Tai lieu mi cua Bo Giao Ly c Tin:

Giao Hoi Tai Sinh

Iuvenescit Ecclesia

 

Tai lieu mi cua Bo Giao Ly c Tin: Giao Hoi Tai Sinh Iuvenescit Ecclesia.

Roma (VietCatholic News 15-06-2016) - Hom ngay 14 thang 6 nam 2016, Thanh Bo Giao Ly c Tin a cho cong bo tai lieu Iuvenescit Ecclesia (Giao Hoi Tai Sinh) di hnh thc mot la th, e cap ti "moi tng quan gia cac hong n pham trat va ac sung oi vi i song va s menh cua Giao Hoi", trong o, Thanh Bo nhan manh rang: "Giao Hoi 'nh che' khong nen chong lai Giao Hoi 'bac ai'" v trong Giao Hoi, "cac nh che chu yeu cung eu co tnh ac sung" va 'cach nay hay cach khac, cac ac sung phai c nh che hoa e co c s gan bo va lien tuc". Sau ay la ban dch Viet ng toan van tai lieu tren:

 

Thanh Bo Giao Ly c Tin

Th "Giao Hoi Tai Sinh"

 

Gi Cac Giam Muc cua Giao Hoi Cong Giao

ve moi tng quan gia cac hong an pham trat va ac sung oi vi i song va s menh cua Giao Hoi

 

Nhap e

Cac hong an cua Chua Thanh Than trong Giao Hoi ang thi hanh s menh

1. Giao Hoi tai sinh nh sc manh cua Tin Mng, va Chua Thanh Than luon canh tan Giao Hoi, qua viec xay dng va hng dan Giao Hoi "nh s a dang trong cac hong an pham trat va ac sung" (1). Nhieu lan, Cong ong Vatican II a nhan manh ti cong trnh ky dieu cua Chua Thanh Than, ang thanh hoa Dan Chua, hng dan no, trang hoang no bang nhieu nhan c va lam no phong phu vi nhieu ac sung e xay dng no. Hanh ong cua Chua Thanh Than trong Giao Hoi mang nhieu hnh thc, nh cac giao phu tng nhan manh. Thanh Gioan Kim Khau viet rang: "Trong tat ca cac n phuc ang hanh ong e cu roi ta, co phai co mot n duy nhat khong do Chua Thanh Than ban cho ta khong? Nh Ngi, chung ta vut qua canh no le, c mi vao t do, c vinh d nhan lam dng t cua Thien Chua; chung ta c tao nen nh mi, co the noi nh the; chung ta trut c ganh nang ne va ang ghet cua to loi. Chnh nh Chua Thanh Than chung ta c thay hp oan linh muc, chung ta co c pham ham tien s. T nguon suoi nay, tuon chay cac mac khai, cac thuoc cu cha linh hon ta; sau cung t o phat sinh moi li iem von trang hoang Giao Hoi cua Chua" (3). Viec hieu biet hanh ong a dang cua Chua Thanh Than trong Giao Hoi moi ngay moi tang gia mot cach tot ep nh chnh i song cua Nhiem The Chua Kito, nh rat nhieu can thiep cua Huan Quyen va viec nghien cu than hoc. Nh o, s hieu biet nay a thoi thuc chung ta ac biet lu tam ti cac hong an ac sung, ma dan Chua von c lam giau bat c thi nao nham chu toan s menh cua mnh.

Loan bao Tin Mng mot cach hu hieu la mot trach vu ac biet khan trng oi vi thi ai ta. Trong Tong Huan Niem Vui Tin Mng, c Thanh Cha a nhac nh rang "Neu co ieu g can phai lam chung ta ban tam cach thanh thien va lam lng tam ta quan ngai th ieu o chnh la: anh em ta phai song ma khong co sc manh, khong co anh sang va niem an ui do tnh ban cua Chua Giesu Kito mang ti, khong co mot cong ong c tin chao on ho, khong co chan tri y ngha va s song" (3). Li keu goi tr thanh mot Giao Hoi "ra i" (4) cung cap cho ta mot c hoi e oc lai tron bo cuoc song Kito hu theo cai nhn sai i. Trach vu truyen giang Tin Mng lien quan ti moi lanh vc cua Giao Hoi: muc vu thong thng, cong bo cho nhng ai a t bo c tin Kito Giao va, cach rieng, cho nhng ngi cha bao gi tiep nhan Tin Mng cua Chua Giesu hay cho nhng ngi luon luon bac bo no (5). Trong s cap thiet cua mot cuoc tan phuc am hoa nay, ieu can hn bao gi het la phai tha nhan va anh gia cao rat nhieu ac sung, co the khi day va nuoi dng i song c tin cua dan Chua.

Cac hiep hoi Giao Hoi a dang

2. Rat nhieu hiep hoi Giao Hoi a phat sinh trc va sau Cong ong Vatican II; cac hiep hoi nay tao nen mot nguon canh tan quan trong cho Giao Hoi va cho "viec hoan cai co tnh muc vu va truyen giao" (6) rat khan thiet oi vi toan bo i song Giao Hoi. Them vao gia tr va s phong phu cua moi to chc von co xa nay, moi to chc co nhng muc tieu chuyen biet cua ho, cung nh cua cac Vien i Song Thanh Hien va cac Hoi i Song Tong o, ta con co nhng thc tai mi gan ay nay ma ta co the mo ta nh cac hiep hoi cua tn hu, cac phong trao Giao Hoi, va cac cong ong mi. Tai lieu nay suy t ve cac thc tai va noi. Ta khong the hieu chung mot cach n gian nh mot hiep hoi t nguyen gom nhng ngi muon theo uoi mot muc tieu xa hoi hay ton giao ac thu. ac iem "phong trao" phan biet chung trong canh vc Giao Hoi nh nhng thc tai het sc nang ong. Chung co kha nang loi keo ngi ta mot cach ac biet vao Tin Mng va a ra mot e xuat oi vi loi song Kito Giao; e xuat nay, vi tam nhn co tnh hoan cau t trong can ban, ung en moi kha canh cua nhan sinh. Viec tu tap cac tn hu thanh nhom, vi mot cuoc song chung chia se moi s nham cung co i song c tin, c cay va c men nay noi len ay u tnh nang ong cua Giao Hoi nh mau nhiem hiep thong e truyen giao, va t bieu hien mnh nh dau ch s hp nhat cua Giao Hoi trong Chua Kito. Theo ngha nay, cac hiep hoi Giao Hoi phat sinh t mot ac sung chung co khuynh hng nhan "muc ch tong o rong ln cua Giao Hoi" lam muc tieu rieng cua ho (7). Trong vien anh nay, cac hiep hoi Giao Hoi, cac phong trao Giao Hoi, va cac cong ong mi e xuat nhieu hnh thc oi mi oi vi viec theo chan Chua Kito trong o, communio cum Deo (viec hiep thong vi Thien Chua) va communio fidelium (viec hiep thong cua cac tn hu) a c tham hau hoa. Nh the, tnh loi cuon trong cuoc gap g vi Chua Giesu va ve ep cua cuoc song Kito hu trong tnh tron ven cua no c a vao mot boi canh xa hoi mi me. Mot hnh thc truyen giao va lam chng ac thu cung c phat bieu trong thc te nay, nham khuyen khch s ln manh cua ca y thc sinh ong oi vi n goi Kito hu cua ca nhan lan nhng phng cach vng chac nham ao luyen Kito Giao cung nh song hoan thien theo Tin Mng. Theo cac ac sung a dang cua ho, tn hu co the tham d vao thc tai tu hop nay trong nhieu bac song khac nhau (tn hu giao dan, tha tac vien thu phong va nhng ngi thanh hien). Nh cach nay, ho bieu lo s phong phu a dang cua hiep thong Giao Hoi. Kha nang manh me cua mot thc tai nh the nham tu hop ngi ta lai vi nhau a tao nen mot chng t co y ngha cho thay Giao Hoi khong ln manh "nh viec cai ao ma 'nh loi cuon'" (8).

c Gioan Phaolo II tng noi chuyen vi ai dien cac phong trao cong ong mi. Ngai nhn ra ni cac phong trao nay mot "cau tra li ay tnh quan phong" (9) phat sinh t Chua Thanh Than oi vi viec can thiet phai thong truyen Tin Mng cho toan the gii mot cach thuyet phuc, co xem xet ti cac dien trnh thay oi ln lao trong hanh ong bnh dien hoan cau, von chu anh hng nang ne cua nen van hoa duy tuc. Chat men cua Than Kh nay "a mang en cho i song Giao Hoi mot s mi me bat ng, oi luc tham ch co tnh pha hoai" (10). Cung v giao hoang nay a nhac nh rang thi "chn mui cua Giao Hoi" a ti vi tat ca cac hiep hoi Giao Hoi nay. ieu nay bao ham gia tr va viec hoi nhap tron ven cua ho "vao cac Giao Hoi a phng va vao cac giao x [#] luon gi hiep thong vi cac muc t va cham chu nghe theo s hng dan cua cac ngai" (11). Cac thc tai mi me nay lam trai tim Giao Hoi tran ay niem vui va biet n, va ho c mi goi lien he mot cach tch cc vi moi hong an khac ang hien dien trong i song Giao Hoi.

Muc ch cua tai lieu nay

3. Vi tai lieu nay, va di anh sang moi tng quan gia cac "hong an pham trat va ac sung", Bo Giao Ly c Tin co y nh lam noi bat cac yeu to than hoc va Giao Hoi hoc ma viec thau hieu chung se khch le mot s tham d hu hieu va co trat t cua cac hiep hoi mi vao s hiep thong va vao s menh cua Giao Hoi. V muc ch nay, trc nhat, mot so yeu to chu chot thuoc ca tn ly ac sung tm thay trong Tan c lan suy t cua Huan Quyen ve cac thc tai nay se c trnh bay. Lan lt, da vao mot so nguyen tac cua than hoc he thong, viec nhan dien cac yeu to cua ca hong an pham trat lan hong an ac sung se c trnh bay song song vi mot so tieu chuan e bien phan cac hiep hoi Giao Hoi mi nay.

I. Cac ac sung theo Tan c

n sung va ac sung

4. "ac sung" la lay nguyen van t ch Hy Lap charisma, mot ch thng thay trong cac th cua Thanh Phaolo, nhng cung xuat hien trong th th nhat cua Thanh Phero. Ch nay ai cng co ngha "n sung ai lng" va trong Tan c, ch c dung noi ti cac n sung cua Thien Chua. Trong mot so oan van, boi canh cung cap cho ta mot y ngha chnh xac hn (xem Rm 12:6; 1Cr 12: 4-31; 1Pr 4:10), ma net can ban la phan phoi cac n sung cach d biet hoa (12). Trong cac ngon ng hien ai, ay cung la y ngha troi vt cua cac t lay t tieng Hy Lap. Khong nh cac n sung nen tang nh n thanh hoa hay cac n tin, cay va men, von can thiet cho moi Kito hu, mot ac sung ca the khong can phai la mot n ban cho moi ngi (xem 1 Cr 12:30). Cac ac sung la nhng n ac thu c Chua Thanh Than ban phat "tuy y Ngi" (1Cr 12:11). e a ra mot giai thch oi vi s hien dien can thiet cua cac ac sung khac nhau trong Giao Hoi, hai ban van minh nhien nhat, Rm 12:4-8 va 1Cr 12:12-30, a s dung mot so sanh vi than the con ngi: "V cung nh trong mot than the, ta co nhieu bo phan, va moi bo phan khong co cung mot chc nang nh nhau the nao, th ta cung vay, du la nhieu ngi, nhng chung ta ch la mot than the trong Chua Kito va xet tng ca the eu la cac bo phan cua nhau. V ta co nhng hong an khac nhau tuy theo n sung c ban cho ta, ta hay s dung chung" (Rm 12:4-6). Gia cac chi the cua than the, tnh a dang nay khong tao ra mot s d thng can phai tranh, trai lai, no va can thiet va sinh ch. No lam kha hu viec chu toan cac chc nang khac nhau em lai s song. "Gia nh tat ca ch la mot th bo phan, th lam sao ma thanh than the c? Nh the, bo phan tuy nhieu ma than the ch co mot" (1Cr 12:19-20). Mot tng quan mat thiet gia cac ac sung ac thu (charsmata) va n sung (charis) cua Thien Chua a c qua quyet bi Thanh Phaolo trong Rm 12:6 va bi Thanh Phero trong th 1Pr 4:10 (13). Cac ac sung c nhn nhan nh la bieu hien cua "n sung a dang cua Thien Chua" (1Pr 4:10). Do o, chung khong phai ch la cac kha nang nhan ban. Nguon goc than thieng cua no a c phat bieu nhieu cach khac nhau: theo mot so ban van, chung phat xuat t Thien Chua (xem Rm 12:3; 1Cr 12:28; 2Tm 1:6; 1Pr 4:10); theo Ep 4:7, chung phat xuat t Chua Kito; theo 1Cr 12:4-11, chung phat xuat t Chua Thanh Than. V oan van cuoi cung va roi la oan van nhan manh hn ca (no nhac ti Chua Thanh Than en 7 lan), cac ac sung thng c trnh bay nh la "cac bieu hien cua Chua Thanh Than" (1Cr 12:7). Tuy nhien, ieu ro rang la s qui ket nay khong co tnh cach oc chiem va khong mau thuan vi hai qui ket trc o. Cac hong an cua Thien Chua luon bao ham tron bo chan tri Ba Ngoi, nh than hoc von qua quyet ngay t buoi au, ca Tay Phng lan ong Phng (14).

Cac hong an ban cho "e gay ch cho moi ngi" va u v cua c ai

5. Trong 1 Cr 12:7, Thanh Phaolo tuyen bo rang "oi vi tng ca nhan, bieu hien cua Thanh Than c ban bo v mot li ch nao o". Nhieu ban dch them "v ch li moi ngi" (*) v a so cac ac sung c Thanh Tong o nhac en, du khong phai tat ca, a trc tiep nham gay ch li cho moi ngi. Khuynh hng nham xay dng moi ngi nay a c nhng ngi nh Thanh Basileo Ca, chang han, thau hieu, khi ngai viet: "Cac hong an nay c moi ngi tiep nhan v ngi khac hn v chnh ho [...] Trong cuoc song chung, ieu can thiet la sc manh cua Chua Thanh Than, ban cho mot ngi, phai c thong truyen cho moi ngi. Ngi ch biet song cho ban than mnh, co the nhan c ac sung, nhng no mai vo ch, c nam chet d ay bat ong, v mai mai an tang trong cai toi cua ho" (15). Tuy nhien, Thanh Phaolo khong bac bo ieu nay: mot ac sung co the ch hu ch oi vi ngi tiep nhan no ma thoi. ay la trng hp noi tieng la, mot ac sung khac vi hong an noi tien tri (16). Cac ac sung co ch li chung, bat ke la ac sung li noi (n khon ngoan, n hieu biet, n noi tien tri, n khuyen bao) hay ac sung hanh ong (n sc manh, n tha tac, n cai quan) cung eu co ch li cho ban than, v viec chung phuc vu ch chung van giup lam ln manh c ai ni nhng ngi nam c chung.Ve phng dien nay, Thanh Phaolo nhan nh rang neu ngi ta thieu c ai, th ngay cac ac sung cao nhat cung chang ch li chi cho ngi tiep nhan chung (xem 1Cr 13:1-3). Mot oan van nghiem khac trong Tin Mng Mattheu (Mt 7:22-23) cung noi len cung mot s thc: viec thi hanh cac ac sung hu hnh hn (noi tien tri, tr quy, lam phep la), bat hanh thay, van cung hien dien vi viec thieu moi tng quan chan chnh vi ang Cu The. Thanh th, Thanh Phero cung nh Thanh Phaolo eu nhan manh ti s can thiet phai qui hng moi ac sung ve c ai. Thanh Phero e xuat qui luat tong quat nay: V moi ngi nhan c mot hong an, nen hay dung hong an nay e phuc vu lan nhau nh nhng ngi quan ly n sung a dang cua Thien Chua" (1Pr 4:10). Thanh Phaolo th quan tam cach rieng ti viec s dung cac ac sung trong cac cuoc tu hop cua cong ong Kito hu, va noi rang "Phai lam moi s e xay dng" (1Cr 14:26).

S a dang cua cac ac sung

6. Trong mot so ban van, ta tm thay bang liet ke cac ac sung, co khi c tom tat (xem 1Pr 4:10), co khi vi nhieu chi tiet hn (xem 1Cr 12:8-10, 28-30; Rm 12:6-8). Trong so cac ac sung liet ke, co nhng n sung ngoai thng (cha benh, lam nhng viec o xo, noi nhieu tieng la) va cac n sung thong thng (day do, phuc vu, lam phuc), cac tha tac vu hng dan cong ong (xem Ep 4:11) va nhng hong an c ban qua viec at tay (xem 1Tm 4:14; 2Tm 1:6). Theo ngha hep cua t ng, viec cac hong an nay co phai la cac "ac sung" hay khong la ieu khong luon luon ro rang. Cac hong an ngoai thng c nhac i nhac lai trong 1Cr 12-14 bong bien mat trong cac ban van sau o: bang liet ke cua 1Rm 12:6-8 ch trnh bay cac ac sung t trong thay hn, nhng co ch li lien tiep oi vi i song cua cong ong Kito hu. Khong ban liet ke nao tren ay t cho mnh la rot rao (exhaustive). ni khac, chang han, Thanh Phaolo gi y: chon song oc than v tnh yeu oi vi Chua Kito nen c coi nh hoa trai cua mot ac sung, cung nh ac sung hon nhan vay (xem 1 Cr 7:7 trong ng canh toan chng). Cac th du ngai a ra tuy thuoc trnh o phat trien at c ni cac Giao Hoi cua thi ay va do o, le thuoc cac them bt ve sau. Thc vay, vi thi gian, Giao Hoi luon ln manh nh hanh ong ban sinh kh cua Chua Thanh Than.

Viec thi hanh thch ang cac ac sung trong cong ong Giao Hoi

7. T cac nhan xet tren ay, ta thay cac ban van Thanh Kinh khong trnh bay bat c s chong choi nao gia cac ac sung a dang; ung hn, cac ban van nay cho thay mot noi ket hoa hp va mot s bo tuc gia chung vi nhau. Phan e gia mot Giao Hoi nh che theo kieu Do Thai Kito Giao va mot Giao Hoi ac sung theo kieu Thanh Phaolo, ma mot so loi giai thch theo kieu gian lc ve Giao Hoi qua quyet, tren thc te thieu han nen tang trong cac ban van Tan c. Khong he at cac ac sung ve mot pha va thc tai nh che ve pha khac, nham oi choi mot Giao Hoi "cua c ai" va mot Giao Hoi "cua nh che", Thanh Phaolo gom vao mot ban liet ke ca cac ac sung uy quyen va giang day, von la cac ac sung hu ch cho i song bnh thng cua mot cong ong, lan cac ac sung ang ke khac (17). Thanh Phaolo mo ta chnh tha tac vu Tong o cua ngai nh mot tha tac vu "cua Chua Thanh Than" (2Cr 3:8). Ngai cam thay nh c mac lay mot tham quyen (exousa), do Chua ban cho ngai (xem 2Cr 10:8; 13:10), mot tham quyen cung c m rong cho cac ngi c n oan sung (charismatics). Ca ngai lan Thanh Phero eu cho cac ngi lanh n oan sung nhieu li huan giao ve cung cach thi hanh cac ac sung cua ho. Tren het, thai o cua ho la thai o chao on thuan li; ho phai xac tn c nguon coi than thieng cua cac ac sung; tuy nhien, ho khong c coi nhng hong an nay nh cho phep ho khoi vang li oi vi pham trat Giao Hoi, hay ban cho ho quyen c tha tac oc lap. Thanh Phaolo t chng to ngai hieu ro cac tr ngai ma viec thi hanh cac ac sung cach bat trat t co the gay ra cho cong ong Kito hu (18). Cho nen, Thanh Tong o a dung quyen cua mnh can thiep vao viec thiet lap ra cac qui luat chnh xac e thi hanh cac ac sung "trong Giao Hoi" (1Cr 14:19-28), tc la, trong cac cuoc tu hop cua cong ong (xem 1Cr 14:23-26). Th du, ngai gii han viec thi hanh n ngon ng (glossolalia) (19). Cac qui luat tng t cung a c a ra cho n noi tien tri (xem 1Cr 14:29-31) (20).

Cac hong an pham trat va cac hong an ac sung

8. Tom tat, t viec khao sat cac ban van Kinh Thanh lien quan ti cac ac sung, ta thay Tan c, du khong a ra mot giao huan co tnh he thong ay u, nhng a trnh bay nhieu qua quyet co tam rat quan trong co kha nang hng dan cac suy ngh va thc hanh cua Giao Hoi. Ta cung phai nhn nhan rang ta khong tm c mot s s dung nhat tr nao oi vi han t "ac sung"; ung hn, la ca mot loat y ngha khac nhau a c nhan thay; cac y ngha nay ang c suy t than hoc cung nh Huan Quyen giup ta hieu thau trong boi canh cai nhn toan dien ve mau nhiem Giao Hoi. Trong tai lieu nay, s chu y c at vao nh thc (binomial) a c nhan manh trong oan 4 cua Hien Che Tn Ly Lumen Gentium, la oan noi ti "cac hong an pham trat va cac hong an ac sung". Moi tng qan gia chung ro rang rat mat thiet va a c trnh bay ay u. Chung co cung mot nguon goc va mot muc ch nh nhau. Chung la ac hong an cua Thien Chua, cua Chua Thanh Than, cua Chua Kito, ban cho ta e ta gop phan cach nay hay cach khac vao viec xay dng Giao Hoi. Ai nhan lanh hong an lanh ao trong Giao Hoi cung co trach nhiem trong coi viec thi hanh ung an cac ac sung khac, cach nao o e tat ca eu gop phan vao ch li cua Giao Hoi va s menh truyen giang Tin Mng cua Giao Hoi, v biet ro rang Chua Thanh Than a phan phoi cac hong an ac sung cho bat c ai Ngi muon (xem 1Cr 12:11). Cung mot Chua Thanh Than a ban cho pham trat Giao Hoi kha nang bien phan tnh chan chnh cua cac ac sung, chao on chung mot cach han hoan va biet n, co vu chung mot cach quang ai, va ong hanh vi chung bang mot tnh phu t ay quan tam. Chnh lch s a lam chng cho hanh ong a dang cua Chua Thanh Than, nh o, Giao Hoi, "c xay tren nen tang cac Tong o va tien tri, vi Chua Giesu Kito nh hon a chot" (Ep 2:20), song c s menh cua mnh trong long the gii.

II. Moi tng quan gia cac hong an pham trat va ac sung trong Huan Quyen gan ay

Cong ong Vatican II

9. Du cha bao gi co s thieu vang cac ac sung a dang trong suot dong thi gian cua lch s Giao Hoi, tuy nhien, ch trong cac thi gan ay, mi co nhng suy ngh co he thong c khai trien ve chung. Va du hoc ly ve ac sung tng chiem mot khoang khong gian quan trong trong Huan Quyen cua c Pio XII nh a c phat bieu trong Mystici Corporis (21), nhng bc dt khoat tien ti cho hieu biet thoa ang moi tng quan gia cac hong an pham trat va ac sung ch c thc hien vi giao huan cua Cong ong Vatican II. Cac oan lien he ban en the tai nay (22) cho thay: trong i song Giao Hoi, cong vi Li Thien Chua, c viet ra va lu truyen, song song vi cac b tch, va vi tha tac vu pham trat thu phong, con co cac hong an, cac hong an ac biet hay ac sung, do Chua Thanh Than ban phat ni cac tn hu thuoc moi ieu kien. oan van ien hnh nhat ve phng dien nay tm thay trong Lumen Gentium, so 4:

"Giao Hoi, ma Chua Thanh Than hng dan trong moi ng chan ly (xem Ga 16:13) va Ngi hp nhat trong hiep thong va cac cong trnh tha tac, Ngi va trang b va dan dat bang cac hong an pham trat va ac sung va trang iem bang hoa qua cua Ngi (xem Ep 4:11-12,; 1Cr 12:4; Gl 5:22)" (23). Nh the, Hien Che Tn Ly Lumen Gentium, khi trnh bay cac hong an c ban phat qua Chua Thanh Than, bang cach phan biet gia cac hong an pham trat va cac hong an ac sung, a lam noi bat s d biet trong hp nhat cua chung. Cac xac quyet trong Lumen Gentium so 12 lien quan ti cac hien tng ac sung xem ra cung co y ngha trong boi canh Dan Chua tham d vao chc vu tien tri cua Chua Kito. Ta nhan ra: Chua Thanh Than khong t gii han Ngi vao viec nay ma thoi v "khong phai ch qua cac b tch va cac tha tac vu cua Giao Hoi ma Chua Thanh Than thanh hoa va dan dat Dan Chua va phong phu hoa Dan nay bang cac nhan c", nhng "Ngi con phan phat cac hong an ac biet ni cac tn hu moi bac. Nh cac hong an nay, Ngi lam cho ho xng ang va san sang am nhiem cac trach vu va chc vu a dang gop phan vao viec canh tan va xay ap Giao Hoi".

Cuoi cung, tnh a dang va quan phong cua chung c dien ta nh sau: "Cac ac sung nay, bat chap troi vt hn hay n gian hn va ban phat rong rai hn, eu can c lanh nhan vi long biet n va cam thay c an ui v chung hoan toan thch hp va hu ch cho nhu cau cua Giao Hoi" (24). Cac suy t tng t cung c tm thay trong Sac Lenh cua Cong ong ve Tong o Giao Dan (25). Van kien nay qua quyet rang "t viec chap nhan cac ac sung nay, gom ca cac ac sung co tnh s ang hn, moi tn hu eu co quyen va bon phan phai dung chung trong Giao Hoi va trong the gii e gay ch cho con ngi va xay dng Giao Hoi, trong t do cua Chua Thanh Than" (26). Do o, cac ac sung chan chnh a c coi nh cac hong an co tam quan trong tuyet oi can thiet oi vi i song va s menh cua Giao Hoi. Sau cung, giao huan cua Cong ong khong ngng tha nhan vai tro chu yeu cua cac muc t trong viec bien phan cac ac sung va viec thi hanh chung cach trat t trong hiep thong Giao Hoi (27).

Huan Quyen sau Cong ong

10. Trong thi ky sau Cong ong Vatican II, cac can thiep cua Huan Quyen ve chu e nay a c nhan boi (28). Sinh kh moi ngay moi gia tang ni cac phong trao mi, cac hiep hoi giao dan, va cac cong ong Giao Hoi, cung vi nh cau chuyen biet hoa v tr cua i Song Thanh Hien ben trong Giao Hoi a gop phan vao viec nhan boi nay (29). c Gioan Phaolo II, trong Huan Quyen cua ngai, a nhan manh cach rieng en nguyen tac ong yeu tnh (coessentiality) cua cac hong an nay: "toi thng co dp nhan manh rang trong Giao Hoi, khong he co tranh chap hay chong choi gia chieu kch nh che va chieu kch ac sung, ma cac phong trao la mot bieu thc quan trong. Ca hai chieu kch nay eu cung mot yeu tnh vi ket cau than linh cua Giao Hoi do Chua Giesu thiet lap, v ca hai cung giup lam cho mau nhiem Chua Kito va cong trnh cu roi cua Ngi hien dien tren the gii" (30). c Giao Hoang Benecto XVI, ngoai viec xac nhan tnh ong yeu tnh cua cac hong an ra, con tham hau hoa li xac quyet cua v tien nhiem, khi nhac nh rang "trong Giao Hoi, cac nh che co tnh yeu tnh cung eu co tnh ac sung va qua thc, cac ac sung, cach nay hay cach khac, eu phai c nh che hoa e co c s gan bo va lien tuc. Do o, ca hai chieu kch eu bat nguon t cung mot Chua Thanh Than v cung mot Nhiem The Chua Kito, va cung ong tnh lam cho mau nhiem va cong trnh cu roi cua Chua Kito hien dien tren the gii" (31). Nh the, cac hong an pham trat va cac hong an ac sung co lien he ho tng ngay t nguon goc. Sau cung, c Thanh Cha Phanxico nhac ta nh ti "s hoa hp" ma Chua Thanh Than a tao ra gia cac hong an a dang va a keu goi cac hiep hoi ac sung ci m oi vi viec truyen giao, vang li can thiet oi vi cac muc t, va duy tr s hiep thong trong Giao Hoi (32), v "chnh trong cong ong, cac hong an ma Chua Cha d tran ban cho chung ta mi n ro va phat trien; va chnh gia long cong ong, ngi ta hoc c cach nhan ra chung nh dau ch tnh yeu cua Ngi danh cho moi con cai cua Ngi" (33). Do o, e tom tat, ta co the nhan ra s ong thuan trong Huan Quyen gan ay oi vi tnh ong yeu tnh gia cac hong an pham trat va cac hong an ac sung. S chong oi gia chung, va ca viec at chung ben canh nhau la trieu chng cua mot sai lam hay cua viec hieu khong u ve hanh ong cua Chua Thanh Than trong i song va s menh cua Giao Hoi.

III. Nen tang than hoc cua moi tng quan gia cac hong an pham trat va ac sung

Cac chan tri Ba Ngoi va Kito hoc cua cac hong an Chua Thanh Than

11. Muon nam c cac ly do sau xa cua moi tng quan gia cac hong an pham trat va cac hong an ac sung, ta nen nh ti nen tang than hoc cua chung. Thc vay, viec can thiet phai vt qua kieu at cac hong an pham trat va cac hong an ac sung the chong choi nhau vo ch hay ben canh nhau nhng ngoai tai nhau la mot oi hoi cua chnh nhiem cuc cu roi, mot nhiem cuc luon bao ham moi tng quan noi tai gia cac s menh cua Ngoi Li va cac s menh cua Chua Thanh Than. Thc the, moi hong an cua Chua Cha eu ham ngha phai quy chieu vao cac hanh ong hon hp va d biet hoa cua s menh Thien Chua: moi hong an eu phat xuat t Chua Cha, qua Chua Con, trong Chua Thanh Than. Hong an Chua Thanh Than trong Giao Hoi co lien quan chat che vi s menh cua Chua Con, c dt khoat chu toan trong Mau Nhiem Vt Qua cua Ngi. Chnh Chua Giesu a noi ket viec Ngi chu toan s menh cua Ngi vi viec sai Chua Thanh Than xuong cong ong tn hu (34). Qua viec sai xuong nay, Chua Thanh Than khong the khai dien mot nhiem cuc nao khac hn nhiem cuc Ngoi Li Thien Chua nhap the, chu onh inh va song lai (35). Qua thc, toan bo nhiem cuc b tch cua Giao Hoi eu la s the hien than kh cua Nhap The: bi the, Chua Thanh Than a c Thanh Truyen coi la linh hon cua Giao Hoi, Nhiem The Chua Kito. Hanh ong cua Thien Chua trong lch s luon bao ham moi tng quan gia Chua Con va Chua Thanh Than, nhng ang von c goi la "hai ban tay cua Chua Cha" theo kieu noi kheu gi cua Thanh Irene thanh Lyon (36). Theo ngha nay, moi hong an cua Chua Thanh Than khong the khong trong moi tng quan vi Ngoi Li thanh xac pham (37).

Day noi ket t nguon goc gia cac hong an pham trat, c ban bo bang n b tch truyen chc, va cac hong an ac sung, c Chua Thanh Than ban phat t do, do o, co cac goc re het sc sau xa trong moi tng quan gia Ngoi Li Thien Chua nhap the va Chua Thanh Than, ang luon la Than Kh cua Chua Cha va cua Chua Con. Chnh v e tranh cac vien kien than hoc map m von chu trng mot "Giao Hoi cua Than Kh", phan biet va tach biet han vi Giao Hoi pham trat-nh che, ta can phai nhac lai ieu nay: hai s menh than thanh bao ham lan nhau trong moi hong an c ban cho Giao Hoi cach t do. Thc the, s menh cua Chua Giesu Kito von bao ham hanh ong cua Chua Thanh Than ngay trong chnh no. Trong thong iep cua ngai ve Chua Thanh Than, Dominum et Vivificantem, c Gioan Phaolo II a cho thay tam quan trong dt khoat cua hanh ong Chua Thanh Than trong s menh Chua Con (38). c Benecto XVI tham hau hoa tam nhn thong xuot nay trong Tong Huan Sacramentum Caritatis cua ngai; ngai nhac nh rang ang Phu Tr, ang "von lam viec ngay trong Sang The (xem St 1:2), a hien dien suot trong i song cua Ngoi Li nhap the". Chua Giesu Kito "c Trinh N Maria thu thai bi quyen nang Chua Thanh Than (xem Mt 1:18; Lc 1:35); b song Gioc ang, ngay t ngay khi au s menh cong khai cua Ngi, Chua Giesu a thay Chua Thanh Than hien xuong tren Ngi di hnh chim bo cau (xem Mt 3:16 va nhng cau song hanh); Ngi hanh ong, noi nang va han hoan trong Chua Thanh Than (xem Lc 10:21), va Ngi co the hien dang mnh trong Chua Thanh Than (xem Dt 9:14). Trong ieu goi la "dien van t biet" c Thanh Gioan tng thuat, Chua Giesu a ro rang lien ket viec hien mang song Ngi trong Mau Nhiem Vt Qua vi hong an Chua Thanh Than ban cho nhng ke thuoc ve Ngi (xem Ga 16:7). Khi a song lai, con mang tren da tht cac dau tch cua cuoc thong kho, Ngi a co the tuon ban Chua Thanh Than tren ho (xem Ga 20:22), bien ho thanh nhng ngi tham d vao chnh s menh rieng cua Ngi (xem Ga 20:21). Roi, Chua Thanh Than day cac mon e moi ieu va giup ho nh lai moi ieu Chua Kito a noi (xem Ga 14:26), v cung nh Than Kh s that (xem Ga 15:26), Ngi co nhiem vu dan a cac tong o vao moi s that (xem Ga 16:13). Trong trnh thuat Cong Vu, Chua Thanh Than ng xuong tren cac Tong o ang tu hop e cau nguyen vi c Maria vao Ngay Le Ngu Tuan (xem 2:1-4) va thuc ay ho am nhan s menh cong bo Tin Mng cho moi dan toc (39).

Hanh ong cua Chua Thanh Than trong cac hong an pham trat va ac sung

12. Nhan manh ti chan tri Ba Ngoi va Kito hoc cua cac hong an Thien Chua cung soi sang moi tng quan gia cac hong an pham trat va cac hong an ac sung. Thc vay, moi tng quan oi vi cac hanh ong cu o cua Chua Kito, nh viec thiet lap Phep Thanh The (xem Lc 22:19 tt; 1Cr 11:25), quyen tha toi (xem Ga 20:22tt), lenh truyen cho cac tong o i rao giang Tin Mng va lam phep ra (Mc 16:15tt; Mt 28:18-20), a xuat hien au tien trong cac hong an pham trat v chung von thuoc b tch Truyen Chc Thanh. Cung hien nhien khong kem la khong mot b tch nao co the c thong ban ma lai khong co hanh ong cua Chua Thanh Than (40). Mat khac, cac hong an ac sung, do Chua Thanh Than t do ban phat, "ang muon thoi au tuy y Ngi" (Ga 3:8) va phan phat cac hong an cua Ngi "theo cach Ngi muon" (1Cr 12:11), ve phng dien khach quan eu co tng quan vi s song mi trong Chua Kito, v cac Kito hu "ve phan mnh" (1Cr 12:27) eu la cac chi the cua Nhiem The Ngi. Do o, viec thau hieu thch ang cac hong an ac sung ch co the co neu biet qui chieu vao s hien dien cua Chua Kito va viec phuc vu Ngi; nh c Gioan Phaolo II tng qua quyet, "cac ac sung ch thc khong the khong hng ti cuoc gap g vi Chua Kito trong cac b tch" (41). Do o, cac hong an pham trat va cac hong an ac sung ro rang hp nhat khi qui chieu vao moi tng quan noi tai gia Chua Giesu Kito va Chua Thanh Than. ang Phu Tr va la ang, qua cac b tch, phan phat mot cach hu hieu n cu roi do Chua Kito, ang a chet va a song lai, em ti, va la ang ban phat cac ac sung.

Trong cac phung vu Phuc Sinh cua Kito Giao, nhat la trong truyen thong Syria, vai tro cua Chua Thanh Than, c mo ta bang hnh anh li la, gop phan lam cho kinh nghiem nay tr thanh hien nhien to tng. Thc the, Thanh Ephrem, ngi Syria, nha than hoc va la thi s v ai, tng noi rang "La cam thng hien xuong / va mang lay hnh thc banh an" (42), cho thay khong nhng hanh ong cua Chua Thanh Than co lien he vi viec bien oi cac hong an ma con lien he vi cac tn hu an banh Thanh The na. Quan iem ong Phng, vi s hu hieu cua anh tng, giup ta hieu Chua Kito a ban Chua Thanh Than cho ta cach nao khi loi keo ta ti gan Thanh The. Nh the, cung mot Chua Thanh Than, bang cac hanh ong cua Ngi ni cac tn hu, a nuoi dng ho bang chnh s song cua Chua Kito, dan ho mot lan na ti i song b tch sau sac hn, nhat la trong Phep Thanh The. Vi cung cach nay, hanh ong t do cua Chua Thanh Than trong lch s vn ti cac tn hu bang hong an cu roi va cung mot luc sinh ong hoa ho e ho biet ap ng mot cach t do va tron ven bang viec cam ket i ho.

IV Moi tng quan gia cac hong an pham trat va cac hong an ac sung trong i song va s menh cua Giao Hoi

Trong Giao Hoi nh mau nhiem hiep thong

13. Giao Hoi t trnh bay mnh nh "mot dan c lam nen mot vi s hp nhat cua Chua Cha, Chua Con va Chua Thanh Than" (43), trong o, moi tng quan gia cac hong an pham trat va cac hong an ac sung xuat hien nh c ieu hng vao viec tham d tron ven cua tn hu vao s hiep thong va s menh rao giang Tin Mng cua Giao Hoi. Ta c tien nh cach nhng khong e hng s song mi nay ni Chua Kito (Rm 8:29-31; Ep 1:4-5). Chua Thanh Than "tao nen s hiep thong ky dieu nay ni cac tn hu. Ngi em ho vao s ket hp than mat vi Chua Kito, en noi Ngi la nguyen ly cua s hp nhat trong Giao Hoi (44). Ben trong Giao Hoi, ngi ta c keu goi cung nhau tr thanh cac chi the cua Chua Kito va ben trong s hiep thong cua Giao Hoi, ho c hp nhat vi Chua Kito, nh cac chi the cua nhau. Hiep thong luon "la mot s tham d kep rat quan yeu: thap nhap cac Kito hu vao i song Chua Kito, va toa lan c ai gia toan the cac tn hu i nay va i sau. Hp nhat vi Chua Kito va trong Chua Kito; va hp nhat gia cac Kito hu trong Giao Hoi" (46). Trong chieu hng nay, mau nhiem Giao Hoi sang len "trong Chua Kito nh mot b tch hay nh mot dau ch va la dung cu cua ca s ket hp het sc mat thiet vi Thien Chua va s hp nhat cua toan the nhan loai" (47). T o, ta co the thay: Giao Hoi, nh mot mau nhiem hiep thong, co nguon goc b tch: "T trong nen tang, ieu nay co ngha la hiep thong vi Thien Chua qua Chua Giesu Kito, trong Chua Thanh Than. S hiep thong nay c thc hien trong Li Chua va trong cac b tch. "Phep Ra, ket hp mat thiet vi Phep Them Sc, la ca ngo bc vao va la nen tang cua hiep thong trong Giao Hoi. Phep Thanh The la nguon suoi va la nh cao cua tron bo i song Kito hu" (48). Cac b tch khai tam nay tao ra i song Kito hu va cac hong an pham trat cung nh cac hong an ac sung eu da vao chung. i song hiep thong trong Giao Hoi, von c sap at t ben trong nh the, c song trong mot viec lien tuc cung knh lang nghe Li Chua va c nuoi dng bang cac b tch. Li Chua t trnh bay vi ta nh c noi ket sau xa vi cac b tch, nhat la Phep Thanh The (49), trong chan tri Mac Khai duy nhat co tnh b tch. Truyen thong ong Phng nhn len Giao Hoi, nhiem the Chua Kito "c sinh ong hoa" bi Chua Thanh Than va thay ni Giao Hoi mot s hp nhat co trat t, mot s hp nhat t to bay ca trong bnh dien cac hong an cua mnh. S hien dien hu hieu cua Chua Thanh Than trong tam hon cac tn hu (xem Rm 5:5) la nguyen nhan coi re cua s hp nhat nay ngay trong cac bieu hien ac sung (50). Cac hong an ac sung ban cho cac ca nhan thc s thuoc ve chnh Giao Hoi va c sap at cho mot i song Giao Hoi tham hau hn. Quan iem nay cung co mat trong cac trc tac cua Chan Phuc John Henry Newman: "Nh the, trai tim moi Kito hu phai ai dien cho Giao Hoi Cong Giao thu nho, v Thanh Than duy nhat a bien ca toan the Giao Hoi va moi chi the cua no thanh en th cua Ngi" (51). Do o, tnh sai lac cua bat c mau thuan nao hay at canh nhau nao gia cac hong an pham trat va cac hong an ac sung lai cang hien nhien hn.

Tom lai, moi tng quan gia cac hong an ac sung va c cau b tch cua Giao Hoi xac nhan tnh ong yeu tnh gia cac hong an pham trat (trong ban chat ben vng, thng hang va bat kha thu hoi cua chung) va cac hong an ac sung. Cho du cac hnh thc lch s cua nhng hong an ac sung khong co chi bao am la c y nh nhau moi thi (52), tuy nhien, chieu kch ac sung th se khong bao gi thieu trong i song va s menh cua Giao Hoi.

Ban sac cua cac hong an pham trat

14. e thanh hoa moi thanh vien cua Dan Chua va v s menh cua Giao Hoi tren the gii, trong so cac hong an a dang, phai danh "v tr ac biet cho n lam Tong o ma chnh Chua Thanh Than a buoc ca nhng ngi c ban ac sung cung phai le thuoc tham quyen cua cac ngai" (53). Chnh Chua Giesu Kito cung muon phai co cac hong an pham trat e bao am s hien dien lien tuc viec Ngi lam trung gian cu roi duy nhat: "Cac Tong o c Chua Kito phong phu hoa bang viec tuon o cach ac biet Chua Thanh Than tren cac ngai (xem Cv 1:8; 2:4; Ga 20:22-23), va cac ngai chuyen giao hong an Chua Thanh Than nay cho cac ngi phu ta cac ngai bang cach at tay (xem 1Tm 4:14; 2Tm 1:6-7)" (54). Do o, viec trao ban cac hong an pham trat co nguon goc trc nhat ni tnh vien man cua b tch Truyen Chc Thanh, c ban phat luc truyen chc giam muc. Viec truyen chc nay "cung vi chc vu thanh hoa, cung trao ban chc vu giang day va cai quan, mot chc vu, tuy the, do chnh ban chat cua no, ch co the thi hanh trong tnh hiep thong co tnh pham trat vi au va cac thanh vien cua hp oan" (55). V ly do nay: "ni cac giam muc, do o, tc cac v ma cac linh muc von la tr ta, Chua Giesu Kito cua chung ta [...] hien dien gia nhng ngi tin [...] qua tha tac vu tuyet dieu cua cac ngai, Ngi rao giang Li Chua cho moi dan toc va khong ngng ban cac b tch c tin cho nhng ngi tin, qua hanh ong ay tnh cha con cua cac ngai (xem 1Cr 4:15). Ngi thap nhap cac chi the mi vao Nhiem The Ngi qua viec tai sinh thien gii, va sau cung qua s khon ngoan va can trong cua cac ngai, Ngi ieu hng va hng dan Dan Tan c trong cuoc hanh trnh cua ho ve hanh phuc i i" (56). Truyen thong Kito Giao ong Phng, von co nhieu noi ket quan yeu vi cac giao phu, oc tat ca nhng ieu nay qua y niem taxis het sc ac trng.Theo Thanh Basileo Ca, viec xep at Giao Hoi cho co trat t hien nhien la cong trnh cua Chua Thanh Than. Trat t (taxis) nay, mot trat t c Thanh Phaolo dung e liet ke cac ac sung (xem 1Cr 12:28), la trat t "phu hp vi s phan phat cac hong an cua Chua Thanh Than" (57) va theo trat t nay, hong an Tong o ng hang au. Khi i t viec truyen chc giam muc, ngi ta cung co the hieu cac hong an pham trat trong tng quan vi cac th bac khac cua b tch truyen chc thanh; tren het, trong tng quan vi cac linh muc, nhng v "c thanh hien e rao giang Tin Mng va chan dat cac tn hu cung nh c hanh viec th phng Thien Chua", va la nhng v "thanh hoa va cai quan thanh phan trong oan chien cua Chua c trao pho cho cac v", di tham quyen cua v giam muc. Ve phan cac v, cac v phai tr nen "mot khuon mau cho oan chien", e cac v co the "dan dat va phuc vu cong ong a phng cua cac v"(58). Trong b tch truyen chc thanh, cac giam muc va linh muc, nh viec xc dau linh muc, "nen ong hnh ong dang vi Chua Kito Linh Muc mot cach khien cac v co the hanh ong nhan danh Chua Kito la au" (59). Ngi ta phai them vao cac hong an nay cac hong an ban cho cac pho te "tren ho co viec at tay 'khong phai e lam linh muc, nhng e am nhiem tha tac phuc vu'" va la nhng ngi "nh c tang cng bi n sung b tch, va trong s hiep thong vi giam muc va oan linh muc cua ngai, ho phuc vu trong chc pho te lo phung vu, li Chua, va c ai oi vi Dan Chua" (60). Tom lai, cac hong an pham trat danh rieng cho b tch truyen chc thanh, trong cac th bac khac nhau, a c trao ban e Giao Hoi nh mot hiep thong khong bao gi khong cung hien cho moi thanh vien trong oan tn hu mot qua phuc n sung khach quan trong cac b tch, va nh the, em lai cho ho ca viec cong bo Tin Mng lan viec cham soc muc vu hp qui nh.

Ban sac cac hong an ac sung

15. Trong viec thi hanh cac hong an pham trat, neu viec cung hien n sung cua Chua Kito cho toan the Dan Chua suot trong lch s c am bao, th moi ca nhan tn hu van c keu goi phai ch than tiep nhan va ap lai n sung nay trong cac hoan canh cu the cua i song ho. Do o, cac hong an ac sung c Chua Thanh Than ban phat t do e n sung b tch co the sinh hoa trai trong i song Kito hu nhieu cach khac nhau va moi bnh dien.

V cac hong an nay "hoan toan thch hp va hu ch cho nhu cau Giao Hoi" (61), nh s phong phu a dang cua chung, Dan Chua co u kha nang song s menh Tin Mng cua ho, biet bien phan cac dau ch cua thi ai va biet giai thch chung di anh sang Tin Mng (62). Thc vay, cac hong an ac sung giup cac tn hu kha nang ap lai hong an cu roi mot cach hoan toan t do va hoan toan thch ng vi thi ai. Nh cach nay, chnh ho tr nen hong phuc yeu thng cho ngi khac va cac chng ta chan chnh cua Tin Mng trc mat toan the nhan loai.

Chia se cac hong an ac sung

16. Trong boi canh nay, ieu quan trong la phai nh rang cac hong an ac sung het sc a dang ngay trong chnh chung, khong nhng v ac iem chuyen biet cua chung ma con v s phan phat chung trong cong ong Giao Hoi. Cac hong an ac sung "c ban cho nhng con ngi ca the, nhng chung cung c nhng ngi khac chia se, en noi qua dong thi gian, cac ac sung ay ton tai nh mot di san song ong va quy gia, tao nen mot lien he thieng lieng ac biet gia cac ca nhan" (63). Moi tng quan gia ac tnh ca nhan cua ac sung va kha the chia se no noi len mot yeu to co tnh quyet nh trong tnh nang ong cua no, v no ung ti mot moi tng quan ma trong hiep thong Giao Hoi von luon lien ket ca nhan vi cong ong (64). Khi c em ra thi hanh, cac hong an ac sung co the phat sinh ra si day ong cam, gan gui, va cac tng quan thieng lieng. Qua chung, gia tai ac sung, phat sinh ni con ngi cua v sang lap, c chia se va tham hau hoa, nh the, em lai sc song cho cac gia nh thieng lieng ch thc. Cac hiep hoi Giao Hoi mi nay, trong cac hnh thc a dang cua chung, t trnh bay mnh nh nhng hong an ac sung c chia se. Cac phong trao Giao Hoi va cac cong ong mi cho thay mot ac sung sang lap nhat nh nao o a co the tu tap cac tn hu lai vi nhau ra sao va giup ho song tron n goi Kito hu va bac song thch hp cua ho nh the nao trong viec phuc vu s menh Giao Hoi. Cac hnh thc lch s cu the cua viec chia se nay co the a dang; chnh v ly do nay, nh lch s linh ao a chng minh, nhieu c s khac nhau a phat sinh t mot ac sung goc duy nhat.

c tham quyen Giao Hoi tha nhan

17. Trong so cac hong an ac sung do Chua Thanh Than ban phat t do, nhieu hong an c tiep nhan va song bi nhng ngi trong cong ong Kito Giao khong can bat c qui luat ac thu nao. Tuy nhien, khi mot hong an t trnh bay mnh nh la "ac sung sang lap" hay "ac sung nguyen khi", th no can c tha nhan cach chuyen biet e s phong phu cua no c minh ta trong hiep thong Giao Hoi va c lu truyen mot cach trung thanh vi thi gian. ay, ta thay phat sinh trach nhiem co tnh quyet nh phai bien phan, mot trach vu von thuoc cac tham quyen Giao Hoi (65). Tha nhan tnh chan chnh cua mot ac sung khong luon luon la mot trach vu de dang, tuy nhien, ay la mot phuc vu mang tnh bon phan ma cac muc t buoc phai chu toan. Cac tn hu co "quyen oi cac muc t thong tri ve tnh chnh ang cua cac ac sung va tnh ang tin cay cua nhng ngi t cho mnh a lanh nhan cac ac sung nay" (66). e at muc tieu nay, cac tham quyen Giao Hoi nen lu y ti ban chat kho co the oan trc cua cac ac sung c Chua Thanh Than linh hng va anh gia cac ac sung nay theo qui luat c tin vi y hng xay dng Giao Hoi (67). Dien trnh nay oi hoi nhieu thi gian. No oi phai qua mot thi ky thch ang mi co the chng thc c mot ac sung, von phai c e trnh cho mot cuoc bien phan nghiem tuc cho ti khi c tha nhan la chan chnh. Thc tai cua nhom phat sinh t ac sung phai co thi gian thch ang e ln len va trng thanh. Thi gian nay phai vt qua thi ky hng khi luc ban au cho ti khi mot cau hnh on nh xuat hien.Trong suot dien trnh chng thc nay, tham quyen cua Giao Hoi phai ong hanh mot cach nhan t vi nhom mi me nay. Viec ong hanh cua v muc t khong bao gi c giam thieu v, tnh yeu san on cua ang Chan Chien Lanh luon ong hanh vi oan chien nh the nao, th tnh phu t cua cac v trong Giao Hoi von c keu goi lam ai dien cho ang Chan Chien Lanh cung khong bao gi c suy tan nh the.

Cac tieu chuan e bien phan cac hong an ac sung

18. Trong boi canh o, ieu hu ch la ghi nh mot so tieu chuan, nh a c Huan Quyen cua Giao Hoi a ra trong may nam gan ay, e bien phan cac hong an ac sung ni cac hiep hoi Giao Hoi. Cac tieu chuan nay nham muc ch giup viec tha nhan ban chat Giao Hoi chan chnh cua cac ac sung.

a) Tnh u v cua li mi goi moi Kito hu nen thanh. Moi thc the phat sinh t viec cung chia se mot ac sung chan chnh luon luon phai phuc vu viec nen thanh trong Giao Hoi va, do o, viec gia tang c ai va thc s tien ti s hoan thien cua yeu thng (68).

b) Cam ket loan truyen Tin Mng. Cac ac sung chan chnh "la cac hong an cua Chua Thanh Than c thap nhap vao than the Giao Hoi, c loi cuon vao tam iem la chnh Chua Kito va sau o, c tuon vao lc ay rao giang Tin Mng" (69). Theo cach nay, chung phai co ac iem "phu hp vi va tham d vao cac muc tieu tong o cua Giao Hoi" va bieu lo "mot long nhiet thanh truyen giao lam gia tang tnh hu hieu cua chung nh cac yeu to tham d vao viec tai phuc am hoa" (70).

c) Tuyen xng c tin Cong Giao. Moi thc the ac sung phai la ni e giao duc c tin trong tnh vien man cua no bang cach "tuan theo va tuyen xng s that ve Chua Kito, ve Giao Hoi va nhan loai, trong s vang li Huan Quyen Giao Hoi, nh Giao Hoi giai thch no" (71); v ly do nay, ho phai tranh viec phieu lu "vt qua (proagon) tn ly va cong ong Giao Hoi". Thc vay, neu "ngi ta khong trong nhng ieu nay, ho khong hp nhat vi Thien Chua va vi Chua Giesu Kito" (xem 2Ga 9) (72).

d) Lam chng cho viec hiep thong thc s vi toan the Giao Hoi. ieu nay oi mot "tng quan con thao vi c Giao Hoang, hoan toan gan bo vi niem tin rang ngai la tam iem hp nhat vnh cu va hu hnh cua Giao Hoi hoan vu, va vi giam muc a phng, ngai la 'nguyen tac va nen tang hu hnh cua hp nhat' trong cac Giao Hoi ac thu" (73). ieu nay ham ngha mot long "san sang trung thanh tuan theo cac giao huan tn ly va cac sang kien muc vu" (74), cung nh "mot long san sang tham d vao chng trnh va hoat ong cua Giao Hoi tren cac bnh dien a phng, quoc gia va quoc te; mot cam ket oi vi viec giang day giao ly va mot kha nang day do va ao tao cac Kito hu" (75).

e) Nhn nhan va tran qui tnh bo tuc ho tng cua cac thanh phan ac sung khac trong Giao Hoi. T tieu chuan nay, phat sinh long san sang hp tac ho tng (76). Thc vay, "mot dau ch chac chan cua tnh chan chnh ni mot ac sung la ac tnh Giao Hoi cua no, kha nang cua no trong viec c thap nhap mot cach hai hoa vao i song cua dan thanh thien va trung thanh cua Thien Chua v ch li cua moi ngi. ieu g thc s mi me do Chua Thanh Than em en cung khong can phai che phu cac hong an va cac nen linh ao khac c ngi ta cam nhan" (77).

f) Chap nhan cac giay phut b th thach trong luc bien phan cac ac sung. V mot hong an ac sung co the bao ham "mot yeu to co tnh oc ao thc s va co tnh sang kien ac biet nao o oi vi i song thieng lieng cua Giao Hoi" va chung quanh no, "s viec co the co phan rac roi", thanh th mot trong cac tieu chuan xac nhan tnh chan chnh la "long khiem nhng chu ng nghch canh" sao cho "moi tng quan thc s gia mot ac sung chan chnh, vi vien tng mi me cua no, va s au kho noi tam, mang theo c mot lch s khong thay oi cua si day noi ket gia ac sung va thap gia" (78). Bat c s cang thang nao co the phat sinh cung eu la mot li keu goi phai thc hanh long bac ai ln hn, nham hng ti mot hiep thong va hp nhat Giao Hoi sau sac hn la hien co.

g) Phai co cac hoa trai thieng lieng nh c ai, niem vui, hoa bnh va trng thanh nao o ve nhan ban (Xem Gl 5:22); c ao c "song i song cua Giao Hoi cach manh liet hn " (79), c ao c "lang nghe va suy niem li Chua" nhieu hn (80); "anh gia cao mot cach oi mi viec cau nguyen, viec chiem niem, sinh hoat phung vu va b tch, anh thc n goi hon nhan Kito Giao, chc linh muc tha tac va i song thanh hien" (81).

h) Chieu kch xa hoi cua viec rao giang Tin Mng. ieu cung can thiet la tha nhan rang "giao huan s truyen (kerygma) von co mot noi dung xa hoi ro rang: i song cong ong va viec noi ket vi ngi khac nam ngay tam iem cua Tin Mng" (82). Tieu chuan bien phan nay, mot tieu chuan khong ch gii han vao cac thc the giao dan trong Giao Hoi, von nhan manh ti s nhat thiet phai la "cac ca ngo phong phu cho viec tham gia va tnh lien i trong viec tao ra cac ieu kien song cong bnh va yeu thng hn trong xa hoi" (83). Ve phng dien nay, "long c ao c hien dien nh Kito hu trong cac khung canh khac nhau cua di song xa hoi va viec tao ra cung nh anh thc cac cong trnh bac ai, van hoa va thieng lieng; tinh than khong dnh ben va c kho ngheo thieng lieng dan ti mot long quang ai ln hn trong tnh bac ai vi moi ngi" thay eu quan trong (84). Qui chieu vao Hoc Thuyet Xa Hoi cua Giao Hoi cung la mot nhan to co tnh quyet nh (85). Cach rieng, "c tin cua chung ta vao Chua Kito, ang a tr nen ngheo, va luon gan gui ngi ngheo va ngi b xua uoi, la can ban oi vi quan tam cua chung ta oi vi viec phat trien toan dien cac thanh vien b lang quen nhat cua xa hoi" (86). ieu nay khong the thieu ni mot thc the co tnh Giao Hoi chan chnh.

V. Thc hanh trong Giao Hoi lien he ti moi tng quan gia cac hong an pham trat va cac hong an ac sung

19. Sau cung, ieu can thiet la phai noi ti mot so yeu to trong viec Giao Hoi thc hanh cu the moi tng quan gia cac hong an pham trat va cac hong an ac sung a c nh hnh nh cac nhom ac sung trong hiep thong Giao Hoi.

Tnh ho tng

20. Trc nhat, viec thiet lap cac moi tng quan tot ep gia cac hong an a dang trong Giao Hoi oi phai thc s thap nhap thc the ac sung vao i song muc vu cua Giao Hoi ac thu. ieu nay buoc cac nhom a dang phai tha nhan tham quyen cua cac muc t trong Giao Hoi nh la mot thc tai trong chnh i song Kito Giao, va khi thanh thc c muon c tha nhan, c tiep on va sau cung c thanh luyen, ho phai t at mnh vao the san sang phuc vu s menh cua Giao Hoi. Mat khac, nhng v c uy thac cac hong an pham trat, khi thi hanh viec bien phan va ong hanh vi cac ac sung, can phai than ai tiep nhan nhng g ma Chua Thanh Than a linh hng trong hiep thong Giao Hoi, do o, lu y ti cac hoat ong muc vu va tran qui s ong gop cua ho nh la mot nguon chan chnh gay ch li cho moi ngi.

Cac hong an ac sung trong Giao Hoi hoan vu va ac thu

21. Lien he ti viec phan tan va tnh ac thu cua cac thc the ac sung, ta cung phai xet ti moi tng quan co tnh c cau va yeu tnh gia Giao Hoi hoan vu va cac Giao Hoi ac thu. V ly do nay, can phai minh xac rang: nh ta a tuyen xng trong Kinh Tin Knh Cac Thanh Tong o, Giao Hoi cua Chua Kito "la Giao Hoi pho quat, ngha la, mot cong ong khap the gii cua cac mon e Chua, mot cong ong hien dien va hoat ong gia nhng ac iem ac thu va tnh a dang ve ngi, ve nhom, ve thi gian va ni chon" (87). Do o, chieu kch ac thu la chieu kch noi tai oi vi chieu kch pho quat va ngc lai; co mot "noi tai tnh ho tng" (88) gia cac Giao Hoi ac thu va Giao Hoi hoan vu. Trong boi canh nay, cac hong an pham trat rieng cua V Tha Nhiem Thanh Phero c thi hanh e bao am va lam de noi tai tnh cua Giao Hoi hoan vu ben trong cac Giao Hoi a phng; cung the, Chc Vu Tong o cua cac giam muc ca the khong b gii han ben trong cac giao phan cua cac ngai nhng c keu goi tuon trao ra toan the Giao Hoi, nh ca tnh au yem thch ang oi vi tnh hp oan va cac hieu qua cua tnh nay, va nhat la nh tnh hiep thong vi centrum unitatis Ecclesiae (tam iem s hp nhat Giao Hoi) la chnh Giam Muc Roma. "La ngi ke nhiem Thanh Phero, ngai la nguyen ly va nen tang trng cu va hu hnh cua s hp nhat ca cac giam muc lan tn hu giao dan. Tuy nhien, cac giam muc ca the la nguyen ly va nen tang hu hnh cua s hp nhat trong cac Giao Hoi ac thu cua cac ngai, c len khuon theo mau mc Giao Hoi hoan vu; chnh trong va t cac Giao Hoi nay, ma co Giao Hoi Cong Giao duy nhat" (89). ieu nay ham ngha: trong moi Giao Hoi ac thu, "Giao Hoi duy nhat, thanh thien, Cong Giao va tong truyen cua Chua Kito thc s hien dien va hoat ong" (90). Do o, viec qui chieu ti tham quyen cua V Ke Nhiem Thanh Phero, tc viec hiep thong cum Petro et sub Petro (vi Phero va di Phero) la co tnh cau tao oi vi moi Giao Hoi a phng (91).

Nh cach nay, nen tang cua moi tng quan gia cac hong an pham trat va ac sung a c at trong moi tng quan gia Giao Hoi pho quat va cac Giao Hoi ac thu. Mot ang, cac hong an ac sung c ban cho toan the Giao Hoi; ang khac, tnh nang ong cua cac hong an nay phai t the hien trong viec phuc vu mot giao phan cu the, von "la mot phan cua Dan Chua a c uy thac cho mot giam muc e c ngai chan dat vi s hp tac cua linh muc oan" (92). V muc ch nay, ieu hu ch la nh ti trng hp i Song Thanh Hien; ay khong phai la mot thc tai nam ngoai va oc lap oi vi i song cua Giao Hoi a phng; ung hn, no tao ra mot cach the e hien dien gia Giao Hoi a phng, mot cach hien dien c anh dau bi tnh triet e cua Tin Mng va s ac cac hong an chuyen biet cua mnh. ac an "mien tr" (exemption) ma truyen thong von ban cho nhieu Vien Song i Thanh Hien (93) khong ngu ham mot th sieu tong tho khong nhap tch (disincarnated dislocation) hay mot th oc lap b hieu sai lam, ma ung hn la mot s tng tac sau sac hn gia chieu kch pho quat va chieu kch ac thu cua Giao Hoi (94). Tng t nh the, cac thc the ac sung mi, khi s hu ac tnh sieu giao phan (supra-diocesan), khong nen t coi mnh nh hoan toan oc lap oi vi Giao Hoi ac thu; ung hn, ho nen phong phu hoa va phuc vu Giao Hoi nay bang chnh tnh ac thu ay, mot tnh ac thu von c chia se ben kia bien gii cua mot giao phan.

Cac hong an ac sung va cac bac song cua Kito hu

22. Cac hong an ac sung do Chua Thanh Than ban phat co the co lien he vi toan bo trat t hiep thong cua Giao Hoi ve ca phng dien b tch lan Li Thien Chua. Tuy theo cac net a dang cua chung, cac hong an nay co the mang nhieu hoa trai trong viec chu toan cac bon phan von phat sinh t phep ra toi, phep them sc, phep hon phoi va phep truyen chc thanh. Chung cung giup ta kha nang hieu ro hn Truyen Thong Tong o ve phng dien thieng lieng; ngoai viec nghien cu than hoc va viec giang day cua nhng v c uy thac charisma veritatis certum (ac sung chan ly chac chan) (95), truyen thong nay con co the c tham hau hoa nh nhng v nam c "mot s hieu biet sau sac cac thc tai thieng lieng do cam nghiem ban than" (96). Trong boi canh nay, ieu hu ch la liet ke cac cau hoi nen tang lien he ti moi tng quan gia cac hong an ac sung va cac bac song khac nhau, lu y ac biet ti chc linh muc chung cua Dan Chua va chc linh muc tha tac va pham trat, hai chc linh muc "du khac nhau trong yeu tnh ch khong phai ch trong mc o [...] nhng co lien he qua lai vi nhau: moi chc, theo cach rieng cua no, eu la mot tham d vao chc linh muc duy nhat cua Chua Kito" (97). Thc vay, chung tao ra "hai cach tham d vao chc linh muc duy nhat cua Chua Kito, la chc bao gom hai chieu kch nhng ket hp lam mot trong hanh vi hy sinh toi thng tren thap gia" (98).

a) Th nhat, ta can nhn nhan s tot lanh cua cac ac sung khac nhau a khai sinh ra nhieu hiep hoi co tnh Giao Hoi gia moi tn hu, c keu goi lam cho n sung b tch sinh nhieu hoa trai, di s lanh ao cua cac muc t hp phap cua ho. Chung em lai mot dp may chan chnh e ngi ta song va phat trien n goi lam Kito hu cach thch ang cua ho (99). Cac hong an ac sung nay giup cac tn hu co the song chc linh muc chung cua Dan Chua nh la mot phan trong cuoc song hang ngay cua ho: la "cac mon e cua Chua Kito, chuyen cham cau nguyen va ca ngi Thien Chua, (xem Cv 2:42-47), [ho] nen t trnh bay mnh nh cua le hy sinh song ong, thanh thien va ep long Thien Chua (xem Rm 12:1). khap ni tren trai at, ho phai lam chng cho Chua Kito va tra li cho nhng ai muon co li giai thch ve niem hy vong c song i i cua ho (xem 1Pr 3:15)" (100). Thuoc loai nay con co nhng hiep hoi rat co y ngha oi vi i song hon nhan Kito Giao; nhng hiep hoi nay "nen co gang dung cac chng trnh huan giao va cac hanh ong cua ho e cung co gii tre va chnh cac cap v chong, nhat la nhng cap v chong mi ci, va huan luyen e ho am nhiem cuoc song gia nh, xa hoi va tong o" (101).

b) Nh viec tham d cua ho vao mot thc the ac sung, cac tha tac vien thu phong cung co the c nhac nh ve y ngha phep ra cua chnh ho, nh o ho tr nen con cai Thien Chua, cung nh s menh va n goi chuyen biet cua rieng mnh. Ni mot hiep hoi Giao Hoi nhat nh, thanh vien thu phong cua oan tn hu co kha nang tm c mot tr giup nao o e ho song cach sau sac hn cac thach o trong tha tac vu chuyen biet cua ho trong tng quan vi toan the Dan Chua, nhat la bo phan c uy thac cho ho, va trong tng quan vi viec thanh thc vang li ang Ban Quyen (102). Tng t nh the, ta cung co the noi cung mot ieu va noi vi cac ng vien chu chc linh muc thuoc mot hiep hoi Giao Hoi ac thu, nh Tong Huan Hau Thng Hoi ong Pastores Dabo Vobis (103) a qua quyet; mot tng quan nh the can c bay to mot cach trung thanh tch cc oi vi chnh viec ao tao chuyen biet cua ho, lam giau viec ao tao nay bang ac sung lien he. Cuoi cung, tuy theo ac tnh rieng cua tng hiep hoi, s tr giup muc vu ma v linh muc co kha nang cung ng cho hiep hoi phai luon phu hp vi regimen (tong hien?) a c d tru cho viec hiep thong trong Giao Hoi, nhat la phan danh cho cac Chc Thanh, lien quan ti viec nhap tch (incardination) (104) va vang li oi vi ang ban quyen (105).

c) S ong gop cua hong an ac sung vao chc linh muc do phep ra va vao chc linh muc do tha tac a c minh ta bang i Song Thanh Hien; i song nay, t no, von c nh v trong chieu kch ac sung cua Giao Hoi (106). Mot ac sung nh the, mot ac sung noi len "s ong hnh ong dang ac biet vi Chua Kito, ang khiet tnh, ngheo kho va vang li" (107) nh mot hnh thc song ben o (108) do li khan gi cac li khuyen cua Tin Mng, a c ban giup ngi ta "co kha nang hai lm c nhieu hoa trai d tha hn t [...]n sung cua phep ra" (109). oi vi ca tn hu giao dan lan cac linh muc, linh ao cua Cac Vien i Song Thanh Hien co the tr thanh nguon tai nguyen quan trong giup ho song n goi rieng cua ho. Hn na, cac thanh vien cua cac Vien i Song Thanh Hien, vi s ong thuan can thiet cua cac be tren cua ho (110), thng co the tm thay ni cac hiep hoi mi mot s tr giup quan trong e song n goi cua mnh, va ngc lai, co the cung ng mot "chng ta trung tn, han hoan va co tnh ac sung oi vi i song thanh hien" (111), nh the, tao nen mot s phong phu hoa ho tng.

d) Sau cung, ieu co y ngha la tinh than cac li khuyen cua Tin Mng cung a c Huan Quyen e ngh cho moi tha tac vien thu phong (112). Ngay bac song oc than, mot ieu bat buoc oi vi cac linh muc trong truyen thong Latinh ang knh (113) cung a ro rang co cung mot ng hng vi cac hong an ac sung; bac song nay khong chu yeu co tnh chc nang; ung hn, no "thc s lam ngi ta ac biet tr nen ong hnh ong dang vi chnh loi song rieng cua Chua Kito" (114), trong o, viec hoan toan hien mnh cho s menh ma b tch truyen chc thanh trao ban a c the hien (115).

Cac hnh thc tha nhan cua Giao Hoi

23. Tai lieu nay co y nh minh giai v tr than hoc va Giao Hoi hoc cua cac hiep hoi mi trong Giao Hoi di anh sang moi tng quan gia cac hong an pham trat va ac sung. Hy vong rang tai lieu nay se ong gop vao viec nhan dien c mot cach cu the cac phng the thoa ang nhat e Giao Hoi tha nhan chung. Bo Giao Luat hien hanh cung cap cac phng the phap ly khac nhau e tha nhan cac thc the mi trong Giao Hoi, von do cac hong an ac sung ma co. Cac phng the nay can phai c xem xet mot cach than trong (116), tranh cac tien le khong biet xem xet thoa ang ca cac nguyen tac luat le nen tang lan ban chat va tnh ac thu cua cac thc the ac sung a dang.

Nhn t moi tng quan gia cac hong an pham trat va ac sung, ieu can la phai xem xet hai tieu chuan can ban khong the tach biet nhau: a) ton trong tnh ac thu cua cac nhom ac sung ca the, tranh nhng troi buoc phap ly bop nghet tnh mi me von phat sinh t kinh nghiem chuyen biet. Nh cach nay, ngi ta tranh c nguy c cac ac sung a dang b coi nh cac nguon tai nguyen tam thng trong Giao Hoi; b) ton trong cac regimen (hien che?) nen tang trong Giao Hoi, nh cach nay, ta lam de viec thap nhap hu hieu cac hong an ac sung vao i song cua ca Giao Hoi ac thu lan Giao Hoi hoan vu. Nh the, tranh c bat c nguy c nao khien cac thc the ac sung b coi nh hoat ong song song vi i song Giao Hoi hay khong c sap xep trong tng quan vi cac hong an pham trat.

Ket luan

24. Khi ch e c tuon o Chua Thanh Than, cac mon e au tien a rat chuyen cham va hp nhat trong li cau nguyen cung vi c Maria, Me Chua Giesu (xem Cv 1:14). Ngai a hoan toan chap nhan moi n sung va lam cho chung sinh hoa trai, nh the, ngai a c Thien Chua Ba Ngoi Ch Thanh phong phu hoa mot cach sieu d tran: quan trong nhat la n c lam Me Thien Chua. Moi con cai cua Giao Hoi co the chiem ngng s ngoan ngoan hoan toan cua ngai oi vi hanh ong cua Chua Thanh Than: mot s ngoan ngoan khong t vet trong c tin va trong s khiem nhng trong sang. Do o, c Me a chng to mot cach tron ven viec ngoan ngoan va trung thanh lanh nhan moi hong an cua Chua Thanh Than. Hn na, nh Cong ong Vatican day, c Trinh N Maria, bang c ai mau than cua ngai, "cham soc anh em cua Con mnh, nhng a con van con ang l th tren tran gian gia vong vay cua nguy hiem va th thach, cho ti luc chung c a vao coi hanh phuc tai que hng ch thc cua chung" (117). V ngai "t e mnh c Chua Thanh Than dan dat tren con ng c tin hng ve ch phuc vu va sinh hoa trai, nen hom nay, ta nhn len ngai va xin ngai giup chung ta cong bo s iep cu roi cho moi ngi va giup cac mon e mi, en lt ho, tr thanh cac ngi rao giang Tin Mng" (118). V ly do nay, c Maria c nhn nhan la Me Giao Hoi va chung ta, ay long tin tng, cung chay en vi ngai, e, nh s giup ac lc va s cau bau manh the cua ngai, cac ac sung, c Chua Thanh Than ban phat cho cac tn hu, c lanh nhan mot cach ngoan ngoan va sinh hoa trai cho i song va s menh cua Giao Hoi va cho thien ch cua the gii.

c Giao Hoang Phanxico, trong buoi yet kien danh cho c Hong Y Bo Trng ngay 14 thang Ba, 2016, a chap thuan Th nay, tng c Phien Hop Toan The cua Thanh Bo nay thong qua, va truyen cho cong bo.

 

Roma, t Van Phong Thanh Bo Giao Ly c Tin, ngay 15 thang Nam nam 2016, Ngay Le Hien Xuong.

Hong Y Gerhard Muller, Bo Trng

Luis F. Ladaria, S.I., Tong Giam Muc hieu toa Thibica, Th Ky

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

(*) Nhom Phung Vu Cac Gi Kinh: "Than Kh to mnh ra ni moi ngi mot cach, la v ch chung". Ban dch cua Cha Nguyen The Thuan cung tng t nh the.

[1] Hien che tn ly Lumen Gentium, so 4.

[2] Thanh Gioan Chrysostom, Homilia de Pentecoste, II, 1: PG 50, 464.

[3] c Phanxico, Tong Huan Evangelii Gaudium (24 tah1ng 11, 2013), 49: AAS 105 (2013), 1040.

[4] Xem a dan, 20-24: AAS 105 (2013), 1028-1029.

[5] Xem a dan, 14: AAS 105 (2013), 1025.

[6] a dan, 25: AAS 105 (2013), 1030.

[7] Sac lenh Apostolicam Actuositatem, 19.

[8] c Phanxico, Tong Huan Evangelii Gaudium, 14: AAS 105 (2013), 1026; Xem c Benecto XVI, Bai giang trong Thanh Le khai mac hoi ngh toan the lan th nam hang giam muc My Chau Latinh va vung Caribbean tai "La Aparecida" (13 thang 5 2007): AAS 99 (2007), 43.

[9] c Gioan Phaolo II, Dien van cho nhng ngi thuoc Cac Phong Trao Giao Hoi va Cac Cong ong mi ngay vong Le Hien Xuong (30 thang 5, 1998), 7: Insegnamenti 21/1 (1998), 1123.

[10] a dan, 6: Insegnamenti 21/1 (1998), 1122.

[11] a dan., 8: Insegnamenti 21/1 (1998), 1124.

[12] "Co nhng loai ac sung ac thu (charismata) khac nhau" (Rm 12:6); "moi ngi chung ta eu co ac sung rieng do Chua ban, ngi th ac sung nay, ngi th ac sung kia" (1 Cr 7:7).

[13] Trong tieng Hy Lap, hai t (charisma and charis) co chung mot goc.

[14] Xem. Origen, De principiis, I, 3, 7: PG 11, 153: "ieu c goi la hong an Chua Thanh Than a c chuyen giao qua cong trnh Chua Con va c tao ra bi cong trnh Chua Cha"

[15] Thanh Basileo thanh Caesarea, Regulae fusius Tractae, 7, 2: PG 31, 933-934.

[16] "Ai noi tieng la t xay dng chnh mnh, nhng ai noi tien tri th xay dng Giao Hoi" (1 Cr 14:4). Thanh Tong o khong bac bo n noi tieng la (glossolalia), mot ac sung cau nguyen hu ch cho moi tng quan ban than vi Thien Chua, va ngai tha nhan no la mot ac sung chan chnh, du khong trc tiep co ch li cong ong: "toi cam ta Thien Chua v toi a noi tieng la hn bat c ai trong anh em, nhng trong Giao Hoi, toi chang tha noi nam ch bang au oc mnh, e co the huan giao ca ngi khac na, hn la noi mi ngan ch tieng la" (1 Cor 14:18-19).

[17] Xem 1 Cor 12:28: "Trong Hoi Thanh, Thien Chua a at mot so ngi, th nhat la cac Tong o, th hai la cac ngon s, th ba la cac thay day, roi en nhng ngi c n lam phep la, c nhng ac sung e cha benh, e giup ngi khac, e quan tr, e noi cac th tieng la"

[18] Trong cac tu hop cong ong, viec co qua d cac bieu hien ac sung co the tao ra kho khan, tao ra bau kh tranh chap, mat trat t va hon on. Nhng Kito hu t hong an hn co nguy c ri vao mac cam t ti (xem 1Cr 12:15-16); trong khi ay, nhng ngi co nhieu ac sung de b cam do co nhng dang bo t cao t ai (xem 1 Cr 12:21).

[19] Neu trong cong oan, khong tm thay ai co kha nang giai thch cac t ng la lung cua ngi noi tieng la, th Thanh Phaolo day nhng ngi noi tieng la nen gi im lang. Neu co ngi biet giai thch, Thanh Phaolo cho phep hai, hay nhieu nhat ba ngi noi tieng la (xem 1Cr 14:27-28).

[20] Thanh Phaolo khong chap nhan y niem linh hng tien tri khong kiem che; thay vao o, ngai qua quyet rang "Ngon s th lam chu nhng cam hng tien tri cua mnh, bi v Thien Chua khong phai la Thien Chua gay hon loan, nhng la Thien Chua tao bnh an" (1 Cr 14:32-33). Ngai qua quyet rang "Neu ai tng mnh la ngon s hoac c Than Kh linh hng, th hay nhn nhan rang cac ieu toi viet ay la menh lenh cua Chua. Ai khong nhan biet ieu ay, th cung khong c Chua biet en" (1Cr 14:37-39). Tuy nhien, ngai ket luan mot cach tch cc khi mi goi ho hay khao khat n noi tien tri va ng ngan cam noi cac tieng la (xem 1 Cr 14:39).

[21] c Pio XII, Thong iep Mystici Corporis (29 thang 6, 1943): AAS 35 (1943), 206-230.

[22] Xem Hien Che Tn Ly Lumen Gentium, 4, 7, 11, 12, 25, 30, 50; Hien Che Tn Ly Dei Verbum, 8; Sac Lenh Apostolicam Actuositatem, 3, 4, 30; Sac Lenh Presbyterorum Ordinis 4, 9.

[23] Hien Che Tn Ly Lumen Gentium, 4.

[24] a dan, 12.

[25] Xem Sac Lenh Apostolicam Actuositatem, 3: "e the hien viec tong o nay, Chua Thanh Than, ang thanh hoa dan Chua qua tac vu va cac b tch, cung ban cho cac tn hu nhng n ac biet (xem 1Cr 12:7), 'phan phat nhng n o cho moi ngi tuy y Ngai' (1Cr 12:11) e moi ngi tuy theo n a nhan ma giup nhau va chnh ho tr nen nh 'nhng ngi quan ly trung tn gi moi th n cua Thien Chua' (1Pr 4:10) hau xay dng toan than trong c ai (xem Ep 4:16)"

[26] a dan.

[27] Xem Hien Che Tn Ly Lumen Gentium, 12: "Nhng v thu lanh trong Giao Hoi co tham quyen phan quyet ve tnh cach chan chnh va s s dung hp ly cac n la ay; cac ngai co nhiem vu ac biet phai khao sat tat ca, khong phai e dap tat Thanh Than, nhng e gi lai nhng ieu thien hao (x. 1Th 5,12 va 19-21)". Du cau nay noi can ke ti viec bien phan cac hong an ngoai thng, nhng do loai suy, ieu noi ay cung ap dung chung cho moi ac sung.

[28] Th du xem c Phaolo VI, Tong Huan Evangelii nuntiandi (8 thang 12, 1975), 58: AAS 68 (1976), 46-49; Thanh Bo Cac Vien Tu Dong va Tu Trieu - Thanh Bo Giam Muc, Ch Th Mutuae relationis (14 thang 5, 1978), AAS 70 (1978), 473-506; c Gioan Phaolo II, Tong Huan Christifideles Laici (30 thang 12, 1988): AAS 81 (1989), 393-521; Tong Huan Vita Consecrata (25 thang 3, 1996): AAS 88 (1996), 377-486.

[29] Li qua quyet cua van kien lien bo noi tren tc Mutuae relationes kha ien hnh. Trong oan 34, van kien nay nhan manh: "Se la mot sai lam nghiem trong khi bien hai thc tai: i song tu dong va c cau Giao Hoi, oc lap vi nhau, hay at chung oi nghch nhau nh the chung hien ton nh hao thc the xa la, mot co tnh ac sung, mot co tnh nh che. Ca hai yeu to, tc cac hong an thieng lieng va c cau Giao Hoi tao nen mot thc tai duy nhat, dcho du phc tap".

[30] c Gioan Phaolo II, S iep gi cac tham d vien Hoi Ngh The Gii cac Phong Trao Giao Hoi c Hoi ong Giao Hoang ve Giao Dan co vu (27 thang 5, 1998), 5: Insegnamenti 21/1 (1998), 1065; Cung nen xem a Dan, Cac Phong Trao Giao Hoi tu hop d hoi ngh chuyen e quoc te (2 thang 3, 1987): Insegnamenti 10/1 (1987), 476-479.

[31] c Benecto XVI, Dien van trc cac tham d vien ve hanh hng c huynh oan Hiep Thong va Giai Phong co vu (24 thang 3, 2007): Insegnamenti 3/1 (2007), 558.

[32] "Hanh trnh vi nhau trong Giao Hoi, di s hng dan cua cac muc t Giao Hoi co ac sung va tha tac vu ac biet, la dau ch hanh ong cua Chua Thanh Than. Co mot cam thc ve Giao Hoi la mot ieu nen tang oi vi moi Kito hu, moi cong ong va moi phong trao": c Phanxico, Bai giang trong Le Trong Hien Xuong (19 thang 5, 2013): Insegnamenti 1 (2013), 208.

[33] c Phanxico, Bai Giao Ly (1 thang 10, 2014): L'Osservatore Romano (2 thang 10, 2014), 8.

[34] Xem Ga 7:39; 14:26; 15:26; 20:22.

[35] Xem Thanh Bo Giao Ly c Tin, Tuyen Bo Dominus Iesus (6 thang 8, 2000), 9-12: AAS 92 (2000), 749-754.

[36] Thanh Irene thanh Lyon, Adversus haereses, IV, 7, 4: PG 7, 992-993; V, 1, 3: PG 7, 1123; V, 6, 1: PG 7, 1137; V, 28, 4: PG 7, 1200.

[37] Xem Thanh Bo Giao Ly c Tin, Tuyen Bo Dominus Iesus, 12: AAS 92 (2000), 752-754.

[38] Xem c Gioan Phaolo II, Thong iep Dominum et Vivificantem (18 thang 5, 1986), 50: AAS 78 (1986), 896-870; Sach Giao Ly Cua Giao Hoi Cong Giao 727-730

[39] c Benecto XVI, Tong Huan Sacramentum Caritatis (22 thang 2, 2007), 12: AAS 99 (2007), 114.

[40] Xem Sach Giao Ly cua Giao Hoi Cong Giao, 1104-1107.

[41] c Gioan Phaolo II, Dien Van vi nhng ngi thuoc cac phong trao Giao Hoi va cac cong ong mi ngay Vong Le Hien Xuong (30 thang 5, 1998), 7: Insegnamenti 21/1 (1998) 1123.

[42] Thanh Ephrem ngi Syria, Cac Thanh Ca ve c tin, 10, 12: CSCO 154, 50.

[43] Thanh Cypriano thanh Carthage, De oratione dominica, 23: PL 4, 553; xem Cong ong Vatican II, Hien Che Tn Ly Lumen Gentium, 4.

[44] Cong ong Vatican II, Sac lenh Unitatis Redintegratio, 2.

[45] Xem Thanh Bo Giao Ly c Tin, Tuyen Bo Dominus Iesus, 16: AAS 92 (2000), 757: "S vien man cua mau nhiem cu roi cua Chua Kito cung thuoc ve Giao Hoi, von ket hp bat kha phan vi Chua cua mnh".

[46] c Phaolo VI, Bai Giao Ly (8 thang 6, 1966): Insegnamenti 4 (1966), 794.

[47] Cong ong Vatican II, Hien Che Tn Ly Lumen Gentium, 1.

[48] Ky Hop Toan The ac Biet Lan Th Hai Thng Hoi ong Giam Muc, Ecclesia sub Verbo mysteria Christi celebrans pro salute mundi (Giao Hoi di Ngoi Li, mau nhiem Chua Kito c hanh e cu roi the gian). Phuc trnh sau cung (7 thang 12, 1985), II, C, 1: Enchiridion Vaticanum, 9, 1800; Xem Thanh Bo Giao Ly c Tin, Th Communionis Notio (28 thang 5, 1992), 4-5: AAS 85 (1993), 839-841.

[49] Xem c Benecto XVI, Tong Huan Verbum Domini (30 thang 9, 2010), 54: AAS 102 (2010), 733-734; c Phanxico, Tong Huan Evangelii Gaudium, 174: AAS 105 (2013), 1092-1093.

[50] Xem Thanh Basileo thanh Cesarea, De Spiritu Sancto, 26: PG 32, 181.

[51] J.H. Newman, Sermons Bearing on Subjects of the Day, London 1869, 132.

[52] Li khang nh ien hnh ve van e nay lien quan ti i Song Thanh Hien co the tm thay trong c Gioan Phaolo II, Bai Giao Ly (28 thang 9, 1994), 5: Insegnamenti 17/2 (1994), 404-405.

[53] Cong ong Vatican II, Hien Che Tn Ly Lumen Gentium, 7.

[54] a dan., 21.

[55] a dan.

[56] a dan.

[57] Thanh Basileo thanh Cesarea, De Spiritu Sancto, 16, 38: PG 32, 137.

[58] Cong ong Vatican II, Hien Che Tn Ly Lumen Gentium, 28.

[59] a dan, Sac Lenh Presybyterium Ordinis, 2.

[60] Cong ong Vatican II, Hien Che Tn Ly Lumen Gentium, 29.

[61] a dan, 12.

[62] Xem Cong ong Vatican II, Hien Che Muc Vu Gaudium et Spes, 4, 11.

[63] c Gioan Phaolo II, Tong Huan Christifideles Laici, 24: AAS 81 (1989), 434.

[64] Xem a dan, 29: AAS 81 (1989), 443-446.

[65] Xem Cong ong Vatican II, Hien Che Tn Ly Lumen Gentium,, 12.

[66] c Gioan Phaolo II, Bai Giao Ly (9 thang 3, 1994), 6: Insegnamenti 17/1 (1994), 641.

[67] Xem Sach Giao Ly Cua Giao Hoi Cong Giao, 799 tt; Thanh Bo Cac Vien i Song Thanh Hien va Cac Hoi i Song Tong o, Ch Th Mutuae Relationes, 51: AAS 70 (1978), 499-500; c Gioan Phaolo II, Tong Huan Vita Consecrata, 48: AAS 88 (1996), 421-422; a dan, Bai Giao Ly (24 thang 6, 1992), 6: Insegnamenti 15/1 (1992), 1935-1936.

[68] Xem Cong ong Vatican II, Hien Che Tn Ly Lumen Gentium, 39-42; c Gioan Phaolo II, Tong Huan Christifideles Laici, 30: AAS 81 (1989), 446.

[69] c Phanxico, Tong Huan Evangelii Gaudium, 130: AAS 105 (2013), 1074.

[70] c Gioan Phaolo II, Tong Huan Christifideles Laici, 30: AAS 81 (1989), 447; Xem c Phaolo VI, Tong Huan Evangelii Nuntiandi, 58: AAS 68 (1976), 49.

[71] c Gioan Phaolo II, Tong Huan Christifideles Laici, 30: AAS 81 (1989), 446-447.

[72] c Phanxico, Bai Giang Le Hien Xuong (19 thang 5, 2013), Insegnamenti 1 (2013), 208.

[73] c Gioan Phaolo II, Tong Huan Christifideles Laici, 30: AAS 81 (1989), 447; Xem c Phaolo VI, Tong Huan Evangelii Nuntiandi, 58: AAS 68 (1976), 48.

[74] c Gioan Phaolo II, Tong Huan Christifideles Laici, 30: AAS 81 (1989), 447.

[75] a dan: AAS 81 (1989), 448.

[76] Xem a dan: AAS 81 (1989), 447.

[77] c Phanxico, Tong Huan Evangelii Gaudium, 130: AAS 105 (2013), 1074-1075.

[78] Thanh Bo Cac Vien i Song Thanh Hien va Cac Hoi i Song Tong o, Ch Th Mutuae Relationes, 12: AAS 70 (1978), 480-481; Xem c Gioan Phaolo II, Dien Van Dp gap Cac Phong Trao Giao Hoi va Cong ong Mi ngay Vong Le Hien Xuong (30 thang 5, 1998), 6: Insegnamenti 21/1 (1998), 1122.

[79] c Phaolo VI, Tong Huan Evangelii Nuntiandi, 58: AAS 68 (1976), 48.

[80] a dan; Xem c Phanxico, Tong Huan Evangelii Gaudium, 174-175: AAS 105 (2013), 1092-1093.

[81] c Gioan Phaolo II, Tong Huan Christifideles Laici, 30: AAS 81 (1989), 448.

[82] c Phanxico, Tong Huan Evangelii Gaudium, 177: AAS 105 (2013), 1094.

[83] c Gioan Phaolo II, Tong Huan Christifideles Laici, 30: AAS 81 (1989), 448.

[84] a dan.

[85] Xem c Phanxico, Tong Huan Evangelii Gaudium, 184, 221: AAS 105 (2013), 1097, 1110-1111.

[86] a dan, 186: AAS 105 (2013), 1098.

[87] Thanh Bo Giao Ly c Tin, Th Communionis Notio, 7: AAS 85 (1993), 842.

[88] a dan, 9: AAS 85 (1993), 843.

[89] Cong ong Vatican II, Hien Che Tn Ly Lumen Gentium, 23.

[90] a dan, Sac Lenh Christus Dominus, 11.

[91] Xem a dan, 2; Thanh Bo Giao Ly c Tin, Th Communionis Notio, 13-14, 16: AAS 85 (1993), 846-848.

[92] Cong ong Vatican II, Sac Lenh Christus Dominus, 11.

[93] Xem a dan, 35; Bo Giao Luat, ieu 591; Bo Giao Luat ong Phng, ieu 412,-2: Thanh Bo Cac Vien i Song Thanh Hien va Cac Hoi i Song Tong o, Ch Th Mutuae Relationes, 22: AAS 70 (1978), 487.

[94] Xem Thanh Bo Giao Ly c Tin, Th Communionis Notio, 15: AAS 85 (1993), 847.

[95] Xem Cong ong Vatican II, Hien Che Tn Ly Dei Verbum, 8; Sach Giao Ly Cua Giao Hoi Cong Giao, 888-892.

[96] Cong ong Vatican II, Hien Che Tn Ly Dei Verbum, 8.

[97] a dan, Hien Che Tn Ly Lumen Gentium, 10.

[98] c Gioan Phaolo II, Tong Huan Pastores Gregis (16 thang 10, 2003), 10: AAS 96 (2004), 838.

[99] Xem a dan, Tong Huan Christifideles Laici, 29: AAS 81 (1989), 443-446.

[100] Cong ong Vatican II, Hien Che Tn Ly Lumen Gentium, 10.

[101] a dan, Hien Che Muc Vu Gaudium et Spes, 52; Xem c Gioan Phaolo II, Tong Huan Familiaris Consortio (22 thang 11, 1981), 72: AAS 74 (1982), 169-170.

[102] Xem c Gioan Phaolo II, Tong Huan Pastores Dabo Vobis (25 thang 3, 1992), 68: AAS 84 (1992), 777.

[103] Xem a dan, 31, 68: AAS 84 (1992), 708-709, 775-777.

[104] Xem Bo Giao Luat, ieu 265; Bo Giao Luat ong Phng, ieu 357,-1.

[105] Xem Bo Giao Luat, ieu 273; Bo Giao Luat ong Phng, ieu 370.

[106] Thanh Bo Cac Vien i Song Thanh Hien va Cac Hoi i Song Tong o, Ch Th Mutuae Relationes, 19, 34: AAS 70 (1978), 485-486, 493.

[107] c Gioan Phaolo II, Tong Huan Vita Consecrata, 31: AAS 88 (1996), 404-405.

[108] Xem Cong ong Vatican II, Hien Che Tn Ly Lumen Gentium, 43.

[109] a dan 44; Xem Sac Lenh Perfectae Caritatis, 5; c Gioan Phaolo II, Tong Huan Vita Consecrata, 14, 30: AAS 88 (1996), 387-388, 403-404.

[110] Xem Bo Giao Luat, ieu 307,-3; Bo Giao Luat ong Phng, ieu 578,-3.

[111] Thanh Bo Cac Vien i Song Thanh Hien va Cac Hoi i Song Tong o, Ch Th Ripartire Da Cristo (19 thang 5, 2002), 30: Enchiridion Vaticanum, 21, 472.

[112] Xem c Gioan Phaolo II, Tong Huan Pastores Dabo Vobis, 27-30: AAS 84 (1992), 700-707.

[113] Xem c Phaolo VI, Thong iep Sacerdotalis Caelibatus (24 thang 6, 1967): AAS 59 (1967), 657-697.

[114] c Benecto XVI, Tong Huan Sacramentum Caritatis, 24: AAS 99 (2007), 124.

[115] Xem c Gioan Phaolo II, Tong Huan Pastores Dabo Vobis, 29: AAS 84 (1992), 703-705; Cong ong Vatican II, Sac Lenh Presbyterorum Ordinis, 16.

[116] Hnh thc phap ly n gian nhat e tha nhan cac thc the Giao Hoi co ban chat ac sung hien nay dng nh la hnh thc hiep hoi t cua cac tn hu Kito (Xem Bo Giao Luat, ieu 321-326; Bo Giao Luat ong Phng, ieu 573,-2-583). Tuy nhien, cung nen xem xet cac hnh thc phap ly khac vi cac ac iem chuyen biet, nh cac hiep hoi cong cua cac tn hu Kito (xem Bo Giao Luat, ieu 573-730; Bo Giao Luat ong Phng, ieu 573,-1-583), cac hiep hoi giao s cua tn hu Kito (Xem Bo Giao Luat, ieu 302), cac vien i song thanh hien (Xem Bo Giao Luat, ieu 573-730; Bo Giao Luat ong Phng, ieu 410-571), cac Hoi i Song Tong o (Xem Bo Giao Luat, ieu 731-746; Bo Giao Luat ong Phng, ieu 572) va cac giam hat tong nhan (Xem Bo Giao Luat, ieu 294-297).

[117] Cong ong Vatican II, Hien Che Tn Ly Lumen Gentium, 62.

[118] c Phanxico, Tong Huan Evangelii Gaudium, 287: AAS 105 (2013), 1136.

 

Vu Van An

 


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