Gii thieu Giao Hoi va at nc Chile

sap c c Thanh Cha vieng tham

 

Gii thieu Giao Hoi va at nc Chile sap c c Thanh Cha vieng tham.

Chile (Vat. 10-01-2018) - Trong cac ngay t 15 ti 18 thang gieng nam 2018, c Thanh Cha Phanxico se vieng tham muc vu nc Chile.

Khi hanh t Roma sang th hai 15 thang gieng nam 2018, c Thanh Cha se en Chile vao luc sau 8 gi toi gi a phng.

Chng trnh vieng tham bat au ngay th ba 16 thang gieng nam 2018 day ac sinh hoat: Ban sang c Thanh Cha se gap g chnh quyen, cac ai dien xa hoi dan s va ngoai giao oan tai dinh De la Moneda, roi chu s thanh le tai cong vien O'Higgins. Ban chieu ngai vieng tham trung tam cai huan n trong thu o Santiago, roi gap cac linh muc tu s nam n chung sinh trong nha th chnh toa, tiep en gap cac Giam Muc va vieng tham en thanh Alberto Hurtado dong Ten va gap g cac tu s dong Ten.

Ngay th t 17 thang gieng nam 2018, c Thanh Cha vieng tham giao phan Temuco, dang thanh le, roi dung ba tra vi mot so tho dan vung Araucania. Vao ban chieu ngai tr ve Santiago e gap g gii tre tai en thanh Maipu. Tiep theo o, c Thanh Cha se vieng tham ai hoc cong giao Chile.

Th nam 18 thang gieng nam 2018, c Thanh Cha vieng tham giao phan Iquique, dang thanh le cho dan chung tai Campus Lobito, va vao luc 5 gi chieu t gia Chile e bay sang Peru.

at nc Chile

Cong hoa Chile rong gan 756 ngan cay so vuong, khong ke vung nam cc rong hn 1 trieu 250 ngan cay so vuong, ma Chile van cho la cua mnh. Chile la quoc gia co chieu dai dai nhat the gii 4,300 cay so t bac xuong nam, khong ke vung nam cc, nhng chieu rong ch c 180 cay so. Chile cung la quoc gia co 23 ngon nui cao t 2,200 met ti 6,323 met, va 44 nui la cao t 953 met ti 6,891 met. Chile cung co 23 con song, 51 ho ln va 36 ao ln nho.

Tuy dien tch rong menh mong nh the nhng Chile ch co hn 17 trieu dan, a so la ngi lai giong con chau cua ngi Tay Ban Nha thuoc a va cac tho dan Indios Araguani, trong khi co 3.2% la ngi Amerindi, a so song tai mien nam. Trong hai the ky XIX va XX co nhieu ngi dan goc Au chau nh Anh, Ai Len, Italia, Phap. Yougoslavi, vung Basque di c sang Chile. Con chau ngi Basque hien chiem 10% tong so dan. Nhng ngi dan Chile co li tc bnh quan cao hn ca Argentina, Uruguay, Mehico va Brasil. T nam 2010 Chile la thanh vien cua to chc Cong tac phat trien OCSE.

Ten goi Chile co the bat nguon t ten cua mot toc trng la "Tili". Nhng no cung co the bat nguon t ten thung lung Chili trong vung Aconcagua, hoac do t Chilli trong tieng Mapuche co ngha la "ni trai at ket thuc", hay do t Chin trong tieng Quechua co ngha la "lanh". Cac ngi Tay Ban Nha nghe ten Chile t tho dan Incas va nhng song sot trong cuoc chinh phuc Peru au tien cua ong Diego de Almagro, au the ky XVI t goi ho la "ngi cua Chilli". Theo c vien phu Molina t Chile bat nguon t ch "Chi" hay "Trih" trong tieng Mapuche va co ngha la "con chim co mot cham o tren canh".

Chile co lch s rat co xa bat au t 10,500 nam trc cong nguyen vi nhieu bo lac tho dan sinh song ve nghe nong tai mien bac nh Aymara, Atacamenha va Diaguita. Bat au t the ky XV e quoc Incas thong tr phan ln at Chile hien nay. mien nam song Aconcagua co nhieu nhom Mapuche ban du muc sinh song, va ho la chung toc chnh cua Chile. Ngoai ra con co cac nhom chung toc khac nh Chono, Yamana, Alacalufe va Ona sinh song.

Vao nam 1520 Ferdinando Magellano la ngi au chau au tien tham hiem Chile. Ch vao nam 1535 cac ngi Tay Ban Nha mi chiem cac thung lung Chile sau khi anh bai e quoc Incas. Tuy nhien chien tranh vi tho dan Mapuche keo dai 3 the ky vi cac thi gian hoa bnh. Vng quoc Chile la mot trong nhng vung thuoc a xa xoi nhat cua Tay Ban Nha, v the Chile a ch la mot tnh ngheo thuoc quyen cua pho vng Peru.

Chien tranh oc lap bung no nam 1814 va ong Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme truyen bo Chile oc lap nam 1817. Trong cac thap nien sau o Chile tap trung sc lc vao viec to chc, phat trien va on nh quoc gia. Phe bao thu a nam quyen trong 40 nam.

Hien phap va cong hoa Chile c cong bo nam 1925. Cac thap nien sau o chnh quyen do cac ang phai xa hoi chu ngha, roi phat xt va cong san cam au.

Nam 1970 ong Salvatore Allende thuoc ang xa hoi c bau lam tong thong. Nhng cuoc khung hoang kinh te khien cho cac tang lp nhan dan nh cong bai th a ti cuoc ao chanh cua quan oi vao thang 9 nam 1973 do tng Augusto Pinochet cam au, vi s tr giup cua lc lng CIA cua My. Trong 30 nam oc tai t 1973 ti 1990 tng Pinochet a thu tieu 30,000 ngi, trong o co cac thanh vien ang Nhan dan thong nhat, lien minh Allende, cac ang vien cong san, xa hoi va dan chu, cung nh cac giao s, gii tr thc, han lam, gii nghe s, chuyen nghiep, tu s, sinh vien va th thuyen. B that bai sau cuoc trng cau dan y nam 1988 Pinochet chnh thc thoi nhiem vu nam 1990, nhng van la ch huy toi cao cua quan oi. Nam 1998 khi ong qua Luan on giai phau th b to chc An Xa quoc te va nhieu to chc bao ve cac quyen con ngi to cao cac toi chong lai nhan loai va b truy na theo luat phap quoc te. Nhng nam 2000 bo trng noi vu Anh Jack Straw quyet nh tra t do cho ong v ly do nhan ao. Tng Pinochet song hu tai Chile, a khong bao gi ra hau toa va qua i nam 2006, tho 91 tuoi.

Cac ang phai khac nhau tai Chile thanh lap lien minh trung ta va trung hu a ngi cua mnh len. Trong cuoc bau c nam 2005 ba Michelle Bachelet ac c tong thong nhng chnh quyen phai oi pho vi nhieu kho khan va cuoc khung hoang kinh te nam 2008-2009. Theo gi y cua c Cha Alejandro Goic, chu tch Hoi ong Giam Muc Chile, ba Bachelet cong bo sac lenh an xa cho mot so cac tu nhan nhan mng ky niem 200 lap quoc vao nam 2010. S chia re gia cac ang phai trong lien minh trung ta a khien cho ba that c trong cuoc au phieu nam 2010. Bien co ong Sebastian Pignera thang c len lam tong thong cham dt 20 nam cai tr cua lien minh trung ta. Nen kinh te Chile tien trien manh, i ngc chieu vi cuoc khung hoang kinh te tren the gii. Nhng nam 2013 phe trung ta lai thang c, va ba Michelle Bachelet lai len lam tong thong.

Giao Hoi Cong Giao Chile

Giao Hoi Cong Giao chnh thc hien dien tai Chile ngay 13 thang 12 nam 1540, khi oan vien chinh do Pedro de Valdivia cam au, en thung lung Mapocho, trong o co 3 linh muc Tay Ban Nha la Rodrigo Gonzales Marmolejo, Juan Lobo va Diego Perez. Ngay 12 thang 2 nam 1541 thanh pho Santiago de la Nueva Extremadura c thanh lap vi mot nha th c xay cat man tay bac quang trng ln, va mot nha nguyen knh c Ba Monserrat tren oi Cerro Blanco.

Trong vong 20 nam cac vung at nay thuoc quyen cua giao phan Lima. Ngay 27 thang 6 nam 1561 c Giao Hoang Pio IV cho thanh lap giao phan Santiago de Cile vi Giam Muc tien khi la c Cha Rodrigo Gonzales Marmolejo. Tiep theo o la 3 Giam Muc dong Phanxico. c Cha Diego de Medillin chia giao phan thanh 4 giao x, thanh lap chung vien ao tao cac chung sinh va truyen chc cho cac linh muc au tien ngi ban x, cung nh thanh lap an vien n au tien. Cac cuoc vien chinh tiep tuc tien ve phia nam. Sau khi thanh pho La Imperial c thanh lap, ngay 22 thang 3 nam 1563 c Giao Hoang Pio IV cho thanh lap giao phan Santissima Concezione.

Cho ti nam 1840 hai giao phan nay tuy thuoc tong giao phan Lima, va la hai giao phan duy nhat tai Chile. Cong viec rao giang Tin Mng c giao cho tu s cac dong, nhat la cac tu s dong Phanxico, dong Ten dong Mercedari va dong Agostino.

Ke t khi Chile c oc lap nam 1818 Giao Hoi Cong Giao a nam gi vai tro quan trong trong cuoc song chnh tr xa hoi, va duy tr the quan bnh gia viec bao ve quyen li cua Tay Ban Nha va cac t tng oc lap cua ngi dan Chile. Cac nam au cua chnh quyen cong hoa mang dau vet cang thang gia cac gii chc chnh tr, a so theo be phai Tam iem, va hang giao s. Cac cang thang giam bt vao nam 1833, khi Cong Giao c coi la quoc giao. Nhng cac kho khan gia tang vi cac khuynh hng duy i muon co mot cong hoa i. Cac cang thang cham dt vi Hien phap nam 1925 tach ri nha nc khoi Giao Hoi. Giao Hoi cong giao t bo cac can thiep anh hng tren quyen bnh chnh tr e duy tr vai tro phe bnh tch cc va co van trong cac van e xa hoi. Cac Giam Muc Chile a gop phan rat ln trong viec duy tr bau kh hoa bnh cua tien trnh tach ri nay.

Nien giam nam 2011 cho biet Giao Hoi Cong Giao co 5 tong giao phan, 18 giao phan, 2 giao quan, 1 giam quan tong toa va mot ban quyen quan oi. Tong giao phan Santiago co hn 4 trieu tn hu tren gan 6 trieu dan, do c Hong Y Ricardo Ezzati Andrello cai quan vi s tr giup cua 4 Giam Muc phu ta. Giao phan gom 209 giao x vi 847 linh muc.

Di che o oc tai cua tng Pinochet t 1873 ti 1990 Giao Hoi nam gi vai tro quan trong trong viec benh vc va bao ve cac quyen con ngi, chnh v the chnh quyen quan phiet coi Giao Hoi thuoc phe oi lap. c Hong Y Raul Silva Henriquez, Tong Giam Muc Santiago, a tr thanh mot trong nhng ngi cng quyet chong lai chnh quyen quan phiet oc tai. Cung vi cac v lanh ao cac ton giao khac ngai a thanh lap "Uy ban cong tac bao ve hoa bnh Chile" b tong thong Pinochet giai tan. Nhng sau o no bien thanh "Van phong giam quan Lien i" cua tong giao phan, chuyen tr giup phap ly va xa hoi cho cac nan nhan cua chnh quyen oc tai va khien cho c Hong Y tr thanh iem tham chieu cua tat ca nhng ai chong che o oc tai quan phiet. c Hong Y thu thap tin tc lien quan ti hang chuc ngan gi b mat tch, to chc cac trung tam phat chan, phan phat thc pham cho dan ngheo trong cac khu xom o chuot.

T nam 1977 lien lac gia chnh quyen quan oi va Giao Hoi bt cang thang hn, va no lc hoa giai at tot nh vi chuyen cong du muc vu cua c Gioan Phaolo II nam 1987. Trong buoi gap g cac Giam Muc c Gioan Phaolo II a khch le cac v kien tr va tao bao danh u tien cho muc vu hiep nhat quoc gia, gop phan khc t bao lc va thu han, can am benh vc cac quyen con ngi. Co nhieu ngi cho rang chuyen vieng tham cua c Gioan Phaolo II ch giup cung co chnh quyen quan phiet oc tai. Nhng 10 nam sau cuoc trng cau dan y a ha be tong thong Pinochet. Sau khi che oc quan phiet oc tai cao chung, Giao Hoi a cng quyet ay manh tien trnh hoa giai quoc gia.

Ngay 18 thang 9 nam 2003 trong bai giang thanh le c Hong Y Francisco Javier Errazuris, Tong Giam Muc Santigao de Cile, a lay lai e tai "Khong bao gi na" la tieng keu cua cac xa hoi va cac quoc gia chau my latinh dung e tng niem biet bao nhieu nan nhan cua cac che o quan phiet oc tai. Ngai noi: "Khong bao gi na vi biet bao ngheo oi, bat cong xa hoi, gian ac chiem hu cua cai, khong co kha nang oi thoai, thu han oi vi s that va nen dan chu. Khong bao gi na oi vi nen kinh te anh vao nhng ngi ngheo nhat. Khong bao gi na oi vi viec chnh tr hoa cac lc lng quan oi... Khong bao gi na oi vi viec xuyen tac tin tc, au tranh t tng va y thc he vi gia cac sinh mang con ngi, vi s th trc kho au va vi pham co he thong cac quyen con ngi".

Trong nam 2017 va qua Chile ang trai qua mot cuoc khung hoang xa hoi. Lan song bai cong giao gia tang. T thang gieng nam 2017 tr i a co 25 nha th va mot chung vien b ot, cac anh Chua chu nan b ap pha xuc pham. Ngay mung 2 thang 3 nam ngoai ai chung vien San Fidel thuoc giao phan Villarrica a b mot nhom tho dan Mapuche Trapilhue ot chay, v no nam tren vung at ma tho dan Mapuche a t lau oi chnh quyen tra lai cho ho. Mot lanh tu tho dan tuyen bo: "Giao Hoi cho thay mnh la thanh phan cua nha nc. Va se khong co hoa bnh cho ti khi nao Giao Hoi b uoi ra khoi at cua tho dan Mapuche". Giao Hoi ang trong the ket gia cac nguyen vong chnh ang cua cac tho dan va bao lc khung bo co the cham ngoi cho mot cuoc noi loan cua cac tho dan.

Ngay mung 9 thang 6 nam 2017 trong mot cuoc bieu tnh tai thu o Santiago mot oan sinh vien au trum mu che mat a ot nhap nha th "Gratitud Nacional" "Quoc gia nh n" cp boc, va loi tng Chua chu ong anh ra dung chan a va ap pha. Thay v on hoa bieu tnh oi chnh quyen cai to neng giao duc trong nc, th cac nhom sinh vien nay lai ot pha cac nha th. Ly do oi cai to giao duc ch la c cho cac vu khung bo bao lc chong lai Giao Hoi. Sau khi ba tong thong manh me len an hanh ong nay, c Hong Y Tong Giam Muc Santiago a dang thanh le phat ta va a ra cau hoi "ieu g ang xay ra tai Chile?". Ngai cung cho biet bao lc va khung bo a gia tang trong hai nam qua v a co ti 25 nha th cong giao va tin lanh b ot pha tai mien nam Chile, ac biet trong hai vung Biobio a Araucaria. ay la vung co ong tho dan Mapuche sinh song. Nhom nay chien 4% tong so dan, va t nhieu nam qua a yeu cau chnh quyen tra lai at ai cho ho. Cac vung at nay hien do cac to chc sieu quoc chiem hu va khai thac. Trong nhieu nam qua chnh quyen a cham chap khong tm ra cac giai phap thoa ang e giai quyet yeu cau chnh ang cua tho dan Mapuche.

e chuan b cho chuyen vieng tham cua c Thanh Cha Phanxico trong cac ngay qua c Hong Y Ricardo Ezzati Andrello, Tong Giam Muc Santiago, a c hanh thanh le tai en thanh c Ba Maipu, ni ngay mung 5 thang 4 nam 1818 a xay ra tran anh nh oat cua chien tranh oc lap. Trc o ngay 14 thang 3 nam 1818 dan chung trong vung a khan ha vi c Me rang neu chien thang ho se xay mot en thanh knh c Ba Camelo. Trong thanh le c Hong Y Ezzati a gi 2,500 sinh vien hoc sinh thuoc 40 trng cao hoc ra i thc hien d an truyen giao cua muc vu ai hoc cong giao xay 50 nha nguyen cho dan ngheo trong cac vung ngoai o. Chng trnh nay a do cac linh muc tuyen uy va sinh vien ai hoc phat ong ap tra li c Phanxico mi goi gii tre tai Rio de Janeiro trong Ngay quoc te gii tre nam 2013. D an 50 nha nguyen cho dan ngheo thanh hnh vao thang 4 nam 2014 vi muc ch se c gii thieu vi c Thanh Cha ngay ngai se en vieng tham Chile.

 

Linh Tien Khai

(Radio Vatican)

 


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