Chuyen vieng tham Etiopia

cua c Hong Y Leonardo Sandri

Tong trng Bo cac Giao Hoi ong Phng

 

Chuyen vieng tham Etiopia cua c Hong Y Leonardo Sandri, Tong trng Bo cac Giao Hoi ong Phng.

Roma (RG 5.6-12-2014; Vat. 9-12-2014) - T ngay mung 5 thang 12 nam 2014, c Hong Y Leonardo Sandri, Tong trng Bo cac Giao Hoi ong Phng, a bat au vieng tham Etiopia. Trong nhng ngay nay ngai ang tham vieng mot so giao phan, chung vien, trng hoc, cac nha thng va trung tam bac ai cua Giao Hoi cong giao.

Giao Hoi Etiopia theo nghi le Alessandria hien nay la mot Giao Hoi t quan gom mot toa Tong Giam Muc tai Addis Abeba va bon giao phan tai Eritrea va ba giao phan tai Etiopia.

Tiep on c Hong Y Tong trng tai nha th chnh toa Addis Abeba co c Tong Giam Muc Addis Abeba va cac Giam Muc ong Phng cung nh Latinh va cac tre em. Cac em a hat cac bai ca co truyen chao mng c Hong Y en tham Etiopia, que hng cua cac em.

Cong hoa lien bang Etiopia rong hn 1.1 trieu cay so vuong co hn 91 trieu dan, trong o co 61.6% theo Kito giao, 32.8% theo Hoi giao va 5.6% theo ao th vat linh. Trong khoi kito Chnh Thong chiem 50.6%, Tin Lanh 10.1% a so thuoc Giao Hoi tin lanh Etiope Mekane Yesus, Cong Giao chiem 0.9%. a so tn hu chnh thong song tai mien Trung va mien Bac. Mien nam va mien tay Etiopia cung co nhieu tn hu chnh thong va tin lanh, trong khi mien nam gan Somalia co a so dan theo Hoi giao. Ngoai ra, cung co mot cong oan Do thai nho goi la Falascia, trong tieng Aramei la Beta Israel, song trong vung tay bac Etiopia, ca khi 85% tc khoang 90,000 ngi a di c ve Israel trong cac nam 1984 vi phong trao "Moshe" va nam 1985 vi phong trao "Yoshua", khi vung nay gap nan oi kem, va vi phong trao "Salomon nam 1991 theo sau cac vu xung ot gia Etiopia va Eritrea. Mot vai hoc gia Israel cho rang nhom do thai nay la phan con lai cua mot trong 12 chi toc Israel b that lac.

Etiopia gom nhieu nhom chung toc khac nhau ong nhat la Oromo hay Galla chien 40%, roi Amhara chiem 32%. Tiep en la Sidama chiem 9%, Tigrini va Tigre chiem 7%, Shankella chiem 6%, Somali chiem 6% Afar chiem 4% Guraghe chiem 2% va 1% thuoc cac chung toc khac.

Ten goi Etiopia c giai thch nhieu cach khac nhau. Trong cac tac pham van chng Illiade va Odissea ngi Hy Lap goi Etiopia la vung at do ngi "Aithou" , ngha la nhng "ngi mat chay", trong khi s gia Erodoto dung t Etiopia e goi cac vung at man nam Ai Cap. Trai lai cac nguon Etiopi cho rang ten goi Etiopia do t "Ityapp'is" am ch dan toc con chau cua Cush, con cua Ham, la ngi thanh lap thanh pho Haksum nh viet trong cac van ban thanh Etiopi. Gia thuyet th ba cho rang ten Etiopia phat xuat t kieu noi trong tieng cua cac "Pharao da en" cua Sudan gom cac t: "et" co ngha la s that hay hoa bnh, "op" co ngha la cao hay ben tren va "bia" la x s hay vung at. Nh the Etiopia la "x s cua hoa bnh cao nhat".

Vao thi thuoc a vung nay c goi lam lan la Abissinia, at cua ngi Abissini thuoc chi toc Habashat t Arabia di c ti ay.

Kito giao a hien dien tai Etiopia t 17 the ky qua, khien cho nc nay la quoc gia kito duy nhat cua luc a Phi chau. No a e lai cac dau vet sau am trong cac c cau gia nh, xa hoi va chnh tr cua Etiopia, a giup ngi dan nc nay khang c lai cac ap lc va bach hai ben trong va ben ngoai cho ti nam 1974, khi Etiopia phai song di che o oc tai mac xt keo dai 17 nam tri, tc cho ti nam 1991.

Kito giao a bat au tai Etiopia vao au the ky th IV, khi vng quoc Aksum m ca cho Tin Mng nh s gia Rufino thanh Aquileia (345-411) ke lai trong tac pham "Lch s Giao Hoi" cua ong. Sach ke rang co mot triet gia no ngi thanh Tiro sang An o e hoc hoi. Ong em theo hai ngi chau la Edesio va Frumenzio ma ong a day cho cac nghe thuat t do. Tren ng ve tau ghe b bien o e tiep te nc va lng thc, nhng b dan chung tan cong, v ho ang chong lai e quoc Roma. Thuy thu oan va cac hanh khach b giet het, ch tr hai thanh nien thoat nan, nhng b bat lam tu binh va b dang cho vua Etiopia. Tr thong minh va tam hieu biet cua hai ngi tre khien cho nha vua rat cam phuc nen ch nh Frumenzio lam th ky va quan coi kho bac, con Edesio c lam quan ng tu co nhiem vu nem va dang ru cho vua. Khi nha vua qua i, hai ngi c tra t do. Nhng hoang hau nhiep chnh, trong khi ch i hoang t Ezana con nho tuoi ln len nam quyen thay vua cha, a xin Frumenzio va Edesio giup ba cai tr nc, Li dung a v cao cua mnh quan Frumenzio tiep on cac kito hu va tao ieu kien thuan li cho ho rao giang Tin Mng va cho kito hu co cac ni cau nguyen. Khi hoang t Ezana len ngoi, hai ngi gia t trieu nh, Edesio tr ve Tiro va chu cac chc thanh. Con Frumenzio sang Alessandria ben Ai Cap e bao cho c Thng Phu Atanasio biet s banh trng cua Kito giao trong vng quoc Aksum ben Etiopia, va ong xin c Cha Atanasio gi mot Giam Muc sang Etiopia e lo lang cho giao oan tai ay. Sau khi hop cac linh muc lai, c Giam Muc Atanasio thao luan viec nay va tra li Frumenzio: "Chung ta co the tm c ngi nao co than kh cua Thien Chua ng tr trong o va co the chu toan nhiem vu o bang con?" Va the la ngai tan phong Frumenzio lam Giam Muc va gi ti Aksum thu o cua vng quoc Etiopia. Ngi ta khong biet ro nam, nhng biet chac chan rang Atanasio a c bau lam Thng Phu Alessandria nam 328 va lan au tien Frumenzio ghe Etiopia la nhieu nam trc o va le tan phong Giam Muc xay ra sau nam 330. S gia Rufino con cho biet Frumenzio rao giang Tin Mng tai vng quoc Aksum trong 20 nam, khien cho rat nhieu ngi dan ay theo ao. Co ieu chac chan la vao nam 345 vua Ezana, me vua c ra toi lay ten thanh la Sofia cung nh hoang gia va trieu than a theo Kito giao. Giam Muc Frumenzio rat c ngi dan Aksum knh men va c goi la "Abba Salama, ngi cha hoa bnh", vi toc hieu "Chesatie Brhan, ngi mac khai anh sang". Trong truyen thong Etiopi hai anh em hoang t Ezana va Sexana tr thanh "Abraha ngi soi sang" va "Atsbha, ngi lam cho mat tri moc len". Ho la bnh minh va anh sang cua nc Etiopia mi, Etiopia kito.

V Etiopia la mot giao phan cua Giao Hoi Ai Cap nen Giam Muc c Thng Phu Alessandria ch nh va phai la mot ngi Ai Cap. V Giam Muc nay c goi la "Abuna Cha chung toi" va co quyen ch nh cac Giam Muc a phng. Vao au the ky th V mot an s Hy lap la Eutiche, thu lanh tinh than cua cac tu s Costantinopoli rao giang lac thuyet monofisismo, theo o nhan tnh cua Chua Kito b thien tnh thu hut va ch co thien tnh la hien hu ma thoi. Cong ong chung Calcedonia tuyen bo Eutiche lac giao va thiet nh rang ni Chua Kito nhan tnh va thien tnh ong hien hu. Vai Giao Hoi ong Phng trong o co Giao Hoi Alessandria khong chap nhan cac ket luan cua Cong ong va tach ri khoi Giao Hoi Roma. V la giao phan tuy thuoc Alessandria Etiopia cung tach ri khoi Giao Hoi Roma. Trong the ky th V Kito giao tiep tuc phat trien ca tai ong que do cong tac rao truyen Tin Mng cua cac an s ti t ong Phng Kito. Tuy nhien, co vai hoc gia cho rang "thuyet mot ban tnh" a ch gia nhap Etiopia sau nay. Mot trong cac bang chng la vua Caleb, cai tr Aksum vao tien ban the ky th VI, c Giao Hoi cong giao mng knh nh la thanh ngay 27 thang 10.

Vao cuoi the ky th VI vng quoc Aksum suy tan, va Etiopia mau chong b bao vay bi s banh trng cua Hoi giao, va b the gii quen lang trong mot ngan nam.

Bien co cac tha sai dong Ten en Etiopia trong hai the ky XVI-XVII khien cho cac hoang e Ze-Dinghil va Susinios theo Cong giao, nhng ch mot thi gian ngan. Tuy nhien, cac thao luan gia cac tu s dong Ten vi hang giao s Etiopia a lam nay sinh ra hai trao lu than hoc: mot trao lu c benh vc trong cac an vien Goggiam bao gom vung song Nilo xanh va man nam ho Tana; trao lu kia trong an vien Debra Libanos trong vung Scioa. Trao lu Goggiam cho rang Chua Kito a khong c Chua Thanh Than xc dau nhng do chnh Ngi, va trong viec hiep nhat vi Ngoi Li nhan tnh cua Ngi b thien tnh thu hut. Trao lu nay c goi la "qebat" xc dau va "hulet liddet" hai lan sinh ra, v tha nhan s kien Chua Kito c sinh ra t i i va c sinh ra t c Trinh N. Trong khi trao lu Debralibanos cho rang Chua Kito a c Thien Chua cha xc dau qua Chua Thanh Than va c goi la "sost liddet ba lan sinh ra", bao gom lan sinh ra qua viec xc dau. No cung c goi la "teuahdo" co ngha la "tr nen mot", v nhan tnh va thien tnh hiep nhat vi viec nhap the trong mot ban tnh gom thien tnh va nhan tnh. Chua Kito cung c goi la "tsegga ligg" ngi con cua n thanh v vi viec xc dau nhan tnh cua Chua Kito c thanh hoa bi n cua Chua Thanh Than. Cac tranh cai bat tan ni hang giao s Etiopi lien quan ti viec xc dau va ban tnh cua Chua Kito, oi khi bien thanh cac cuoc au tranh khoc liet va am mau, vi cac tran chien va cac vu tan sat toan an vien.

Trong dong lch s khi trao lu nay thang the luc trao lu kia thang the vi cac cuoc noi loan b dep tan trong mau. Chang han di trieu ai vua David III vao phan t au the ky XVIII tat ca cac an s Debra Linanos a b tan sat. Vi bien co Teodoro II len ngoi nam 1855 giao phai Goggiam c coi la quoc giao, uc vua Giovanni IV tai xac nhan va ap at trong Cong Ngh Boru Mieda nam 1878. t nam sau o hoang e Menelik len ngoi cham dt cac tranh cai ton giao. Vua Menelik rat khoan nhng va e cho moi tn hu t do chon la. Giao thuyet Debra Libanos tr thanh giao thuyet chnh thc cua Giao Hoi Etiopia.

Ngay nay Giao Hoi Etiopia cung giong cac Giao Hoi ong phng khong Calcedonia, tc cac Giao Hoi Siri, Armeni khc t thuyet monofisis mot ban tnh duy nhat, va tuyen bo mnh la "miafisis", tc s hiep nhat cua hai ban tnh trong mot ban tnh hon hp. Ten goi chnh thc cua Giao Hoi Etiopi la Giao Hoi chnh thong Teuahdo Etiopia. "Teuahdo" co ngha la "tr thanh mot". Ngoa ra t nam 1951 Giao Hoi Etiopia oc lap vi Giao Hoi Alessandria vi Thng Phu la Abuna Basilios. c Thng Phu chnh thong Etiopia hien nay la Abuna Paulos.

Tr lai vi chuyen vieng tham Etiopia cua c Hong Y Sandri, Tong trng Bo cac Giao Hoi ong Phng. Sau le nghi chao on tai nha th chnh toa c Hong Y a lang nghe tng trnh cua hai nhom Giam Muc le nghi Gheez Alessandria Etiopia va le nghi Latinh. Ngo li trong dp nay ngai chuyen li chao cua c Thanh Cha Phanxico, Giam Muc Roma, ngi co nhiem vu chu toa tnh hiep thong gia cac chu chan trong Giao Hoi. Muc ch chuyen vieng tham cua c Hong Y la e ap le chuyen vieng tham cua cac Giam Muc Etiopia hoi thang 5 nam nay tai Roma. Vt tren moi hieu lam hay chia re, thieu sot va toi loi, ieu duy nhat noi ket moi ngi la niem tin ni Chua Giesu Kito Cu The, va mau nhiem hiep thong cua cac Thanh nguon goc c tin cua dan noc Etiopia. Chang han thanh Frumenzio c thanh Atanasio tan phong Giam Muc, thanh s Marco mon e cua thanh Phero, ngi a rao giang Tin Mng va thanh lap Giao Hoi tai Alesssandria, cho ti cac tha sai va thanh Giustino de Jacobis, qua bao nhieu vui buon sng kho va kho khan, la nhng ngi a khien cho Tin Mng c am re sau trong long at Etiopia, ca khi Giao Hoi cong giao hien nay ch la mot thieu so nho nhoi i na. Nhng s kien nay oi hoi chung ta phai dan than manh me hn na e tai lap s hiep thong gia cac Giao Hoi. Ky niem 50 thanh lap hang Giao pham Etiopia la dp tot e on lai lich s t o en nay.

Tiep en c Hong Y Sandri a nhac ti ba tai lieu cua Cong ong Chung Vaticang II la Hien che ve Giao Hoi Lumen gentium, sac lenh ve cac Giao Hoi ong Phong, va sac lenh ve ai ket Unitatis Redintegratio. e la anh sang muon dan can tai kham pha ra vai tro cua cac chng nhan song ong cua truyen thong tong o, va tat ca moi Giao Hoi ong Phng phai cung nhau dan than tren con ng tai lap s hiep nhat. Viec oc lai cac tai lieu Cong ong co the la iem quan trong giup kiem thc cac hng i cho ti nay va tranh cac van e co the lam lac hng khien quen i s tuy thuoc Giao Hoi, hay cac goc re, qua o chung ta nhan c nha song, hay quen i nhiem vu phai cung nhau lam chng cho Chua. Ky c kito thoi thuc chung ta kiem thc kha nang em Chua en cho moi ngi.

Vt qua cac loi lam lch s a pham trong qua kh v cac hieu lam hay cac quan niem khac nhau ve Giao Hoi, bon phan rao giang Tin Mng la mot quyen khong the huy bo c. Sac lenh ve truyen giao Ad Gentes cung nh cac tai lieu Evangelii Nuntiandi cua c Phaolo VI, Redemptoris Misio cua c Gioan Phaolo II va Evengelii Gaudium cua c Phanxico la cac nguon goi hng phong phu cho cong tac rao truyen Tin Mng va ong hanh vi cac cong oan kito, cung nh cho viec cong tac gia cac Giam Muc ong phng va cac Giam Muc Latinh. Moi ngi eu c mi goi dan than trong nhieu lanh vc khac nhau t ao tao gii tre qua viec giang day giao ly, cho ti viec thang tien ai hoc cong giao thanh Toma Aquino, lo lang cho ngi di c, tr giup cac tn hu Etiopi song tai nc ngoai, thu thap cac d lieu thong ke. Moi cong tac muc vu eu phai co chieu kch hoa giai.

Tiep theo o c Hong Y a bc sang phong hoi cua Trung tam muc vu, e cung cac Giam Muc ket thuc ai hoi ky niem 50 nam thanh lap hang giao pham Etiopia.

Ngay mung 6 thang 12 nam 2014 c Hong Y Sandri a chu s thanh le va gap g hang giao s tu s Etiopi trong nha th chnh toa Addis Abeba. Giang trong dp nay c Hong Y a e lai ba t cha khoa va cac suy t rut ta ra t cac giao huan cua c Thanh Cha Phanxico: niem vui phat xuat t c Tin; long can am lam chng ta trong moi moi trng cuoc song, t bo kieu song kito vo danh; va song s hiep thong sau xa da tren li cau nguyen va tnh lien i vi tha nhan, ac biet nhng ngi tung thieu nhat. c Hong Y a khich le moi ngi noi gng song bac ai thanh thien cua Me Maria, cung nh gng cua cac thanh Frumenzio, Giustino de Jacobis va chan phc Gabriel a chu nhieu kho au khon kho e rao truyen Tin Mng, gi tay len e cau nguyen va giang tay ra e tr giup dan ngheo va hoa giai vi tha nhan.

Ngay 11 thang 12 nam 2014 c Hong Y Sandri gap g c Thng Phu Abune Mathias, Giao chu Chnh Thong Copte Etiopia va chao tham tong thong Cong Hoa Lien Bang Etiopia.

(RG 5.6-12-2014)

 

Linh Tien Khai

(Radio Vatican)

 


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