Gia tr Lch s va Phap ly

lien quan ti quyen s hu bat ong san

cua Toa Tong Giam Muc Ha Noi

 

Prepared for Internet by Radio Veritas Asia, Philippines

 

Gia tr Lch s va Phap ly lien quan ti quyen s hu bat ong san cua Toa Tong Giam Muc Ha Noi.

Ha Noi, Viet Nam (25/02/2008) - T gan hn tuan nay, nhieu bai viet va y kien c phat bieu tren cac phng tien truyen thong kha doi dao va oi khi co nhng ly giai hoan toan trai ngc nhau tren cung mot s kien lch s, khi au t khi cong bo Van Th cua HT Thch Trung Hau, tha uy nhiem Hoi ong Tr S Giao Hoi Phat Giao Viet nam (GHPGVN) gi Thu Tng Nguyen Tan Dung vi lap luan rang khu at Toa Kham s toa lac tng thuoc quyen s hu cua Phat giao va yeu cau GHPGVN can c tham khao trc khi co quyet nh cu the lien he en s viec tren [1].

 

A- Trc tien chung toi th phan tach nhng luan c trong Van Th noi tren va em so sanh vi nhng t lieu lch s hien co nham tm ra s that cua nhng s kien lch s a xay ra nh the, khong them bt.

Nhng luan c trong Van Th cua GHPGVN:

1. M au Van Th cho biet rang can c cac tai lieu lch s, chua Bao Thien la mot trong bon di san van hoa ln cua Phat giao c xay cat t nam 1057 di thi vua Ly Thanh Tong", sau o HT Thch Trung Hau t ong hoa Phat giao vi Giao Hoi Phat Giao Viet nam (GHPGVN) a la s hu chu lien tuc chua Bao Thien trong suot 825 nam, tc t nam 1057 cho en nam 1883.

2. Tiep theo HT Thch Trung Hau quyet oan rang vao nam 1883, chnh quyen thc dan Phap cng chiem roi giao cho Thien Chua giao, cu the la Giam muc Puginier s dung.

3. Sau cung HT Thch Trung Hau dien giai Chua Bao Thien toa lac tren khu at rong vai ngan met vuong, a b ap pha roi xay dng Nha th Ln Ha Noi va Toa Kham s len tren o va HT ket luan la GHPGVN can c tham khao trc khi Thu Tng co quyet nh (thoa thuan trao tra a c Toa Tong Giam Muc va Chnh quyen ong y tren nguyen tac va theo mot tien trnh bat au t hai tuan trc Tet Mau Ty).

Nhng Chng T Lch S:

- Ve s thc quyen s hu chu chua Bao Thien:

+ Sach Viet nam Danh Lam Co T, Vo Van Tng, Nha Xuat Ban Khoa Hoc Xa Hoi 1992, trang XIV: Vua Ly Thanh Tong thuoc the he th nhat cua thien phai Thao ng; trang XV: cac chua thap ln Thi Ly phan ln do nha vua hay cac quan bo tien xay dung, nhat la nhng ni co canh ep nu non. Trong ngoai Thanh Thang Long chua c xay dng khap ni.

+ Thc te lch s: Cac chua chien tai Viet nam thuoc t nhan hoac vua chua, cac ong hoang ba chua, cac nha giau co t nhan. Quyen s hu cua moi chua hoan toan oc lap va rieng t, khong thuoc quyen s hu mot to chc phat giao nao.

Nam 1964, Giao Hoi Phat Giao Viet Nam Thong Nhat (GHVNTN), hoat ong oc lap, khong c Chnh quyen cong nhan, ra i tai Saigon cung ch co tnh chat ieu hp cac sinh hoat ton giao va hanh chanh ch khong co g thay oi quan trong ve quyen s hu cac chua.

Nam 1981, GHPGVN ra i tai Ha noi, b chnh quyen chi phoi, khong oc lap va ngi dan goi la Giao Hoi Phat Giao Quoc Doanh, c chnh thc cong nhan va co t cach phap nhan cung ch co rat t chua va vai bat ong san c Chnh Quyen Viet nam cap phat cho khong hang chuc hec-ta at tai Ha noi, a Lat, v.v...;

Vay viec HT Thch Trung Hau quyet oan vo bang c rang GHPGVN, la chu ngoi chua va thap Bao Thien la khong co c s, khong ung vi thc te cung nh d lieu lch s. Trong kh o, thc te lch s cho thay Toa Tong Giam Muc Ha Noi, qua cac trieu ai khac nhau, luon luon la s hu chu lien tuc cong khai va on nh t 125 nam nay.

Hn na chnh ban than GHPGVN ch mi c thanh lap va co t cach phap nhan vao ngay 7 thang 11 nam 1981 tai Ha Noi, lam sao ma Hoa Thng bao gan dam xac quyet GHPGVN la s hu chu lien tuc bat ong san Chua Bao Thien t 825 nam e oi c tham khao y kien ve viec trao tra lai bat ong san thuoc quyen s hu cua Toa Tong Giam Muc.

ang khac t nam 1883 ti trc ngay 16/02/2008, tc 125 nam sau, khong co mot ca nhan nao, mot to chc nao at van e lien quan ti quyen s hu bat ong san cua Toa Tong Giam Muc Ha Noi.

Nay bong dng GHPGVN t nhan la s hu bat ong san a c thoa thuan tien trnh giai quyet gia Toa TGM va Chnh quyen Viet nam.

Do hanh vi nay, mo ngi dan bnh thng co quyen nghi ng y o tam toi cua GHPGVN qua HT Thch Trung Hau ai dien.

- Ve viec Chnh Quyen thc dan Phap cng chiem:

Moc thi gian 1883, Bac Ky la at bao ho cua Phap nhng van do quan chc cua Trieu nh Hue quan tr hanh chanh. V Tong oc Ha Noi luc bay gi la ong Nguyen Hu o.

Chnh v Tong oc nay sau khi khong tm ra cac tha ke bat ong san chua Bao Thien, a b hoang phe o nat do thi gian va chien tranh a cap quyen s hu chu cho Giam Muc Puginier, cai quan giao x Ha noi.

Ong Bonnal, luc bay gi la Cong S Phap Ha Noi a t choi li yeu cau xin cap at xay Nha Th Ln (Saint-Joseph) lay ly do la ong khong co tham quyen.

+ Xin Xem "Hanoi pendant la periode heroique. 1873-1888" trang 125, cua tac gia Andre Masson. Librairie Orientaliste Paul Genthner. 13 rue Jacob (VIe). 1929', Masson-Hanoi va Nhng ky niem cua Cong S Bonna: Souvenir de Bonnal;

Ve s thc Chua Bao Thien b ap pha:

+ Tnh trang hoang tan cua chua Bao Thien: Ha Noi Nghn Xa, trang 177;

+ Ve s xup o cua thap Bao Thien: ai Viet S Ky Toan Th va Viet S Lc;

+ Chua Bao Thien b bo hoang: ai Viet S Ky Toan Th va Viet S Lc;

+ Thap Bao Thien b quan Minh pha sap de lay ong khi Le Li bao vay thanh Thang Long: Ngh ve Thang Long Ha Noi (Nha Xuat Ban Tre 2001, TP. HCH, tr 100-105).

Sau 4 nam xay dng, Ngoi Thanh ong Nha Th Ln c khanh thanh ngay 23 thang 12 nam 1887.

Vay viec HT Thch Trung Hau cao buoc b chnh quyen thc dan Phap cng chiem roi giao cho Thien Chua giao vao 1883 la khong xac thc va vo can c va bop meo lch s.

o la nhng d kien va tai lieu lch s de dang kiem chng.

Khong ai co the thay oi c lch s nhng moi ngi chung ta co the rut ra c nhng bai hoc lch s e ng dung vao i song va xay dng quoc gia tot hn.

a khong phai la chu bat ong san hay co li ch g lien quan en phan at cu xa xa cua chua Bao Thien t 1051 nam (1057-2008) nay, GHPGVN, qua Van Th tren, a to ra y o khong minh bach trong viec t cho mnh la s hu chu va oi c tham van vu viec.

S kien nen at chua Bao Thien co lien quan ti Bat ong San nay thuoc Quyen S Hu thuoc Toa TGM Ha Noi cung ch co tnh cach dau vet lch s giong nh viec oi chu cua bat c bat ong san nao tai Viet nam hay tren the gii.

Tuyet nhien khong mang li g hay quyen g cho nhng vet tch lch s o.

Ch ngi chu ch thc cua bat ong san moi co ay u cac quyen li phat sinh t quyen s hu theo quy nh cua cac ieu 192, 193,, 195, 197 v.v... cua Luat Dan S Viet nam, Luat so 33/2005/QH11.

 

B- Luat phap Viet nam qui nh the nao ve Bat ong San trong tnh huong tren.

Bo Luat Dan S Viet nam, Luat so 33/2005/QH11;

Xac lap quyen s hu theo quyet nh cua c quan nha nc co tham quyen:

+ ieu 246: Quyen s hu co the c xac lap can c vao ban an, quyet nh cua toa an hoac quyet nh cua c quan nha nc co tham quyen khac.

V Tong oc Ha Noi luc bay gi la ong Nguyen Hu o, ai dien Trieu nh Hue cap quyen s hu chu cho GM Puginier, quan tr giao x Ha noi la ung phap luat.

Xac lap quyen s hu theo thi hieu 30 nam:

+ ieu 247: Xac lap quyen s hu theo thi hieu.

1- Ngi chiem hu, ngi c loi ve tai san khong co can c phap luat, nhng ngay tnh, lien tuc, cong khai trong thi han mi nam oi vi ong san, ba mi nam oi vi bat ong san, thi tr thanh s h chu tai san o, ke t thi iem bat au chiem hu, tr trng hp qui nh tai khoan 2 nay.

Neu nh gia thuyet cho rang Chnh Quyen thc dan Phap co lam ap lc voi Tong oc Nguyen Hu o trong viec cap quyen s hu bat ong san cho GM Puginier th quyen s hu nay cung khong b anh hng g v thi hieu ti nay a 125 nam.

Ngoai ra ieu 1 phan cuoi: Bo Luat Dan S co nhiem vu bao ve quyen, li ch cua ca nhan, to chc...; bao am s bnh ang va an toan phap ly trong quan he dan s...

Tom lai viec thu ac bat ong san so 40 Pho Nha Chung cua GM Puginier t V Tong oc Ha Noi Nguyen Hu o la hoan toan hp phap.

Tai san nay c chiem gi va truyen ke lien tuc qua cac v GM noi tiep khac nhau ke t 1883 cho ti nay (nam 2008), la TGM Ngo Quang Kiet.

Viec Giao Phan Ha Noi cho c Kham S John Dooley mn mot toa nha (Chnh Quyen quan Hoan Kiem Ha Noi cho gan vao so 42) lam Toa Kham S cho en khi Ngai b truc xuat vao nam 1959 khong the coi la bat ong san thuoc quyen s hu cua Toa Thanh Vatican.

Viec mot giao phan cho c Kham S mc lam Toa Kham S tai mot quoc gia co bang giao vi Toa Thanh Vatican la mot thong le tren toan the gii ch khong rieng Tong Giao Phan Ha noi.

Ngi thue nha luon luon van la ngi thue nha.

Ngay nay viec Tong Giao Phan Ha Noi oi la tai san cua giao phan mnh, b chiem dung trong thi iem Chnh Quyen cai tr bang vu lc, vo luat le t hn 50 nam nay cung la bnh thng v Viet nam hien nay a co luat phap qui inh giai quye quyen s hu bat ong san.

Thc vay:

ieu 256: quyen oi lai tai san

Chu s hu, ngi chiem hu hp phap co quyen yeu cau ngi chiem hu, ngi x dung tai san, ngi c li ve tai san khong co can c phap luat o vi tai san thuoc quyen s hu hoacquyen chiem hu hp phap cua mnh phai tra lai tai san o...

ieu 259: Quyen yeu cau ngan chan hoac cham dt hanh vi can tr trai phap luat oi vi viec thc hien quyen s hu, quyen chiem hu hp phap...

ieu 260: quyen yeu cau oi boi thng thiet hai.

Chu s hu, ngi chiem hu hp phap co quyen yeu cau ngi co hanh vi xam pham quyen s hu, quyen chiem hu cua mnh boi thng thiet hai.

 

Ket Luan:

Lch s thay oi chu cua mot Bat ong San la ieu tat yeu phai xay ra theo quy luat kinh te va phat trien quoc gia.

Bi the, moi quoc gia [2] eu phai co mot bo luat Dan S can ban qui nh cac moi tng quan nay va nham bao am an toan phap ly cac moi tng quan o: v du nh cac ieu khoan lien quan ti ngi chiem hu ngay tnh tr thanh s hu chu tai san, cac thi hieu thu ac va thi hieu tieu diet to quyen (limitation of actions: Acquisitive prescription and extinctive prescription).

S kien nen at chua Bao Thien trc ay 825 nam thuoc s hu chu t nhan, c thu ac hp phap, va ket tha cho ti nay thuoc Toa TGM Ha Noi, giong nh viec oi chu cua bat c bat ong san nao tai Viet nam hay tren the gii.

Nen gia tr lch s cua chua Bao Thien thuoc phan lch s hnh thanh khu Bat ong San Nha Th Ln va Toa Kham S khong cho phep bat c mot ca nhan hay to chc nao can d vao quyen s hu chu cua Toa TGM Ha Noi nh Bo Luat Dan S a qui nh neu tren.

Gia tr phap ly Quyen S Hu Bat ong San so 40 Pho Nha Chung bao gom Toa Kham S ro rang la chac chan minh bach va bat kha tranh cai.

Viec tr hoan tra lai bang cach dan dng nhng ly do khong chnh ang hay tao ra cac lan song tranh cai vo bo ch gay chia re, gay hoa mu cang lam mat uy tn va niem tin trong dan chung.

Mot nha nc ang tren a phat trien e tr thanh mot nha nc phap quyen khong the hanh s nh cung cach hien nay.

Ca nc va ca the gii ang cham chu theo doi cach ng x cua Chnh quyen ngay tai Trung tam Thu o Ha Noi.

 

Ghi Chu:

[1] Noi dung Van Th: Can c cac tai lieu lch s, chua Bao Thien la mot trong T ai kh (bon di san van hoa ln) cua Phat giao, ma cung la cua co o Thang Long, c xay cat t nam 1057 di thi vua Ly Thanh Tong. Phat giao Viet Nam, mot ton giao luon luon ong hanh vi dan toc qua nhng thang tram cua van nc, du vi t cach la mot Giao hoi hay la mot bo phan ln nhat cua cong ong dan toc, a lien tuc la s hu chu cua c s nay trong 825 nam cho en nam 1883 khi b chnh quyen thc dan Phap cng chiem roi giao cho Thien Chua giao, cu the la Giam muc Puginier s dung.

Chua Bao Thien, mot di san van hoa o so vao bac nhat nc ta toa lac tren khu at rong vai ngan met vuong, a b ap pha roi xay dng Nha th Ln Ha Noi va Toa Kham s len tren o.

Va qua, mot so ngi len tieng oi Chnh phu giao tra Toa Kham s cu ay cho Thien Chua giao, gay nhieu xon xao trong quan chung nhan dan. Chung toi e ngh Thu tng nen xem Giao hoi Phat giao Viet Nam la mot trong nhng thanh phan chu yeu e tham khao trc khi co quyet nh cu the lien he en s viec tren.

Tran trong knh chao Cu Thu tng.

Knh th

T.U.N. Ban Thng Trc HTS GHPGVN

Trng Ban Van Hoa Trung ng

(a ky)

Hoa thng Thch Trung Hau

[2]- Bo Dan Luat Phap: Le delai de prescription en droit franais est de 30 ans comme l'enonce l'article 2262 du code civil. " Toutes les actions, tant reelles que personnelles, sont prescrites par trente ans, sans que celui qui allegue cette prescription soit oblige d'en rapporter un titre ou qu'on puisse lui opposer l'exception deduite de la mauvaise foi." Folleville, Daniel de.

Considerations generales sur l'acquisition ou la liberation par l'effet du temps. Essai sur le titre de la prescription. Paris: E. Thorin, 1869. 155 p.; 24 cm.

- Bo Dan Luat Quebec, Canada: cac ieu luat: t 2875-2933 CVQ.

- Thi han hanh s to quyen tai Australie, Canada va Hoa Ky: Handford, Peter R., Limitation of actions: he Australian law / by Peter Handford., Pyrmont, N.S.W.: Thomson Legal & Regulatory Group, 2004.

Joffe, Hal, Federal limitation periods: a handbook of limitation periods and other statutory time limits / prepared by Hal Joffe, Susan Ditta, Heather Crisp., Toronto: Butterworths, c1978-1986, v. (feuillets mobiles).

Baudry-Lacantinerie, Gabriel, 1837-1913. Prescription, traite theorique et pratique de droit civil, vol. xxviii, nos. 1-815 (4th ed. 1924) / Baudry-Lacantinerie & Tissier; Chapter 4: of the different manners in which actions are extinguished or become ineffective, and especially of prescription, Droit civil franais vol. xii, 770-776 bis (6th ed. 1958, by Paul Esmein) / Aubry & Rau; Notes on liberative prescription, 50 revue trimestrielle de droit civil, 171-181 (1952) / Jean C. Carbonnier. An english translation by the Louisiana States Law Institute.

 

Ls Tran Le Nguyen

 

 


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