong (. 1324 ~1; 1328 ~2) hay a hoi cai (. 1343)

Lm. Nguyen Tat Thang OP

 


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