Khai niem ve vo tn va vo than

 

Khai niem ve vo tn va vo than.

Paris [La Croix 25/3/2011] - Knh tha quy v, cac ban than men. Cuoc gap g c menh danh la "San cua dan ngoai" gia cac tn hu Kito va nhng ngi khong tin, c Hoi ong Toa thanh ve van hoa to chc tai Paris, a ket thuc hom th Bay 25 thang 3 nam 2011. Sang kien a dien ra theo mong moi cua c Thanh Cha Benedicto XVI la muon thay m ra nhng cuoc oi thoai vi nhng ngi muon tiep can vi Thien Chua nh mot ang Vo Danh.

e hieu c cuoc oi thoai nay, thiet tng can tm hieu y ngha cua mot so khai niem lien he.

Trc het la khai niem vo tn. Vo tn la ngi khong at van e ve s hien hu cua Thien Chua. Mot cach tong quat, co the noi rang dng dng ton giao, von la mot thai o ngay cang gia tang, la tnh trang cua nhng ngi khong at van e ve Thien Chua va khong cam thay co nhu cau phai at van e nay. Ngi dng dng hay vo tn la ngi khong tin, nhng khong ng nhien cam thay co nhu cau phai xac nh tai sao hay nh the nao mnh khong tin.

Kinh Thanh a tng noi en thai o nay. Sach tien tri Gieremia oan 5 cau 12 noi en nhng ngi a choi bo Thien Chua khi noi: "Chang co Chua au, chung toi chang mac tai hoa nao; oi kem, gm ao, chung toi khong he gap". Tac gia thanh vnh 14 keu len: "Ke ngu si t nhu: lam g co Chua Tri. Chung a ra h on, lam nhng ieu ghe tm, chang co mot ai lam ieu thien".

Ke ngu si c thanh vnh 14 nhac en choi bo Thien Chua hay li ha vi Israel? Cac nha chu giai cha giai thch c ieu nay.

Vao the ky th 5 trc cong nguyen va nhng the ky ke tiep, ngi Hy lap va ngi Ai cap khong quan niem rang co the co mot Thien Chua ma con ngi khong thay c hay khong the bieu hien c. Nhng ay chnh la Thien Chua cua dan Do thai va cua Kito giao. Chnh v khong chu te le cho cac than minh cua e quoc, ma ngi Do thai cung nh cac tn hu Kito b xem la "nhng ke vo than" va b bach hai. Phai i cho en the ky 18 s hien hu cua Thien Chua mi minh th b cac t tng gia cua thi ai Anh Sang at nghi van va y tng ve mot the gii khong co Thien Chua mi nay sinh.

Song song vi vo tn con phai ke en thai o bat kha tri. Theo quan niem triet hoc nay, tat ca nhng g vt qua lanh vc thc nghiem eu khong the biet c. Do o, con ngi khong the noi g ve s hien hu cua Thien Chua. ay la mot thai o rat pho bien hien nay, nht la trong boi canh cua chu ngha a ton giao.

Khac vi vo tn hay bat kha tri, vo than la ngi minh th choi bo chnh s hien hu cua Thien Chua. Ngi vo than da vao mot he thong t tng e ly giai ve the gii va lch s theo o s khong hien hu cua Thien Chua la mot khang nh da tren thc nghiem va ly tr.

Trong tac pham "tham kch cua nhan ban chu ngha vo than", c co Hong y Henri de Lubac a chng minh rang ac iem cua chu ngha vo than phat sinh t mot Tay phng choi bo Kito giao chnh la t nhan minh la chu ngha nhan ban ch thc.

Chu ngha vo than a c he thong hoa vao the ky 19. Vi tac pham "Yeu tnh cua Kito giao", Triet gia c Ludwig Feuerbach a c xem la ngi au tien xay dng he thong t tng vo than mot cach khuc chiet. Theo triet gia nay, y tng ve Thien Chua ch la s phong hoa nhng gia tr nh long thien hao, chan ly va cong bnh ma con ngi luon tm kiem. Triet gia nay cho rang Thien Chua chnh la nhng ly tng ma con ngi khong at c trong the gii nay.

Ke o, Marx, Nietzsche va Freud, ma triet gia Phap Paul Ricoeur qua i nam 2005 goi la "nhng bac thay cua s hoai nghi", a quang dien luan e cua Feurbach. Khi i t nhng quan iem khac nhau, ba nha t tng nay muon giai phong con ngi khoi s vong than cua no. Theo ho, e tr thanh ngi, con ngi can phai t bo moi cau cu vi than linh ao tng va ng au vi thc te bang cach xay dng mot the gii cho con ngi va v con ngi. Chu ngha nhan ban vo than nay gan lien vi y tng tien bo cua nhan loai. Nhng vi vo so tai hoa va chien tranh, lch s cua the ky 20 a chng minh ngc lai. Chnh v the ma chu ngha nhan ban vo than nay a khong ng vng.

Ngay nay, cn cam do cua chu ngha vo than van con o, nhng khong gan lien vi mot he thong t tng giai thch ve the gii, ma lai xoay quanh van e s D. Nhieu ngi tr thanh vo than ch v vap phai van e s D trong the gii.

Trong the ky 20 va qua, mot so quoc gia a tuyen xng chu ngha vo than nh quoc giao e chong lai bat c ton giao nao ha hen hanh phuc ben kia the gii. Theo nhng quoc gia nay, ha hen hanh phuc ben kia the gii la la gat e no le hoa con ngi. Ke t nam 1923, Lien xo co suy chu ngha vo than quoc gia. Ke o la ong Au. Nam 1967, Enver Hodja a tuyen bo Albani la quoc gia vo than au tien tren the gii.

Chu ngha vo than c tuyen xng nh quoc giao a e lai nhng di hai nh the nao th lch s a chng minh.

 

CV.

 


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