Phan hoi bai viet cua Gs Pham Van Hng:

i tm nguon goc ch quoc ng

 

Prepared for Internet by Vietnamese Missionaries in Asia

 

Phan hoi bai viet cua Gs Pham Van Hng: i tm nguon goc ch quoc ng.

(Tran Duy Nhien, Saigon; Roland Jacques, Canada)

Ngay 07-01-2007, bao Ngi Lao ong a ang bai "i tm nguon goc ch quoc ng" (1) cua GS-TS Pham Van Hng lien quan en Alexandre de Rhodes (ma ong goi la Alexandro Rhodes). Trong bai viet cua mnh tac gia dung nhng t ng phe phan rat nang oi vi Alexandre de Rhodes, v du nh: ao cong trnh, la ao, gian doi, gian tra...

oc bai cua ong, toi thay buon. Buon khong phai v mot nha vat ly th khong co quyen noi len y kien mnh trong lanh vc lch s, nhng buon v khi neu y kien mot lanh vc khong thuoc chuyen mon cua mnh, ong lai khang nh qua chac va ket an mot nhan vat lch s, da tren nhng c lieu rat t oi cua mnh.

TS. Hng c gii khoa hoc biet en nh cong trnh nghien cu ve chat diamite (kim cng nhan tao) tai ai Hoc Bordeaux I, va kien thc vat ly cua ong co the lam cho tieng noi ong co uy tn khi e cap en nhng lanh vc dnh dap en chuyen mon cua mnh, nh nganh khao co, v du nh bai viet cua ong ve "Kinh thanh Thang Long co..." ma bao Ngi Lao ong a ang ngay 12-02-2004. Tuy nhien, trong lanh vc lch s va ngon ng th ong a khong cap nhat nhng thong tin trong vong 7 nam tri, e roi noi ra nh mot kham pha mi nhng ieu ma cac nha nghien cu lch s va ngon ng Viet Nam a i en ket luan t lau. o la cha noi en nhng ket luan qua voi vang da tren mot so qua t d kien, ma khong a ra mot tham chieu nao e cho ngi oc co the kiem chng nhng khang nh cua mnh.

That vay, bai viet cua ong lay lai y nguyen suy ngh ve Alexandre de Rhodes ma ong a ang t nam 1999 tren tap ch ien t Van Hoc Nghe Thuat (2), va t ay en nay nhieu van e ong e cap khong con g la mi me na. V the toi viet bai nay e noi len mot vai van e lien quan en bai bao cua ong.

 

I. Nhng van e at ra:

1. Van e thieu tham chieu van kien.

- T.S Pham Van Hng viet: "Vay Alexandro de Rhodes la ai, co phai la Alexandre Rhodes hay khong? Toi co i Macau, tm nguon nhng vo hieu. Toi cung tm en ni gia nh ho Rhodes gan Avignon. Gia nh ngi Phap nay co goc Y Pha Nho. Linh muc Cong giao a phan nay cho toi tai lieu in bc th cua Alexandro Rhodes khi ong nay xin giao hoi dong Jesus cho ong i truyen ao ong Nam A".

Cau noi tren bao ham nhieu van e ma ong khong cho oc gia biet. Ong tm en ni gia nh ho Rhodes nao gan Avignon? Trong nien giam ien thoai nc Phap, tai Avignon ch co mot ngi ho Rhodes ten la Rouby-Rhodes Laurence, va toan Departement de Vaucluse th ch co them Rhodes Leslie tai thanh pho Sainte Cecile Les Vignes. Ong co gap hai ngi nay khong? Va neu co th lieu hai ngi ay co lien he huyet thong g vi Alexandre de Rhodes khong? Ong gap mot linh muc cong giao a phan, o la linh muc nao? Phai chang la linh muc Michel Barnouin, ngi co tieng noi uy tn nhat ve Alexandre de Rhodes tai Avignon? Neu muon tm nguon goc xem ten ung khai sinh cua Alexandre de Rhodes th tai sao phai sang Macao? Ong tm nguon g? au? gap ai? oc lai bai ong viet nam 1999 mi thay ong noi rang khi en Macao ong co gap 'cha Manual Teixera, mot tha sai dong Ten ngi Bo ao Nha, 84 tuoi' va v linh muc nay 'chia se vi toi niem tin tng sau xa cua ong rang Rhodes a ky ten vao mot cuon t ien ma ong khong he viet bao gi' (3)

Khong biet ngoai lan gap g o ra, t ay en nay T.S Hng co sang Macao e tm nguon nao na khong. Neu co th bai cua ong khong noi ro. Neu khong th nhng ket luan cua ong thieu tnh thuyet phuc, khi ong ch can c tren 'tin tng' cua mot ngi ma ong gap Macao, roi dung nhng t ng 'la ao' hay 'ao cong trnh' ma gan cho Alexandre de Rhodes; nhat la khi trong oan van von ven 10 ch: "Father Manual Teixera, a Portuguese Jesuit missionary of 84 years" , th a co hai loi chnh ta va hai thong tin khong chnh xac: ten cua v giao s la 'Manuel Teixeira' ch khong phai la 'Manual Teixera' (chnh ta); nam 84 tuoi, v giao s nay la c ong (Monsenhor; Monsignor) ch khong phai la cha tha sai (Missionary Father) va ong la mot giao s trieu ch khong phai la mot linh muc dong Ten (thong tin thieu chnh xac). (4)

- Ong cung neu len mot d kien khac, ay la De Rhodes a 'tai dien' tro 'ao cong trnh' oi vi "quyen Tng trnh ve Nhat Ban vi s tai tr cua cong chua an Mach" , nhng ong khong cho biet xuat x cua khang nh nay, nen kho long phan bien.

Co the ong muon noi en mot ban trong bo ky s ve cac v t ao tai Nhat Ban, ma trong li ta cua tap cuoi cung, tap Histoire de la vie et de la glorieuse mort de cinq peres de la compagnie de Jesus, qui ont souffert au Japon, avec trois seculiers, en l'annee 1643, Alexandre de Rhodes a ghi li tri an len cong chua an Mach v a tai tr e in an tap sach nay. Qua that, ong a e ten mnh tren mot tuyen tap cac truyen ky do nhieu anh em dong Ten viet, nhng hanh vi nay, thi bay gi, khong the coi la 'gian tra' c, nh li nhan nh sau ay cua Roland Jacques:

"That vay, y niem ve s hu tr tue trong lanh vc van chng ni cac tu s dong Ten vao the ky XVII khong y nh y niem ta co bay gi; chung toi a ra ay hai th du: Ta thay ban tng thuat ve viec t ao cua thay giang Anre, ma ban goc bang tieng Bo ao Nha chac chan do chnh linh muc Rhodes viet ra, nhng oi khi c viet lai ung tng ch mot di ten cac tac gia Matias da Maia, Antonio Francisco Cardim hoac Manuel Ferreira. Ngc lai, Rhodes a xuat ban di ten mnh mot ban tng thuat lien quan en cac v t ao Nhat Ban, ma tong the lai lay lai nhng ky s cua cac tu s dong Ten. Nh the, khi ngi ta quyet nh cho xuat ban hoac tai ban mot ban van c thuan nhan e pho bien, th ngi c e c lam cong viec nay lai ghi ten mnh vao o, va mang trach nhiem ca nhan ve cong tac cua mnh. Trong trng hp cua linh muc Rhodes va cac v t ao cua Nhat Ban, co le cac tha sai a da vao danh tieng ang len cua con ngi Avignon nay e mang cho cuon sach c pho bien rong rai hn." (5)

2. Van e thieu cap nhat thong tin.

- Ong viet: 'Alexandro t y ghep ten mnh them ch de kech cm'.

Ong khong noi mnh gap v linh muc nao Avignon, nhng neu ong gap ngi linh muc Avignon tng co tieng noi the gia trong tap ch Etudes Vauclusiennes, cha Michel Barnouin, th han ong biet rang, t nam 1994, cha a tra cu cac so sach ra toi va nhng van kien hanh chanh dan s tai Avignon e tm ra gia pha cua Alexandre de Rhodes; va cha a cho thay dong ho cua Alexandre tng mang ch 'de' t lau i; bang chng la ong to cua Alexandre, song vao au the ky th 16, co ten bang tieng Tay Ban Nha la 'Juan Chimenes de Ruedes', ma neu oc theo tieng Phap la 'Jean Chimene de Rhodes'. (6)

- Ong cung viet: "Co le trc s hoang mang, ban tn ban nghi, khong biet le chu nhat nam au tuan hay cuoi tuan nen Rhodes sinh y Phep giang tam ngay."

Neu Ts Hng tra cu tai lieu Cong Giao th han a biet rang, trong Cu c, mot ngi muon xac nh mnh theo Thien Chua th phai chu cat b (cat da qui au) vao ngay th tam (7). Sau nay, khi mot ngi muon gia nhap Cong Giao th phai chu b tch Thanh Tay (cung con goi la phep Ra Toi). V the ma Alexandre a xep nhng bai giang trong vong 8 ngay e cho mot d tong nhan phep Ra Toi. ieu nay c ong cho thay ro ngay ta cuon sach mnh: "Phep giang tam ngay. Cho ke muon chu phep ra toi, ma vao ao thanh c Chua Tri" . S d ong dung tam ngay la v ong muon i theo truyen thong Cong Giao, ch khong phai v 'hoang mang' nh Ts Hng khang nh. Thc ra, ong biet rat ro giao huan cua mot trong nhng Tien s Giao Hoi la thanh Au Tinh: "Du a tre c ra toi bat c ngay nao sau khi ra i th cung ung neu ta bao rang tre ay chu cat b vao ngay th tam, v chau be ay c cat b trong ang ma, v song lai ba ngay sau khi chet, nen a thc s song lai ngay th tam trong tuan" (8)

- Ngoai nhng van e nho nho tren, con li buoc toi Alexandre de Rhodes la 'ao cong trnh'. Van e nay, nha nghien cu Nguyen nh au a lam ro qua bai viet "Ve bai bao vu khong va ph bang Cha ac Lo', ang tren tuan bao Cong Giao & Dan Toc, so 1592. Mat khac, nhng van e chnh yeu ay, chang han vai tro cua Alexandre de Rhodes, hoac ch quoc ng da tren phien am Bo ao Nha, th Roland Jacques (9) a nghien cu tan nguon, va pho bien nhng cong trnh cua mnh t nam 1995 cho en nay, ac biet la tren tap san nh Hng (10). Khong biet nhng khang nh cua TS Hng nam 1999 ve viec ong nghi ng Alexandre de Rhodes co trung lap vi suy ngh cua Roland Jacques hay khong, nhng Roland Jacques chnh la ngi a phat hien bc th cua Francisco de Pina vao thang 07 nam 1994 tai Biblioteca da Ajuda Lisbonne (11). Trong bc th ay, Pina cho biet ve cong viec soan thao nhng tai lieu viet bang quoc ng; va da vao bc th ay, Roland Jacques la ngi au tien co chng c e at lai van e ve ngi cha e cua ch quoc ng. V the, toi xin ghi lai nhng nhan xet cua ong ve bai bao cua Ts Hng, vi t cach la ong tac gia cho bai phan hoi nay. Phan sau ay la ban dch bc th cua ong gi cho toi.

 

II. Nhan nh cua Tien s Roland Jacques (Dng Hu Nhan).

1. Nhng chuyen i cua Giao s Hng en Macao va Avignon khong co gia tr g oi vi nhng van e ma ong neu len. Cac ban van chnh goc t tay cua de Rhodes ma hien nay con ton tai th c cat gi Roma, tai Phong Lu Tr lch s cua Dong Ten, tai Phong Lu Tr Quoc Gia hay Phong Lu Tr cua Propaganda Fide; nh the, la th oc ao ma Gs. Hng co trong tay la mot ban sao (photocopy) cua mot phong anh trch ra t mot trong cac tap sach; ngoai ra con nhieu ban van c viet sau o na.

2. Rhodes khong phai la ngi Y Pha Nho (Tay Ban Nha). "Y Pha Nho goc Do Thai" theo mot vai d ban, ay la truyen thuyet ma vai tac gia e ra. Truyen thuyet nay a b phu nhan qua nhng nghien cu chieu sau ma Michel Barnouin thc hien khi tra cu cac van kien lu tr cua thanh pho Avignon. Mot trong cac ong to cua Rhodes han la en t Aragon; rieng Alexandre de Rhodes th lai la mot ngi dan Avignon va dong ho cua ong theo Cong Giao t nhieu the he trc. The th xin e yen nc Y Pha Nho. Nc nay chang dnh dap g en s nghiep cua Rhodes. Rhodes cung chang phai la mot ngi Phap. Ong khong ra i tren nc Phap. Vao thi ay, Avignon la mot la mot lanh tho cua Giao Hoang (nh Gs Hng a biet), va vung nay chu yeu noi tieng Provencal, du cung co noi tieng Y va tieng Phap. Tieng Provencal th khac tieng Phap. Rhodes viet tieng Phap rat kem (nen rat t khi viet), nh Michel Barnouin a cho biet.

3. Rhodes hoc tai Roma. ay, tieng La Tinh la ngon ng chnh tai hoc ng, va trong i song hang ngay th ngi ta thng dung tieng Y. Khi Rhodes sang A Chau (Goa, Macao v.v) th trc o ong a gia nhap hoan toan vao Dong Ten Bo ao Nha. Ong a hoc tieng Bo ao Nha, va ngon ng nay tr thanh ngon ng chnh e lam viec. Nhng van ban cua ong hau het c viet bang tieng La tinh hay tieng Bo ao Nha.

4. Ve ten "Alexandre": Thong le trong tieng La Tinh, tieng Y va tieng Bo ao Nha - mot thong le ma hien nay van con thay Y va Bo ao Nha - ay la dch ten cua mot ngi ra ngon ng ma mnh s dung (cung giong nh oi vi Giao Hoang: Benedictus, Benedetto, Benedict, Bento, Benoit, Beneito...). Nh vay t nhien va hien nhien la Rhodes cung nh nhng ai viet cho ong hay viet ve ong eu thay oi chnh ta, tuy theo trng hp: Alexandre, Alexandro, Alessandro, Alejandro hay Alexander, va theo tieng Han Nom la A-lch-san. Trong nhng van ban bang tieng Phap hay tieng Bo, Rhodes luon ghi la 'Alexandre', v o la dang ung cho hai ngon ng ay. T ay, khong the rut ra c mot ieu g ca ve ten cua ong khi thay mot ban van ma ong ghi la Alexandro: ay ch la mot trong cac bien the cua ten ong.

5. Ho cua ong la 'Rhodes' hay 'de Rhodes' th cung trng hp tng t. V du, trong Wikipedia tieng Phap, ta oc muc "particule onomastique" (ch em trc ho): "Ngc vi y ngh rap khuong, ch em (De) Khong The Xem Trong Bat C Trng Hp Nao nh la mot dau ch cua hang qu toc (trai lai, thieu ch ay th cung khong phai la phu nhan tnh chat qu toc)" . Cai tro them vao ch em e 'qu toc hoa' ho cua mnh (nh Giscard d'Estaing) khi s nc Phap vao thi e Che Th Hai (Second Empire: hau ban the ky XIX). That la.. .. (ngi dch t y bo mot ch) khi ngh rang ch em ay co the ong mot vai tro nao o vao the ky XVII!

Du sao, trng hp cua Rhodes cung khong dnh dap g en giai cap qu toc, nhng ho cua ong co the lien quan en nguyen quan. Co g la qu toc trong nhng cai ho tam thng nh Delarue / Larue (= con ng), Dupont / du Pont (= cay cau), Moulin / du Moulin (= coi xay), Desfosses / des Fosses (= ham ho)? Trong tieng Provencal, 'de Rhodes' co ngha la ' cho rng trong' (de la roue/clairiere), va trong tieng Tay Ban Nha, 'de Ruedes' co ngha la 'que quan lang Ruedes' (tnh Asturias)!

Cung nh bao nhieu ngi thi ong, Alexandre viet ten mnh hoac khong co ch em (rat thng), hoac co ch em, tuy theo boi canh, tam trang vui ti hay buon rau. That la ph cong khi phai trch dan vo so lan ong viet ten mnh trong ho s lu tr cua Dong Ten. Trong tieng La tinh, ch em thng khong c ghi, nhng cung co nhng ngoai le. Toi ch neu lam v du hai ban van viet cung mot thi iem, hien c cat gi trong phong lu tr lch s Roma, tai Propaganda Fide, Ho s Acta da SC de PF, 1652, tap 21, t 10, so 31: "Alexandro/Alexandri Rhodes" (tieng La tinh, theo cac bien cach cua danh t); va cung tai phong lu tr ay, Ho s SOGC, tap 193, t 484, nam 1652, so 2: "Alessandro de Rhodes" (tieng Y).

Philiphe Bnh, mot ngi rat ngng mo de Rhodes, chng to cho ta thay rang hai cach viet eu c dung nh nhau. Trong sach co ta e "Livro Mappa do Mundo" (Th Vien Vatican, ngan Codici Borgiani Tonchinesi, so 10), ong a viet trong chng 1 bang tieng Bo ao Nha "Vida do Pe. [Padre] Alexandre de Rhodes" (Cuoc i cua Cha Alexandre de Rhodes). trang 3, ong ch viet co 'Rhodes', sau o, trong mot van ban tieng La tinh (trang X), ong lai viet 'Rhodius', ma neu dch ra cho ung thi phai la 'de Rhodes', do thuoc cach (genitif) ch nguon goc. Cung trong cuon sach ay, chng bang tieng Viet noi ve cac v t ao, Bnh viet: "Thay ca Alexandre Rhodes".

6. Giao s Hng dng len ca mot luan thuyet lien quan en ten cua ngay trong tuan. Luan thuyet o khong ng vng. Ro rang la ten cac ngay trong tuan trong tieng Viet xuat phat t tieng Bo ao Nha hay tieng La tinh. Trong tieng La tinh, Th Hai la 'Feria Secunda', c dch ra tieng Bo ao Nha la 'Segunda-Feira' (ngay th nh); Chu / Chua Nhat, trong tieng La tinh la 'Dies Dominica' (ngay cua Chu / Chua), va sang tieng Bo ao Nha th c rut gon thanh Domingo. Toan Bo cac tha sai vao thi ay tai Viet Nam, ke ca Alexandre de Rhodes, eu s dung thong thao tieng La tinh e cau nguyen va e viet nhng tac pham co tnh khoa hoc, va dung tieng Bo ao Nha e trao oi hang ngay va viet th cho nhau. Khong co mot d lieu nao cho phep xac nhan rang cac linh muc tha sai (= ho) la nhng ngi at ten cac ngay trong tuan Viet Nam, hoac phu nhan viec ho at ten cho cac ngay ay; ay la cha ke en viec cho rang Alexandre de Rhodes 'hoang mang' khong biet phai xem Chu Nhat la au tuan hay cuoi tuan... Qua la la lung neu co mot tac gia kha knh nao lai rut ra t ay nhng ket luan tao bao ma ta co the oc c trong bai viet cua Giao S Hng.

7. Cha bao gi Rhodes oi quyen lam cha e ch quoc ng. Chnh hau the, nhat la vao thi ky thuoc a, a tang cho ong danh hieu ay. Cha bao gi ong muon pht l oi vi s ong gop chu yeu cua nhng bac tien boi va cong tac vien cua ong. Chnh ong la ngi a ton vinh, trong li noi au cuon t ien, nhng cong trnh cua Pina, Amaral va Barbosa. (trong ngoac n: ten cua ngi au tien th ngi ta viet co luc la 'Francisco Pina' co luc la 'Francisco de Pina', va ngi th hai th 'Gaspar Amaral - Gaspar de Amaral - Gaspar do Amaral hoac d'Amaral'...!) Chnh Rhodes a viet, so nhieu, rang cuon sach c xuat ban di ten ong la 'phng phap ma Chung Toi s dung e trnh bay cac mau nhiem...' . Khi ong ghi ten mnh ngoai ba cua hai tac pham nay (ma co chac la chnh ong a t tay viet lay hay do nha in ghi ten tac gia?), th ieu o ch noi len rang chnh ong, vi s ong y cua cac be tren, la ngi cuoi cung chnh thc chu trach nhiem ve cuon sach ay.

Du sao i na, khong the phu nhan s kien la Rhodes a co cong ln oi vi Viet Nam va oi vi ch quoc ng. Han la ong khong ang b mat sat trong mot bai bao ang tren Ngi Lao ong va nhng tap san pho bien rong rai tren at nc Viet Nam, roi sau o chuyen len Internet. Ten tuoi cua ong can c ton vinh nh la mot bieu tng cua thanh cong trong mot cong trnh ang ngng mo, ma ong a cong tac thc hien trong moi trng giao lu van hoa tai Viet Nam vao tien ban the ky th XVII.

Nh toi tng viet trong bai 'oi thoai vi Phan nh Cho', mot chng trong cuon 'Cac tha sai Bo ao Nha...':

"Cuoi cung, cong trnh cua de Rhodes la g? ay, ta lai i vao lanh vc gia thuyet:

- Gia thuyet toi a: Rhodes tham khao nhng g a co trc, nhng ong t tay viet mot tac pham hoan toan oc ao, toan bo la t ngoi but cua mnh.

- Gia thuyet toi thieu: Rhodes ch xem lai va sa cha mot ban van a viet xong hoan chnh, va ch ghi ten mnh len o e bao chng.

Theo thien y, khong the nao co the loai tr hoan toan bat c gia thuyet nao trong hai gia thuyet tren. Nhng toi ngh rang s that th nam au o gia hai thai cc ay. Bi le rat kho ma tm ra chng c, v the ta nen than trong. Han la toi hi thieu than trong khi e ra mot gia thuyet cha ai neu va co ve gay xao tron. Toi khong an han v a neu ra gia thuyet ay."

8. Chnh ta cua ch 'Annnam' - ma Gs Hng cho la bang chng ve s ngu dot cua de Rhodes - ch la mot s sot do ngi sap ch thieu tap trung, nh van xay ra vi bat c tac pham in an nao khac! Khi nhn vao nhieu loi chnh ta trong cac bai viet cua Giao S Hng (v du, 'feria secundo' thay v 'segunda feira' trong tieng Bo ao Nha, ch ngay Th Hai - hoac 'Manual Teixera' thay v 'Manuel Teixeira'), th ta khong biet phai ngh lam sao ve li ma mai cua ong oi vi Alexandre de Rhodes; va that s, ta khong con g e noi them na!

 

III. Nhng d am con ong lai.

Tien s Roland Jacques khong con g e noi, nhng toi th con. oc nhng cau mao au cua T.S Hng: 'Bai viet nay co tnh chat nghien cu khoa hoc.. .. vi mong muon lam sang to lch s ch quoc ng', roi oc tron bai viet cua ong, toi kha ng ngang v ong a mat sat Alexandre de Rhodes hn mc can thiet e lam sang to lch s ch quoc ng. Ma viec 'lam sang to lch s ch quoc ng' th nhieu nha chuyen mon a i xa lam roi, trong khi o, van phong mang tnh mat sat trong mot bai nghien cu lai vo cung hiem thay di ngoi but cua mot nha khoa hoc, nhat la khi ngi ay cha nam u yeu to e ket luan, ma moi s ch con la gia thuyet.

Nhng li buoc toi cua ong lam toi nh en mot bai khac cua tac gia Bui Kha. (12) Khi au ong trch dan mot oan van cua Gs Nguyen Lan:

"Nam 1993, nhan ky niem 335 nam ngay mat cua Alexandre de Rhodes, Trung tam KHXH va NV a to chc hoi thao khoa hoc ve cuoc i va s nghiep cua Alexandre de Rhodes, GSTS Nguyen Duy Quy a ket luan: Trc mat, oi vi Alexandre de Rhodes - nh chung ta a co kien ngh vi chnh phu - e thiet thc ghi nhan nhng ong gop cua ong, chung ta se tien hanh a tam bia ghi cong ong trong viec ien che hoa ch Quoc ng vao khuon vien th vien quoc gia va se khoi phuc lai ten pho Alexandre de Rhodes thanh pho Saigon... "

Da tren o, Bui Kha nhan nh nh sau:

"oan van nay, mot lan na, cho thay cac giao s, cac nha khoa hoc trong cuoc hoi thao noi tren a khong tm hieu ro rang nen a sai lam trong viec kien ngh vi chnh phu e ghi nhan, thay v len an, Linh Muc A. de Rhodes. Nguyen nhan chnh dan en viec khoi phuc lai a v cua Alexandre de Rhodes nh tren, c Giao S Chng Thau trnh bay ro hn trong bai "T Mot Cau Ch Cua Alexandre de Rhodes en Cac Dan Dung Khac Nhau". Theo bai viet nay th trong cuoc hoi thao thang 3.1993 nha nghien cu Nguyen nh au, Giao S S Hoc inh Xuan Lam va ca Giao S Chng Thau a ong y vi Linh Muc Hong Nhue Nguyen Khac Xuyen dch cum t "Plusieurs Soldats" la "may chien s" va con chu thch, chien s ay c hieu la "lnh tha sai" tc la "cac giao s" ch khong phai lnh chien la cac ngi co sung e anh giac. V viec dch sai lam nen mi a en co kien ngh phuc hoi v tr (sai lam) cho ong A. de Rhodes nh va noi tren.

... Linh Muc Alexandre de Rhodes viet rat ro: "Toi ngh nc Phap la nc ngoan ao nhat the gii, nc Phap co the cung cap cho toi nhieu binh lnh (Plusieurs Soldats) e chinh phuc toan coi Phng ong (la conquete de tout l'Orient.".. . Nc Phap hay noi ung hn la chnh phu Phap th khong the co lnh tha sai ma ch co lnh chien (Soldats) ma thoi. Va ch trong giao hoi Phap mi co "lnh" tha sai (missionnaires).

... oan van tren a cho thay, chnh Linh Muc Alexandre de Rhodes a nh Giam Muc thanh Puy, Henri de Maupa cung la tuyen uy cua Hoang Hau v vua Luis, dan vao trieu nh e van ong xin giup nhieu lnh chien (Plusieurs Soldats) e chinh phuc toan coi ong phng (la conquete de tout l'Orient, trong o co Viet Nam). Tuy s van ong o cha thanh hnh vao thi iem cua ong, nhng no a m ng cho Phap xam lang nc ta 206 nam sau. Lnh Phap o bo len a Nang ngay 1.9.1858.

The ma mot so cac nha nghien cu cua ta, bao hoang hn vua, lai c muon "cng ep" ong Rhodes (ac Lo) phai ong vai cha e ch quoc ng cho bang c, va tm cach choi bo cai toi ma ong a vao trong trieu nh Phap van ong e Phap anh chiem nc ta..."

Ro rang la Bui Kha can c tren hai cum t tren ma len an Alexandre de Rhodes 'van ong e Phap anh chiem nc ta'. Ong c chac nh inh ong cot rang mnh hieu ung moi ngha cua tieng Phap. Du sao i na th mot ngi Phap la tien s Roland Jacques cung tng viet nh sau:

"Chung toi se e cap en loi phe phan nay... va khong tranh cai theo tien kien y thc he, nhng da vao nhng nguon tai lieu ang co. S thc th Alexandre de Rhodes oi khi a dung mot loi noi bong bay trong cac tai lieu ong a xuat ban: "Toi a ngh rang Phap quoc von la vng quoc sung ao nhat tren the gii, han co the cung ng cho toi nhieu chien s len ng chinh phuc toan ong phng, e a ve Chua Giesu Kito, va ac biet toi mong x ay giup toi co c nhng giam muc, la nhng bac lam cha, lam thay cua chung toi trong cac giao hoi ay.. ." The ma co nhng bac hoc gia cap ai hoc tng giai thch cac hnh anh ty du trong ngon ng sung ao 'chien s' theo ngha en cua chung! Con thanh ng ma tay phng thng dung 'romanisation du vietnamien' (La Ma hoa tieng Viet) lai la mot s trung hp rui ro de tao hieu lam. 'Romanisation' (La Ma hoa) co the b hieu sai nh la mot 's sa oi ngon ng bi nhng ngi Roma' (ngi Au Chau) theo quan iem rieng cua ho vi nhng am hng tieu cc cua chu ngha thc dan. Ky thc, ay la loi dien ta cac am to cua tieng noi Viet Nam da vao mot he thong mau t cua van La tinh, thay v da vao cac am hieu lay t he thong ch viet Trung Hoa. V s dung a quen, thuat ng o bat ac d phai lap lai" . (13)

Nhn lai nh the, khi oc nhng li le phe phan cua TS Pham Van Hng oi vi Alexandre de Rhodes, toi t hoi co nen tin li cua ong chang, khi ong bao rang "moi y kien phan bien, tranh luan, tac gia san sang lang nghe" ? Bi v mot bai viet vi van phong ham hc va ay nghien nh the th a vt qua gii han cua 'tnh chat nghien cu khoa hoc' ma ong tuyen bo nhng dong au tien cua bai mnh. Va o la d am con ong lai sau khi oc bai cua ong.

 

Tran Duy Nhien, Saigon

Roland Jacques, Canada

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Chu Thch:

1. Co the oc lai bai ay tren website Ngi Lao ong, a ch nay: http://www.nld.com.vn/tintuc/the-gioi/ho-so-tu-lieu/176647.asp

2. Arts and Literary E-Magazine (Van Hoc Nghe Thuat) so 463 - 13/8/1999

3. ibid. "Father Manual Teixera, a Portuguese Jesuit missionary of 84 years just as I met him in Macao, made me part of his deep conviction that Rhodes signed a dictionary that he never wrote"

4. c ong Manuel Teixeira la mot ngi tng viet nhieu tac pham lien quan en thi ky Bo ao Nha truyen giao tai Viet Nam. Co the tham khao mot so bai viet sau cua Teixeira, Manuel: Missionarios Jesutas no Vietnao, Macao: Centro de Informacao e Turismo, 1964. - 93 p.; As Missoes portuguesas no Vietnam. - Macao, Imprensa nacional, 1977. - 554 p. [Macau e a sua diocese, t. 14]; Relacoes comerciais de Macau com o Vietnam, Macao: Imprensa Nacional, 1977. - 259 p. [Macau e a sua diocese, t. 15] va nhat la nhng bai viet t 1951 en 1960 cua ong vi ta e "Os Missionarios portugueses no Vietnao," trong Boletim Eclesiastico da Diocese de Macau.

Can noi them rang c ong Manuel Teixeira la mot giao s trieu Bo ao Nha co tinh than 'quoc gia' manh liet. Ong khong co cam tnh vi Alexandre de Rhodes, mot linh muc dong Ten goc Avignon, va trong cac bai viet cua mnh, nhng nhan xet cua ong ve Alexandre de Rhodes khong hoan toan khach quan.

5. Roland Jacques - Bo ao nha va cong trnh sang che ch quoc ng: Phai chang can viet lai lch s?, ang lan au tren nh Hng, so 17, 1998. Co the tham khao tren website cua BBC tai a ch: http://www.bbc.co.uk/vietnamese/specials/1232_jacques_roland/page2.shtml; va nhng trang ke tiep.

6. Cf. M. Barnouin - La parente vauclusienne d'Alexandre de Rhodes (1593-1660), trong Memoires de l'Academie de Vaucluse (Avignon), So 8, thang 4, 1995, trang 9-40.

7. Sach Le vi, chng 12, cau 5.

8. "Quocumque igitur die suae nativitatis infans baptizatur in Christo, tamquam octavo circumciditur die: quoniam in illo circumciditur, qui tertio quidem ex quo crucifixus est, sed octavo in hebdomadibus resurrexit die". Thanh Au Tinh: De Gratia Christi et de Peccato Originali contra Pelagium... - Liber secundus - De Peccato Originali - So 37.

9. Roland Jacques, quoc tch Phap, but danh tieng Viet la Dng Hu Nhan, khoa trng khoa Giao Luat trng ai Hoc Saint Paul, Ottawa, tuy la tien s lch s luat - ai Hoc Paris XI, tien s giao luat - Institut Catholique, nhng lai la mot nha nghien cu co uy tn ve ch quoc ng, bi v ong tng lay bang c nhan tieng Viet va thac s ve Ngon Ng va Van Hoa ong Phng vi luan van: Cong trnh cua vai nha tien phong Bo ao Nha trong lanh vc ng hoc Viet Nam cho en nam 1650 (L'oeuvre de quelques Pioniers Portugais dans le domaine de la linguistique vietnamienne jusqu'en 1650). S d cong trnh nghien cu ngon ng cua ong phong phu ay la nh ong biet nhieu th tieng: ngoai tieng Phap, Anh va Viet, ong con nam vng tieng Y, c, Tay Ban Nha, Bo ao Nha, La tinh, Hy Lap va co t nhieu kien thc ve tieng Hoa; hn na, ong co nhieu c hoi e truy tam tan nguon cac van kien lch s lien quan en lanh vc mnh nghien cu tai Phap, Y, Bo ao Nha, Macao va Viet Nam.

10. T nam 1997, nh Hng la tap san a tien phong ang hau het nhng bai viet cua Tien S Roland Jacques, gom 13 bai lien quan en cac nha tha sai Bo ao Nha va tien trnh hnh thanh ch quoc ng. Sau ay la nhng bai tieu bieu nhat:

(1) Cac nha tien phong ngi Portugal va ngon ng hoc Viet Nam. nh Hng. 34:148-160, 2003.

(2) Mot tai lieu ngon ng hoc oi chieu Nhat-Hoa-Viet bien soan tai Ao Mon (Macao) nam 1632. nh Hng, 33:4-26, 2002;

(3) Lien quan en cac cuon t ien va giao ly cua Alexandre de Rhodes. nh Hng. 32:33-39, 2002.

(4) Ten tieng Viet cua thay giang Anre Phu Yen: Nghien cu lch s va ngon ng hoc. nh Hng. 18:56-72, 1998.

(5) Cong cuoc truyen giao tai Quang Nam nam 1623 va van e ngon ng: Bc th cua Francisco de Pina. nh Hng. 29:20-51, 2001.

(6) Bo ao nha va cong trnh sang che ch quoc ng: Phai chang can viet lai lch s? nh Hng. 17:18-62, 1998

11. Sau khi phat hien bc th cua Pina nam 1994, Roland Jacques noi ve bc th nay trong bai "e hieu nguon goc ch quoc ng: mot bc th cha c cong bo cua Francisco de Pina", tren tap san Ngon Ng [TTKHXHNV] Viet Nam, Ha Noi, 1966 - Ban dch vi nhng nghien cu di dang chu thch c ang lai tren nh Hng nam 2001, so 29; va tren Nguyet San Cong Giao va Dan Toc nam 2002, so 90. Cuoi cung toan bo cong trnh nghien cu e xac nh tien trnh hnh thanh ch quoc ng, ma Pina la mot ngi tien khi, a tr thanh mot chng trong cuon sach song ng Anh Phap (va hy vong ban dch tieng Viet se ra mat mot ngay gan ay) ta e la: Portuguese Pioneers of Vietnamese Prior to 1650. L'Oeuvre de quelques pionniers portugais dans le domaine de la linguistique vietnamienne jusqu'en 1650 (Bangkok, Orchid Books, 2002).

12. Bui Kha - Alexandre de Rhodes - Nhng Nham Lan ang Tiec. Websites Talawas va Giao iem: http://www.giaodiem.com/mluc/mluc_III04/704_buikhaII.htm

13. Roland Jacques - Bo ao nha va cong trnh sang che ch quoc ng.. . Cf chu thch 5.

 

Tran Duy Nhien va Roland Jacques

 


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