Nhan cuoc vieng tham Do Thai cua c Phanxico

tm hieu lien he ngoai giao

gia Do Thai va Toa Thanh

 

Nhan cuoc vieng tham Do Thai cua c Phanxico, tm hieu lien he ngoai giao gia Do Thai va Toa Thanh.

Roma (VietCatholic News 18-05-2014) - Lien he ngoai giao gia Do Thai va Toa Thanh c chnh thc thiet lap nam 1993, nhng a tiep theo gan mot the ky lien lac va hoat ong ngoai giao, cha ke gan 2 thien nien ky gap g gia Cong Giao va Do Thai Giao du oi khi nhng cuoc gap g nay khong than thien bao nhieu. Cac d kien sau ay da vao t lieu cua Bo Ngoai Giao Do Thai.

1. Thi ky trc khi Do Thai tr thanh quoc gia

Nam 1897, khi y niem Duy Xion (Zionist) bat au c chu y tai Au Chau, va 4 thang trc ai Hoi Duy Xion Th Nhat c to chc tai Basle, t bao co the gia cua Dong Ten, tc t Civilta Cattolica, cho moi ngi biet rang mot Nha Nc Do Thai tai at Thanh vi Gierusalem lam thu o va vi viec quan tr cac Ni Thanh la ieu khong the tng ngh c oi vi Giao Hoi Cong Giao.

Bay nam sau, tc nam 1904, ngi sang lap ra Phong Trao Duy Xion la Theodor Herzl yet kien c Pio X vi hy vong c Toa Thanh ung ho cong trnh cua Duy Xion. c Pio X khc t yeu cau cua ong bang cach tuyen bo rang Giao Hoi khong the tha nhan dan toc Do Thai va hoai mong chiem Palestine cua ho, v ngi Do Thai "khong tha nhan Chua chung toi". Herzl c ong vien bi cac ly le chnh tr; ap ng cua c Giao Hoang xuat phat t than hoc Cong Giao.

Trong suot 4 thap nien ke tiep tc thi ky co hai cuoc The Chien, cac tiep xuc cua Duy Xion vi pham trat Giao Hoi cung nh cac tuyen bo co tham quyen cua Vatican lien quan ti cac hoai bao cua Duy Xion kha ri rac. Tuy nhien, chung van u e cung co cac yeu to can ban, va nhat quan trong chu trng cua Vatican nh a c t Civilta Cattolica va c Pio X noi len. Toa Thanh chong lai y niem mot que hng cho ngi Do Thai tai Palestine , mot y tng von a co trong Ban Tuyen Ngon Balfour cua Anh ngay 2 thang 11, nam 1917. Cac ni thanh la quyen li sinh t va viec ngi Do Thai quan ly chung la ieu khong the chap nhan c. Van e s dung chung va trong coi chung la nhng van e phai c xac nh gia Giao Hoi va cac cng quoc. Co nhieu nan e than hoc xoay quanh kha the mot chu quyen Do Thai tai at Thanh.

Ngh Quyet 181 ngay 29 thang 11 nam 1947 cua Lien Hiep Quoc ("Ngh Quyet Phan Chia") d tru mot "thc the rieng biet" (corpus separatum) cho Gierusalem va vung phu can c Toa Thanh co thien cam. Tuy nhien, ngh quyet nay nhanh chong b cac nc A Rap bac bo va sau cac thu nghch trong nam 1948, "thc the biet lap" nay a khong thanh hien thc.

Thang Mi nam o, c Giao Hoang Pio XII, v het sc lo au trc canh tranh chap ay bao lc tai at Thanh, a ban hanh mot thong iep, ta la In Multiplicibus Curis, trong o, ngai keu goi cac nc mu tm hoa bnh danh cho Gierusalem va cac vung ngoai vi cua no "mot ac tnh quoc te" va "vi cac bao am quoc te" bao am quyen t do ti lui va th phng tai cac Ni Thanh rai rac khap Palestine. Trong mot thong iep th hai, ta la Redemptoris Nostra, thang T nam 1949, c Pio XII keu goi cong bnh cho ngi t nan Palestine va nhac lai li keu goi cua ngai ve "t the quoc te" nh la hnh thc bao ve tot nhat oi vi cac Ni Thanh. Chu trng chnh thc cua Vatican ve van e nay, cung nh ve van e ngi t nan, trong hai thap nien sau o, chu yeu a khong c may ai lu y.

2. Thi ky sau khi Do Thai tr thanh nha nc: tha nhan tren thc te

Nam 1948, Nha Nc non tre Do Thai het sc muon c Toa Thanh tha nhan chu quyen va cac lanh tho chiem c, v v the tinh than va anh hng quoc te cua Toa Thanh oi vi cac chnh phu tai mot so nc Cong Giao va hn phan na so Kito hu tren khap the gii. e at c muc tieu nay, Do Thai a c nhieu ai dien ti Vatican vao thang Chn nam o. Du phai oan khong thc hien c muc tieu hang au cua mnh, nhng mot so hieu biet a at c trong viec x ly cac van e c ca hai ben quan tam, mot phan da tren can ban song phng mot phan nh v Kham Sai cua c Giao Hoang tai at Thanh va v ai Dien Thng Phu tai Galile. Mac nhien trong cac hieu biet nay la viec Vatican tha nhan Nha Nc Do Thai tren thc te, mot s kien c Toa Thanh hay nhac ti trong cac thng lng sau nay vi Do Thai.

Vatican tiep tuc van ong cho viec quoc te hoa Gierusalem va cac Ni Thanh. Nam 1950, Toa Thanh phoi hp mot co gang bat thanh tai Lien Hiep Quoc nham thc hien viec nay. Sau o, Vatican khong con lap lai cac sang kien cua mnh tai Lien Hiep Quoc na nhng cung khong t bo khat vong cua mnh oi vi Gierusalem va cac Ni Thanh.

Song song vi cac s kien tren, cac lien lac gia Do Thai va Toa Thanh van dien tien tren nhieu bnh dien khac nhau. ang lu y la cuoc gap g c Pio XII cua Ngoai Trng Moshe Sharrett trong nam 1952 va viec Ban ai Hoa Tau Do Thai trnh dien cho ngai vao nam 1955. Muc tieu c cong bo cua Do Thai van la cac lien he ngoai giao ay u vi Toa Thanh. Cac co gang lien tuc cua cac nha ngoai giao Do Thai trong cac nam ke tiep van khong em lai ket qua bao nhieu.

Cuoc hanh hng cua c Giao Hoang Phaolo VI tai at Thanh vao thang Gieng nam 1964, c tien hanh mot cach khien cho ngi ta thay ro va mot cach au long la Toa Thanh khong tha nhan Do Thai tren phap ly.

Nam 1965, Cong ong Vatican II, khi cong bo tuyen ngon Nostra Aetate, a thay oi trong nen tang moi lien he cua Giao Hoi vi ngi Do Thai, v a chnh thc qua quyet rang "V Cha Ong ho, Thien Chua rat qui yeu ngi Do Thai; Ngi khong an han oi vi cac hong an [danh cho ho]". Hn na, cuoc kho nan cua Chua Giesu "khong the qui toi mot cach khong phan biet cho moi ngi Do Thai, song luc o hay song hien nay".

Neu cac luan bac than hoc trong phng thc tha nhan Do Thai ve phap ly a du i, th cac tr ngai chnh ve chnh tr van con o. Ngoai van e chu quyen Do Thai oi vi moi lanh tho, bao gom cac phan tai Gierusalem, van e thieu cac bien gii c tha nhan va van e cac Ni Thanh va viec bao ve cac ni nay, Vatican con duy tr quan tam cua mnh oi vi cac nhu cau cua ngi Cong Giao tai a phng cung nh so phan ngi t nan Palestine. Them vao o, Vatican con e ngai cac phan ng tieu cc chong lai cac nhom thieu so Kito Giao tai cac nc A Rap va ca chnh Vaticn na, neu phai tha nhan Do Thai tren phap ly. Con oi vi Do Thai, nhieu gii to ra ngan ngai trc viec co lien he tron ven vi Vatican#

Cuoc Chien Tranh Sau Ngay nam 1967 a thay oi the a chnh tr trong vung. Do Thai nay s hu vng vang toan bo at Thanh pha tay Song Giocang, bao gom moi Ni Thanh cua Kito Giao. Viec nay khien Vatican phai thay oi lap trng cua mnh mot cach thc tien. Trong mot dien van trc cac Hong Y vao thang 12 nam 1967, c Giao Hoang Phaolo VI keu goi "mot qui che ac biet, c quoc te bao am" (ch khong han quoc te hoa) cho Gierusalem va cac Ni Thanh. Lap trng nay van con la lap trng chnh thc cua Vatican cho ti tan nay.

Cung mot luc, cac lien lac cao cap gia hai ben van tiep dien. Trong o, co viec c Giao Hoang Phaolo VI tiep Ngoai Trng Abba Eban nam 1969, Thu Tng Golda Meir nam 1973 va Ngoai Trng Moshe Dayan nam 1978. Thu Tng Yitzhak Shamir c c GH Gioan Phaolo II tiep nam 1982. Van e lien he ngoai giao ay u a c neu ra trong cac lan tiep xuc nay va nhieu lan khac, nhng Vatican van tiep tuc de dat va trong khi Do Thai ngc xuoi, th Vatican van khong cho thay dau hieu hoi ha nao.

Nhng dau hieu au tien cho thay co the co thay oi bau khong kh xuat hien sau cuoc ang quang cua c Giao Hoang Gioan Phaolo II vao nam 1978. Ngai von rat khac ve hau canh so vi cac v tien nhiem ngi Y. Khi con tre, ngai tng co nhieu ban hu Do Thai tai thanh pho que hng Wadowice; ngai tng chng kien Nan Diet Chung va chnh ngai a b buoc phai lam viec tai ham a di thi Quoc Xa chiem ong Ba Lan; ngai co nhieu thien cam oi vi cac khat vong quoc gia cua ngi Ba Lan va cua nhieu dan toc khac. Nam 1984, ngai vien dan s an toan va thanh bnh cho ngi Do Thai ang song tai Nha Nc Do Thai nh la "mot ac quyen cua bat c quoc gia nao". Noi chuyen vi cac nha lanh ao Do Thai tai Miami thang Chn nam 1987, ngai tha nhan quyen cua dan toc Do Thai co mot que hng "nh bat c quoc gia dan s nao, theo luat quoc te".

Du nhieu v khac Vatican cho thay: cac tr ngai than hoc va nay cac tr ngai chnh tr oi vi viec thiet lap cac lien he ngoai giao ay u vi Do Thai a b loai bo phan ln, cung phai can ti 5 nam na c Gioan Phaolo II mi dien dch cac tnh cam cua ngai thanh thc tai ngoai giao. Sau Cuoc Chien Vung Vnh au tien nam 1991, dien trnh hoa bnh A Rap - Do Thai a c phuc hoat. PLO tha nhan Do Thai va mot so quoc gia A Rap thiet lap bang giao vi quoc gia Do Thai. Song song vi cac hoat ong nay, Lien Xo va mot so quoc gia quan trong khac cung a noi lai lien he ngoai giao vi Do Thai (b gian oan sau Cuoc Chien Tranh Sau Ngay). Them vao o, mot so nc hang au, nh Trung Quoc va An o, lan au tien cung a ky ket lien he ngoai giao vi Nha Nc Do Thai, e tr thanh thanh phan cua cac cuoc thng thuyet hoa bnh a phng.

Biet rang viec tha nhan Do Thai cua cac nc A Rap va cua Palestine khong gay nen bat c phan ng te hai nao tai Trung ong va co le v cam thay Toa Thanh se lam vao tnh the kho x neu khong c x vi Do Thai mot cach chnh thc khi cac van e co tnh sinh t vi nc nay c em ra thao luan trong cac cuoc thng thuyet hoa bnh, nen c Gioan Phaolo II a phe chuan mot so "tham do" ngoai giao oi vi Do Thai va sau o chnh ngai a ra sang kien. au thang T nam 1992, ai S Do Thai tai Y, Avi Pazner, va v c mi d buoi yet kien rieng vi c Giao Hoang. Theo li yeu cau cua ngai, ai S a a ra mot cai nhn tong quat ve tnh hnh Trung ong, trong o, ong am ch ti viec mot so nc A Rap khong chu chap nhan Do Thai, bat chap s tha nhan cua Palestine va dien trnh hoa bnh ang tiep dien. Viec gian tiep nhac ti s kien o ro rang a c c Giao Hoang thau hieu va co le a lam lech han ban can. V 10 ngay sau, "Bo Trng Ngoai Giao" cua Vatican, la Tong Giam Muc Jean-Louis Tauran, thong bao cho ai S Pazner rang c Gioan Phaolo a ch th cho Giao Trieu m cac cuoc thng thuyet e co the thiet lap quan he ngoai giao tron ven vi Do Thai. Sau khi gap c Giao Hoang vao thang Mi, Ngoai Trng Do Thai, Shimon Peres (nay la Tong Thong Do Thai) nhan nh rang du gan ay, Do Thai c rat nhieu quoc gia tha nhan, nhng "them Vatican vao tat ca cac vu tha nhan o qua a thay oi tnh the rat nhieu".

3. 1993 va sau o: tha nhan tren phap ly

Mot nam ri thng thao phc tap ket thuc bang viec ky Thoa Hiep Can Ban gia Toa Thanh va Nha Nc Do Thai vao ngay 30 thang Mi Hai nam 1993. Roi, can c vao Ngh nh Th tiep theo Thoa Hiep Can Ban, cac ai s toan quyen a c trao oi vao thang Nam nam 1994. Thoa Hiep Can Ban cung m ng cho viec thiet lap ra cac tieu ban phap che va tai chanh e giai quyet hang loat van e quan yeu van con co y e ngo. ieu ang lu y, la viec Thoa Hiep nhn nhan ban chat oc ao trong moi lien he gia Giao Hoi va Dan Toc Do Thai va nhac lai viec Giao Hoi len an chu ngha Bai Do Thai di moi hnh thc, nh a c noi ra trong Nostra Aetate.

T thi iem tren, Do Thai va Toa Thanh a duy tr c moi lien he ngoai giao gan gui, tuy khong han khong co nhng giai oan cang thang, tham ch khung hoang na. Cac cuoc ban luan cua tieu ban phap che a mau chong ket thuc vi Thoa Hiep Phu Troi a c ky ngay 10 thang Mi Hai nam 1997, trong o, Do Thai tha nhan t cach phap nhan va tham quyen theo giao luat cua Giao Hoi Cong Giao va cac nh che cua no, cung nh t cach phap nhan va tham quyen cua Toa Thng Phu La Tinh tai Gierusalem va cac Toa Thng Phu Cong Giao ong Phng cung cac giao phan lien he cua ho tren lanh tho Do Thai. Ve phan ho, cac thc the Giao Hoi nay tha nhan luat le hien hanh cua Do Thai trong cac van e dan s va hnh pham. Nhng mat khac, cong viec cua tieu ban tai chanh th van cha hoan tat, do nhieu kho khan tram trong trong viec khac phuc cac lap trng co tnh nguyen tac cua oi ben va do quan iem cua pha Do Thai cho rang neu danh cho Giao Hoi Cong Giao bat c ac quyen nao ve phng dien vat chat va tai chanh cung co the co he qua khong hay oi vi cac nhom Kito Giao va khong Kito Giao khac co mat tren x s.

Cao iem cua moi lien he la luc c Giao Hoang Gioan Phaolo II hanh hng at Thanh trong ai Nam Thanh 2000. Du ban chat ton giao cua cuoc vieng tham het sc noi bat, cac kha canh chnh tr cung khong the bo qua, th du luc c Gioan Phaolo ti tham Tong Thong Do Thai va luc ngai gap Thu Tng va cac thanh vien noi cac cua ong.

Cac hy vong ln lao cua Do Thai muon co lien he chnh tr va ngoai giao gan hn vi Toa Thanh sau cuoc vieng tham tren a b pha tan bi viec no ra cuoc noi day (intifada) th hai cua ngi Palestine vao thang Chn nam 2000. Ch trch viec Do Thai s dung vu kh e ap ng cuoc noi day va do o, lam cho dien trnh hoa bnh b khng lai, nen Toa Thanh a gi mot thai o lanh nhat trong moi lien he ngoai giao cua mnh vi Do Thai. Tuy nhien, v muon tranh viec gian oan hoan toan, Toa Thanh nhan manh hn ti chieu kch Do Thai Giao-Cong Giao cua moi lien he. Mot so sang kien c khuyen khch, trong o co viec phat ong cuoc oi thoai ang lu y gia Toa Thanh va Toa Trng Giao Chu cua Do Thai vao nam 2003, va cuoc oi thoai nay nay van con ang tiep dien mot cach co hieu qua.

Moi lien he gap nhieu cang thang vao nam 1998 khi ngi Hoi Giao tai Nadaret tm cach xay dng mot ngoi en ln ke can Nha Th Truyen Tin. Nhieu ngi cho rang viec nay co s thoa hiep ngam cua nha cam quyen Do Thai. Van e trc tiep lien he ti cac Ni Thanh Cong Giao nay mai ti thang Gieng nam 2002 mi c giai quyet khi mot uy ban chnh phu a ra ke hoach chnh trang ma thc te la e ket lieu viec xay dng ngoi en Hoi Giao. Ngc vi bien co nay, moi lien he ngoai giao to ra manh me va co chat lng khi Toa Thanh va Do Thai hp tac chat che va kn ao vi nhau e tm ra giai phap cho tnh the kho khan hoi thang T nam 2002 khi cac ngi Palestine co vu trang chiem gi mot Ni Thanh khac tc Nha Th Giang Sinh Belem va cam gi mot so giao s (Cong Giao, Acmeni va Chnh Thong Hy Lap) cung nh nhieu thng dan Palestine.

Phan ln, moi lien he nay dien tien mot cach em a. Cac cuoc tham vieng Toa Thanh cap bo trng la viec xay ra thng xuyen va nhieu en em khong xue. V Tong Thong Do Thai au tien c c Giao Hoang tiep kien la Tong Thong Moshe Katsav, thang Mi Hai nam 2002. Tren can ban hang ngay, Toa ai S Do Thai canh Toa Thanh tm cach thong tri cho Toa Thanh moi chnh sach chnh thc ve u van e hien thi, trong khi o, Toa ai S cua Toa Thanh tai Jaffa lo trong nom cac tai san nhieu mat va nhieu quyen li khac tai Do Thai. Ca hai ben eu tm cach m rong viec hp tac va hieu biet nhau ve van hoa, giao duc, hoc thuat va lien ton. Con cac van e tran tuc nh th thc nhap canh va viec ra vao Do Thai cua cac giao s Cong Giao thuoc cac lanh tho A Rap khong song hoa bnh vi Do Thai cung eu c thng xuyen giai quyet.

Do Thai va Toa Thanh rat coi trong lien he ngoai giao nay. Xet ve nhieu mat, ay la moi lien he oc ao, tham nhuan hang the ky gap g gia oi ben, va lien he ti nhng quyen li c oi ben coi la toi quan trong. Chnh v the, ngi ta co quyen hy vong no se mai mai vng ben va ay sc song, vt qua moi cang thang ay o, chac chan khong tranh khoi.

 

Vu Van An

 


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