Tay Phng hoai niem qua kh

ong Phng hng ti tng lai

 

Tay Phng hoai niem qua kh. ong Phng hng ti tng lai.

Roma (Avvenire 28-11-2012; Vat. 18-12-2012) - Phong van nha bao Jean-Claude Guillebaud.

Mi ay ong Jean-Claude Guillebaud, giam oc nha xuat ban Arenes, a cho phat hanh cuon sach ta e "Mot cuoc song khac la co the. Lam the nao e tm lai c niem hy vong?". Trong sach ong a ra mot vai nhan xet ve xa hoi Tay Au. oi vi ong, Au chau la mot luc a qua gia nua, mat thi gi e tng niem "cai v ai" a qua, trong khi ong Phng tre trung hng ti tng lai va ay sinh ong. Ong cung phe bnh mot so cac loi lam cua cac chnh quyen Au chau, trong o co viec e cho mnh b lay nhiem bi cai luan ly cua chu thuyet t ban anglosaxon. Ong viet: "ang ly ra Au chau a phai cho phep chung ta bao ve viec giai thch nen kinh te th trng nh ly thuyet a c a ra hoi thap niem 1920 vi muc ch che ch, tai phan phoi theo ly tng xa hoi dan chu. Co cac lan khac toi a noi ve mot "chu thuyet t ban theo kieu cua c sau e nh the chien" va nen kinh te xa hoi th trng, co ly e chong lai chu thuyet t ban kieu anglosaxon. The ma qua Uy ban Bruxelles nen xa hoi dan chu au chau a mau chong b o nhiem bi cai luan ly anglosaxon. Thay v che ch chung ta chong lai anh hng cua ben kia b ai dng, th viec xay dng au chau a tr thanh con nga thanh Troies va a a "kieu mau ay" vao Au chau nh la buon lau vay".

Ong Jean-Claude Guillebaud sinh nam 1944 tai Alger, thu o Algerie, la nha bao cong giao, van s, chuyen vien dien thuyet va la kito hu chien au. Ban au ong lam viec cho nhat bao "Sud Ouest", sau o lam phong vien chien trng trong hai mi nam cho nhat bao co khuynh hng rat i "Le Monde", cung nh cong tac vi nhat bao "Nouvel Observateur". Ong cung a hng dan nhom "Cac phong vien vo bien gii", va la thanh vien cua to chc "Phap Phoi hp cho Thap nien cua nen van hoa hoa bnh va khong bao lc". Ong cung ac trach muc ky s hang tuan ve cuoc song cua gii truyen thong trong trang bo tuc truyen hnh cua nhat bao "Nouvel Observateur" mi, va t nam 2010 ong thay the nha bao Jacques Julliard trong vai tro phat hanh nhat bao nay. Ngoai ra ong Guillebaud cung ac trach ky s quan sat cuoc song chnh tr Phap cho tuan san cong giao "La Vie". T nam 2008 ong cung la thanh vien Ban co van kiem soat nhom an loat "Bayard". Trong t cach la giam oc nha xuat ban "Seuil", ong a co dp tiep xuc vi nhieu nhan vat noi tieng cua nen van hoa Phap nh Rene Girard, Michel Serres, Edgar Morin, Regis Debray vv... Ong la mot tieng noi ac thu va ngoai cac lc o cua nen van hoa Au chau.

Ong Jean-Claude Guillebaud la tac gia cua tren 20 cuon sach. La ngi a khong song c tin va a ch tai kham pha ra kho tang c tin cua mnh mai sau nay, ong a viet cuon "Toi a tai tr thanh tn hu kito nh the nao" (2007). Trong cac phan oan cua mnh ong luon duy tr c s sang suot khien cho c Hong Y Joseph Ratzinger rat b an tng, khi noi ve cuon sach "Nguyen tac cua nhan ban tnh" cua ong (2001).

Trong so cac tac pham cua ong co cac cuon nh: "Charban-Delmas, hay nghe thuat hanh phuc trong chnh tr" (1969); "Cac ngay kinh khung cua nc Israel" (1974); "Cac hoa giay cua e quoc" (1975) "Cac nam mo coi 1968-1978" (1978); "Mot chuyen du hanh A chau" (1980); "Mot chuyen du hanh ai dng chau" (1980); "Chuyen du hanh Keren" (1988): giai thng Roger Nimier; "Ngon oi cua cac thien than: Tr ve Viet Nam vi Raymond Depardon" (1990); "S phan boi cua anh sang: ieu tra ve s hon loan ngay nay" (1995): giai thng Jean Jacques Rousseau; "S chuyen che cua lac thu" (1998): giai thng Renaudot Essai; "Viec tai thanh lap the gii" 1999); "Nguyen tac cua nhan ban tnh" (2001): giai thng Tieu luan au chau Charles Veillon; "Tinh than cua ni chon" (2002); "Mui v cua tng lai" (2003); "Sc manh cua xac tn: chung ta co the tin vao cai g?" (2005); "S lan lon cac gia tr" (2009); "Khi au mot the gii" (2008); "Ho a chet vo ch sao: mot na the ky cua cac vu am sat chnh tr" cung viet vi Jean Lacouture (2010); "Cuoc i song ong" (2011); "Ham thch tng lai" (2011); "Mot i song khac la co the" (2012).

Sau ay chung toi xin gi ti quy v va cac ban bai phong van nha bao kiem nha xuat ban Jean-Claude Guillebaud ve cuon sach noi tren, do phong vien Lorenzo Fazzini cua nhat bao Tng Lai, c quan ngon luan cua Hoi ong Giam Muc Italia, thc hien, so ra ngay 28 thang 11 nam 2012.

Hoi: Tha ong Guillebaud, ong khang nh rang a tm thay nhieu "tien bo" tai A chau hn la ben Au chau. Nhng ma trong ai luc "vang" nay cac quyen con ngi nh t do ton giao, t o ngon luan, t do t tng vv... a khong c bao am khap ni. Nh vay th phai cho kieu noi "tien bo" y ngha nao ay?

ap: Toi biet rang trong a so cac quoc gia A chau nh Trung Quoc, Viet Nam, Singapore, Malaysia vv... viec ton trong cac quyen con ngi khong c bao am mot cach hoan toan, va con rat xa nen dan chu. Chang han nh tren bnh dien chnh tr Trung Quoc va Viet Nam van con b cai tr bi cac ngi lanh ao cong san "kieu co hu", t ton trong quyen t do va pham gia con ngi. Tuy nhien, neu cac quyen bnh cua ho b x cng va oc tai, th cac xa hoi dan s cua hai nc nay lai rat nang ong, co oc sang tao va tch cc. Ho song theo tiet nhp cua che o sieu t ban, cung sang tao va hng ti tng lai, hng ti "d an" theo ngha ban the hoc cua t nay. e lay lai kieu noi cua nha xa hoi hoc c Max Weber, "s ham thch tng lai" trong thi gian rat lau a la ac tnh cua nen van hoa Au chau, la ieu a cho phep Au chau roi Tay Phng nhap the s tien bo va tnh tan thi.

Ngay nay Au chau cong hien cho ngi ta cai cam tng la a tr thanh mot luc a met moi, khong niem hy vong, b nhot trong cai long cua s "hoai niem qua kh v ai" cua mnh.

Hoi: Ong co the a ra cac th du nao e hau thuan cho xac tn nay hay khong?

ap: Ngi au chau chung toi mat thi gi "tng nh" cac s vat, hng ve qua kh hn la hng ti tng lai. Ngay xa th Trung Quoc a la chuyen vien viec tng niem nay: Trung Quoc co cu va giau van minh bat ong trong viec t c hanh chnh mnh, nh triet gia tan tien Liang Shuming, ngi a phe bnh nen van hoa cua ong, a ghi nhan hoi nam 1920. Ngay nay Trung Quoc tien ti, trong khi Au chau bat ong. Chnh v the ma trong cuon sach cua toi toi khang nh, vi mot chut khieu khch, rang ngi Tau "tay au" hn ngi au chau chung toi, ho bien thanh nhng ngi ang moc: ong phng pha mat tri moc; trong khi chung toi lai tr thanh nhng ngi ang lu m i: Tay phng pha mat tri lan.

Hoi: Tha ong Guillebaud, ong co cac li le tranh luan vi cac triet gia theo phai "tan khac ky" nh ong Andre Compte-Sponville, va a so ho khong phai ch Phap. Ong lay khoang cach vi thai o "b hap dan ma ho co oi vi s khon ngoan". Tai sao vay?

ap: Toi ton trong ong Compte-Sponville ch, va nhieu lan toi a oi thoai vi ong trc cong chung. Tren nhat bao "La Croix" chung toi cung a lam mot cuoc phong van tay oi. Nhng toi triet e khong ong y vi ong ta ve y niem hy vong. Trong nhieu sach khac nhau ong ay to cao niem hy vong bang cach trnh bay no nh la th trng ban bot. Ong cho rang tai sao lai phai di lai ti ngay mai mot niem hanh phuc hay mot thu vui, ma ngi ta co the song ngay lap tc trong hien tai? Di mat cua ong niem hy vong hoat ong nh nh mot cai thay the di chuyen mot cai g o cua hien tai, mot cai g rot cuc la vo ch. Nhng toi tin la ong ta lam. Co mot lan toi ci va noi vi ong ta rang mot ngi cu cong san nh ong ma lai a khong oc thanh Agostino u.

Hoi: Tai sao vay tha ong?

ap: Bi v thanh Agostino a nhac nh rang niem hy vong chac chan lien quan ti tng lai, nhng no song trong hien tai. Noi cach khac, thay v lay i cai g cua hien tai, th niem hy vong lai bo them cai g vao cho no. Va ang khac chung ta biet rat ro la mot ca nhan hay mot xa hoi hy vong th hanh phuc rat nhieu hn la mot ca nhan va mot xa hoi that vong. Neu ngi ta theo kieu ly luan cua ong Compte-Sponville, th ieu nay phai ngc lai.

Hoi: Giao Hoi Cong Giao tai Phap hien nay ra sao? Tai Strasbourg nguyet san "i song" a to chc mot ai hoi, trong o cac tham d vien a duyet xet cac tnh trang chung cua Kito giao Au chau. Co cac dau hieu hy vong nao khong tha ong?

ap: Toi xac tn la co. Chung toi ang song trong mot tnh trang mau thuan. Xa hoi Phap xem ra ngay cang b tuc hoa va ngoai giao hn. C cau cong giao xem ra b khung hoang hn bao gi het, nhng ong thi ngi ta cung cam thay mot s khao khat tinh than, ca ni gii tre. Toi xin noi them rang hien tng nay xem ra khong ch han hep trong nc Phap ma thoi, cung khong ch co Au chau. Toi thng du hanh ay o v cong viec la phong vien bao ch, va toi nhan thay cung ieu o tai Phi chau, A chau va ca tai cac nc cu cong san ong au na. Khong ai co the noi cai g se nay sinh ra t hien tng "s tr lai nay cua ton giao". Cung co the xay ra ieu te hai hn na. Nhng co mot ieu chac chan: nh nha nhan chung hoc Clifford Geertz, qua i nam 2006, a khang nh: "cau hoi ton giao" khong sau lng chung ta, nhng pha trc chung ta: no la "mot oi tng cua tng lai".

(Avvenire 28-11-2012)

 

Linh Tien Khai

(Radio Vatican)

 


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