Giao Hoi va at nc Mexico

ch on c Thanh Cha Phanxico

 

Giao Hoi va at nc Mexico ch on c Thanh Cha Phanxico.

Mexico (Vat. 9-02-2016) - Trong cac ngay t 12 ti 18 thang hai nam 2016 c Thanh Cha Phanxico se vieng tham Mexico. Trong nhng ngay va qua Hoi ong Giam Muc nc nay a cho biet se phan phat 900,000 ve cho tn hu tham d cac thanh le va cac buoi gap g vi c Thanh Cha. Hien nay Giao Hoi Mexico can 160,000 thien nguyen vien giup to chc chuyen vieng tham muc vu nay.

T Mexico phat xuat t ch Mexhico la ten tho dan Aztech goi thu o cua ho, va no co ngha la "ni than chien tranh Mexitli hay Mextli song". Trong qua kh ay la vung at a co nhieu nen van minh ke tiep nhau hien hu. Cach ay 11,000 nam ay la vung at co cac dan toc goc a chau sinh song ve nghe san ban va hai trai cay. Nong nghiep a ch phat trien vao khoang nam 9,000 trc cong nguyen, viec trong bap a ch bat au vao nam 5000 trc cong nguyen, va cac o gom ch xuat hien vao khoang nam 2500 trc cong nguyen. Trong khi cac nhom dan tai mien bac tiep tuc song ve san ban va hai trai, cac nhom song mien nam a nh nong nghiep bien thanh cac xa hoi tien trien hn.

T the ky XII trc cong nguyen cho ti khi ngi Tay Ban Nha xam lang Mexico a la que hng cua cac nen van minh noi tieng nh cua ngi Olmechi (1200-500 trc cong nguyen); nen van minh Teotihuacan (100 trc cong nguyen ti 659 sau cong nguyen); nen van minh Zapotechi (200-700); nen van minh Maya (200-900); nen van minh Toltechi (1000-1200); nen van minh Aztechi (1200-1500).

Nam 1517 ngoi Tay Ban Nha do Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba ch huy t Cuba en ban ao Yucatan. Nam 1518 Diego Velazquez de Cuellar gi 4 chiec tau do ngi chau la Juan de Grijalva ch huy. Nam 1519 chuyen vien chinh th ba do Hernan Cortez ch huy gap ben tai Cozumel. Ban au ngi Tay Ban Nha c hoang e Montezuma cua e quoc Aztechi tiep on nong hau, nhng sau o ho b ngi Tay Ban Nha tieu diet. Hai lanh tu cuoi cung cua ngi Aztechi la Cuitlahuac, b chet v benh au mua va Cuautemoc b cac bo toc tho dan khac bo ri va b ngi Tay Ban Nha bat va giet chet nam 1521. Mua thu nam 1521 e quoc Aztech sup o. Sau hai nam ri b bao vay bi quan cua ngi Tay Ban Nha a so goc Tlaxcalteca, thu o Tenochtitlan b chiem va ch noi trong vong mot nam ngi Tay Ban Nha kiem soat toan nc. Cac vng quoc oc lap xin than phuc, va nam nam sau o toan dan Mexico nam di ach cai tr cua Tay Ban Nha. Tuy nhien, cac nhom tho dan du muc van tiep tuc khang chien, hau nh cho ti the ky XX, khi ngi Yaquin thng lng viec an xa vi quan oi Mehico.

Ngi Tay Ban Nha ti Mehico em theo cac nha truyen giao noi tieng nh cac linh muc tu s Vasco de Quiroga, Motolina, Martin de Valencia, Bernardino de Sahagun, Diego de Landa, Junipero Serra, Sebastian de Aparicio va Bartolome de Las Casas. Cac v a het sc benh vc quyen cua cac tho dan.

Sau khi Tenochtitlan that thu Hernan Cortes chiem quyen, t xng la Tong ch huy, va bat au chinh phuc mot e quoc rong ln bao gom ca vung California, Arizona, New Mexico va Texas ngay nay. Mot so thanh pho c thanh lap nh thanh pho Mexico xay tren cac o nat cua Tenochtitlan, Guadalajara, Puebla, Monterrey va Queretago. T nam 1535 co mot pho vng cai tr Mexico. Trong thi gian nay mau quoc Tay Ban Nha c phon thnh nh cac mo vang va bac, va nong nghiep trong ma va ca phe cua Mexico. So cac tho dan giam 80% v cac benh dch va cac vu tan sat. Khi ngi au chau ti ay so cac tho dan la 20 trieu vao nam 1650 ch con lai hn 1 trieu. Ba the ky thc dan 1521-1821 a bien Mexico tr thanh mot quoc gia latinh, tay ban nha, cong giao va lai giong nh chung ta thay ngay nay.

Vao au the ky XIX co cac cuoc noi loan khap ni ben Chau My Latinh trong o co Mexico. Nam 1809 ngi hung oc lap Melchor de Talamantes qua i. Ngay 16 thang 9 nam 1810 linh muc goc Creol Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla ch huy mot ao binh gom dan lang Dolores Hidalgo trong bang Guanajuato va cac tho dan chong lai chnh quyen Tay Ban Nha anh chiem thanh pho. Phong trao oc lap lan rong. Ngi Creol tc cac ngi da trang nam nen kinh te a phng lien minh vi ngi lai giong va cac tho dan chong lai ngi Gachupines, tc ngi Tay Ban Nha sinh song trong cac thanh th va nam quyen bnh chnh tr. Tuyen ngon oc lap c ky lan th nhat nam 1813 va sau cung ngay 28 thang 9 nam 1821. Hien phap chao i nam 1824. T khi c thanh lap nh la quoc gia lien bang Mexico co ten goi chnh thc la cac Bang hiep nhat Mexico, ca khi Hien Phap nam 1824 dung ca hai kieu goi. Hien Phap nam 1857 chnh thc s dung ten goi Cong hoa Mehico, nhng cung dung ten cac Bang hiep nhat Mexico.

Sau khi Texas tuyen bo oc lap va b Hoa Ky sat nhap nam 1846, Mexico oi lai vung at gia Rio Grande va Rio Nueces. The la chien tranh bung no gia Hoa Ky va Mexico va keo dai cho ti nam 1848. Nam 1847 Hoa Ky chiem thanh pho Mexico. Cuoc chien cham dt vi thoa hiep Guadalupe Hildago. Mexico phai tha nhan Rio Grande nh bien gii vi Texas. Ngoai ra con phai nhng cho Hoa Ky 40% at ai cua mnh rong khoang 2 trieu cay so vuong bao gom cac tieu bang California, New Mexico, Arizzona, Nevada, Utah va phan ln Colorado va Wyoming.

Vao au the ky XIX tnh trang bat cong xa hoi lam nay sinh ra nhieu cuoc noi loan va noi chien, va bao lc keo dai cho ti nam 1930. Trong cac nam 1926-1929 chnh quyen thi hanh chnh sach bach hai, tch thu tai san cua Giao Hoi, ong ca cac trng hoc, giai tan cac dong tu, ngan can ngi tre i tu, tc oat quyen bo phieu cua cac linh muc tu s, va bat bo tu cac cha me ra toi cho con, hay nhng ngi tre nao muon song i tu tr. a co nhieu tu s nam n va giao dan b giet v c tin. The gii cong giao ban au ch bieu tnh phan oi vi cac vu thu thap ch ky, sau o thanh lap "Lien minh quoc gia bao ve t do ton giao". Sau khi thay chnh quyen cong khai bach hai Giao Hoi, mot so tn hu bat au chien au vo trang vi khau hieu "Hoan ho Chua Kito Vua". Chnh quyen thang tay an ap nhng ngi chong oi. Nam 1929 khi thay khong thanh cong, chnh quyen ky mot thoa hiep vi Giao Hoi tha nhan t do ton giao, nhng nhieu chien s khong chap nhan va tiep tuc chien au 10 nam sau o. Ve phia mnh chnh quyen a khong bao gi ton trong cac cam ket va van tiep tuc x t tat cac cac thanh phan chong oi. Va cac luat bai giao s van hieu lc.

Hien nay Cong hoa Mexico rong hn 1 trieu 970 cay so vuong, ng hang th 14 tren the gii, co hn 117 trieu dan va la quoc gia noi tieng Tay Ban Nha ong ngi nhat. Sau Brasil Mehico cung la quoc gia chau My Latinh ong dan nhat, gom 60% ngi lai giong, con chau cua ngi au chau, nhat la cua ngi Tay Ban Nha, va cac tho dan. Ngi Amerindi thuoc nhieu vng quoc tho dan nh Maya xa kia, chiem 20%. Co 16% dan goc au chau nhat la Tay Ban Nha, nhng cung co ngi Italia, Phap, c, Ba Lan, Nga va Anh. So con lai gom cac ngi Da en, Do thai, A rap, Tho nh ky, Tau va Nhat. Cung co cac ngi en t nhieu nc chau My Latinh khac nh Argentina, Guatemala, Colombia, Cuba va Peru. Ho la nhng ngi t nan tron chay cac cuoc noi chien va cac che o oc tai cua thap nien 1980. Trong the ky XIX cac cong oan goc au chau va a chau la cac cong oan tieu bieu nhat, nhng trong the ky XX cac cong oan goc Hoa Ky va chau My Latinh noi bat nhat. Mehico la nc co nhieu cong dan Hoa Ky song ngoai nc nhat. Ly do la v cac lien lac thng mai ngay cang quan trong hn gia hai nc, ac biet la sau cac thoa hiep t do thng mai Mexico ky ket vi Hoa Ky va Canada viet tat la NAFTA, bat au co hieu lc t nam 1994. Ngoai ra ngi My coi Mehico la ni ngh ngi ly tng giup tranh cuoc song xo bo cuong nhiet, ac biet tai San Miguel va cac ni khac trong vnh California. Ngay xa Mexico co 200 chung toc tho dan khac nhau, nhng nay ch con lai 62, co goc gac t thi tien thc dan. T tieu bang Sinaloa cho ti tieu bang Chiapas co 10 trieu tho dan sinh song.

Tren bnh dien tn ngng 83.9% dan Mexico theo Cong Giao, tn hu Tin Lanh chiem 7.6%, cac ton giao khac chiem 2.5% va co 4.6% khong theo ton giao nao. Mot so ngi Amerindi tuy tuyen bo theo Cong Giao nhng tren thc te ho thc hanh mot ton giao pha tron Kito giao vi vai yeu to cua cac tn ngng co truyen cua ngi Aztech va Maya. Trong khi giao phai tin lanh Mormon ang lan tran trong cac thanh pho chnh vung bien gii ong bac. Do thai giao a hien dien tai Mexico t bao the ky qua va hien co khoang 100 ngan tn hu. Con co mot tn ngng t c biet en nhng pho bien tai Mexico, cung nh tai Trung My Latinh va mien nam Hoa Ky o la S chet thanh.

T nhieu thap nien qua so tn hu cong giao giam sut t 98.21% trong nam 1950 xuong 88% nam 2000, va hien nay la 83.9%.

Tren bnh dien ngon ng khong co th tieng nao c ch nh la tieng noi chnh. Tuy nhien, tieng Tay Ban Nha va cac th tho ng tai Mexico cung nh cua cac nhom dan da o khac sinh song tai Mexico c tha nhan. Tieng Tay Ban Nha la tieng noi c s dung trong cac sinh hoat chnh thc v c moi ngi s dung. Tuy nhien co 7% tong so dan noi mot th tieng Amerindia. Chnh quyen Mehico tha nhan 62 tho ng Amerindie, trong o co hai tho ng ong ngi noi nhat la Nahuatl va Maya, moi tho ng co khoang 1.5 trieu ngi s dung. Chnh quyen Mehico a phat huy cac chng trnh song ng Tay Ban Nha va mot tho ng tai cac vung que tho dan. Trong cac thanh pho ln tieng Anh cung thong dung va ang tr thanh ngon ng c gii tre s dung va c day trong cac trng t.

Xa hoi Mexico hien ang phai ng au vi nhieu van e, trong o co nan gian tham hoi lo, bat cong xa hoi, bao lc, cac to chc toi pham buon ban ma tuy, buon ngi. Cac gii chc chnh quyen thng vao hua vi cac to chc a quoc an cp at ai cua cac tho dan, e khai thac cac quang mo, gay o nhiem moi sinh va ay cac tho dan vao canh song ban cung v khong con at ai canh tac. ien hnh la vu tho dan Chimalapas cung vi nhieu to chc phi chnh quyen a yeu cau chnh quyen Mexico can thiep e cu van moi sinh trong vung Santa Maria va San Miguel rong 600 ngan hec ta, la at cua tho dan Zoque, chong lai cac doanh thng va cac to chc on go t bang Chiapas va Veracruz ang xam lan vung nay. ay la vung sinh song cua 146 loai ong vat co vu, 140 loai bo sat, 316 loai chim va 900 loai bm khac nhau. c Cha Arturro Lona Reyes, nguyen giam muc Tehuantepec, song trong vung rng nay gia tho dan Chimalapas, a nhieu lan than phien ve s th cua chnh quyen trong viec bao ve quyen li cua cac tho dan. c Cha noi "chnh quyen ch can thiep sau khi a xay ra cac vu o mau, va ch en ot nen cho ngi a chet".

Trong thong cao cong bo ngay 28 thang gieng nam 2016 Hoi ong Giam Muc Mexico cho biet cuoc gap g cua c Thanh Cha vi cac cong oan tho dan ngay 15 thang hai nam 2016 tai San Cristobal de las Casas la viec vieng tham toan cong oan giao hoi tho dan va ngi lai giong, ca khi u tien cho cac tho dan thng b lang quen. c Giao Hoang khong en e ung ho nhom xa hoi nao ca, nhng e xay cac cay cau va ap o cac bc tng ngan cach, khch le viec hoi nhap nhan ban va kito, cua ngi giau va ngi ngheo, cua nhng ngi song c tin mot cach truyen thong hn va cua nhng ngi lanh nhan no vi chieu kch xa hoi gan lien. Giao phan San Cristobal de las Casas la mot trong nhng giao phan ngheo va b gat bo ngoai le nhat Mexico, tuy co co gang cua chnh quyen, cac to chc xa hoi, cac doanh thng lien i va chnh cac tho dan nham cai thien cac ieu kien song cua dan chung ac biet trong lanh vc y te, giao duc, nha ca va ien nc. Tuy co viec tha nhan Mexico la mot quoc gia a van hoa nam 1992, va viec cai cach Hien Phap nam 2001, nhng 62 bo lac tho dan gom 11 trieu ngi van cha co mot to chc chnh tr, cha co at ai va cuoc song va nen van hoa cua ho cha c chu y u. Cac Giam Muc hy vong chuyen vieng tham cua c Thanh Cha huy ong c tnh lien i cua moi ngi oi vi thc tai song kho khan cua cac cong oan tho dan.

Ngay 26 thang gieng nam 2016 Tong giao phan thu o Mexico cung ra thong cao manh me khang nh rang "cac tho dan can cong ly va viec tha nhan cac quyen li cua ho. Ho phai song trong canh ban cung va b khinh miet. Cac gii chc chnh quyen li dung ho e mu li va co cac ng loi chnh tr nham duy tr cac ky th, vi pham quyen con ngi va thai o cha chu, s dung ho cho cac muc ch kiem phieu."

Trong cuoc hop muc vu tai Ciudad Altamirano, cac Giam Muc cac giao phan Chilapa-Chilpancingo, Acapulco, Tlapa va Ciudad Altamirano khang nh rang "bang Guerrero va nc Mexico se luon luon co bau kh bao lc v canh bat cong khien cho ngi dan tuyet vong noi loan s dung bao lc". Ngay 19 trc o a co nhieu vu bao thu khien cho 10 ngi chet.

Ngoai ra, s kien chnh quyen Mexico tha nhan hon nhan cua cac cap ong phai va cho pheo pha thai trong 12 tuan au cung la nhng thach o luan ly oi vi Giao Hoi.

 

Linh Tien Khai

(Radio Vatican)

 


Back to Vietnamese Missionaries in Asia Home Page